Newspaper Page Text
JOHN S. HEESE & CO., Sole General Agents for the Company, Baltimore, Md.
J. N. ROBSON,
CHARLESTON, S. C.
None-Every packaged* this Guano is branded with
th e name of JOHN B. KRESS & Co. None other genuine.
Under the present labour system of the South, it
is the manifest policy of planters to make every
acre put under cultivation produce its maximum
yield of saleable product. The labour employed
must be made to yield the highest possible results.
One acre can be made to produce, by the liberal
nee of concentrated fertilizers and high culture, as
much cotton and corn, with less than one-half the
labour, as three acres without these appliances.
This result has been repeatedly obtained, and is
thoroughly practical. The availability of a fer
tilizer combining the qualities of the greatest
activity with those of permanently benefiting the
soil, is of the utmost importance to this end.
The Guano treated of in this Supplement is so
highly commended after practical use by many of
our planters, that it mnst prove an object of the
highest interest to our agricultural readers.
The subject is susceptible of most interesting
consideration, and should receive that attention
which its importance demands.
SOLUTE PACIFIC GUANO.
Its composition compared with Peruvian Guano.
Thc reasons why xt isa better fertilizer for the
culture O/COTTOK, CORN and TOBACCO. Its im?
portance as conducing to permanent improvement
of soils. Its economy*
The composition and character of this Guano is
identical with that of Peruvian Guano. It con?
tains the same elements, and is of the same ulti?
mate origin. It differs from Peruvian simply in
the proportions in which the same elements of fer?
tility exist to each other.
That thia difference constitutes it a fertilizer
better adapted to the culture of cotton, corn and
tobxeco than Peruvian Guano, we think will be
made manifest by the following- considerations:
All who have given the subject attention know
that animal matter yielding Ammonia, Soluble
Phosphate, and Bone Phosphate of Lime, are the
substances or elements which constitute the value
of Peruvian Guano, and all commercial fertilizers.
This is a matter of neither doubt or uncertainty,
but of fact. Hence, as the results of chemic
analysis, by competent chemists, are definite and
certain, there id no difficulty in arriving at the
actual value of any fertilizer brought into market.
The same results must follow from the same agen
' cies found in anv other Guano, with modifications
arising from different proportions of the elements.
Knowing, therefore, both the excellencies and
defects of Peruvian Guano, arising from thequan
ity and proportions of its elements, we have a
basis of facts from which deductions may be made,
as to t .e causes of certain known results.
COMPOSITION OF SOLUBLE PACIFIC
The following is the composition of this Guano ;
the proportions and quantities of the elements here
given being the average of 16 cargoes consigned to
thia Agency and discharged at Baltimore, taken
from authentic inspection reports of Doctors Pig
got and Liebig, analytic chemists :
Nitrogenous animal matter.'.36.10 per cent.
Si el di ng ammonia..S .33
Phosphate of Lime <?.'..?<?.15.68 " .*
Bone Phosphate of Lime.24.62 " "
Incombustible matter and moisture.23.60 " "
The following is the composition of Peruvian
Guano, taken from official inspection reports in
this market :
.Nitrogenons animal matter..55 to 60 per cent.
Yielding ammonia... .13 to 15 per cent.
Bone Phosphate of Lime..38 "15 " "
Incombustible matter and moisture.11 " 15 " "
A part of the phosphoric acid in Peruvian Guano
stated as phosphate of lime exists as phosphate of
ammonia, and is soluble, but the quantity so exist?
ing is small.
It will be seen by a comparison, that while Sol
Pacific Guano contains less animal matter and am?
monia than Peruvian, it contains in all nearly
double the quantity of Phosphate of Lime ; and
that considerably more than one-third of the whole
exists in a form immediately soluble.
-. Now the practical question is, does this propor?
tion of the same elements constitute it a better
fertilizer than Peruvian Guano. An answer to
this important inquiry can best be given by calling
attention to the defects^ manifested in the use of
Peruvian Guano, and considering the causes from
which they arise.
THE DEFECTS OF PERUVIAN GUANO AND
Every planter who has applied Peruvian Guano
for more than one or two seasons has noticed:
First, That if the season prove favorable (or sea
?nable) the tendency ia to an excessive growth of
the weed, which proveB to greater or less extent
detrimental to the yield of saleable product. The
canse of this defect is nnqnestionably dne to the
excess of animal matter and ammonia, *"n the
Guano, which from its highly stimulating "?Feet,
(or a result analogous thereto.) superinduces an
excessive vegetable growth, while on the other
hand the supply of Phosphate of Lime is inade
State to sustain the vegetable growth and furnish
e supply needed to develop the fruit.
Secondly, If drought intervene after Peruvian
Guano is applied, it is noticed that however well
the crop may have started, ita growth is suspended ;
the crop "fires," aud if the drought be prolonged
the investment proves a comparative, if not total
This defect is the result of two causes: First,
The excess of nitrogen or ammonia in the Guano
superinduces the development of an unnatural
quantity of sap and juices in the plant ; the inter?
vention of drought prevents the decomposition of
the G nano by reason of the absence ot sufficient
moisture, which suddenly cuts off the supply of
sap, and consequently the plant rapidly fails ; a
result analogous to that produced in the human
system by the sudden suspension of stimulants.
J he second cause is found in the fact that nearly
all the Phosphate found in Peruvian Guano exists
simply as neutral or bone phosphate, which ip not
immediately soluble, but is converted into soluble
phosphate during the process of the decomposi?
tion of the Guano. Ample moisture is a necessary
condition to this result, hence the absence of suffi?
cient moisture in consequence of drought prevents
the conversion into soluble form, and the plant
cannot take up the undissolved phosphate,
j < Thirdly, It is almost universally conceded, espe?
cially by those who have continued the use of Peru?
vian Guano through a period of years, that its
effect is to diminish the productive power of the
soil. This result has been so manifest in those
parts of the country where it was first introduced
that it has fallen almost into disuse. In Maryland
not one-tenth of the quantity is now consumed
that formerly was. We hold it capable of a ration?
al demonstration, that the continued use of Peru?
vian Guano for a period of 15 years, in quantity
as usually applied, must result m ruinous depre?
ciation to any ordinary soil. Certainly this is a
material defect. Its cause ie found in the fact
that the only element in Peruvian Guano that
can contribute to permanent improvement is Phos?
phate of Lime. Of this element it contains the
? smalt quantity of 25 per cent.; hence, in an ordi?
nary application of the Guano, the soil does not
I receive a supply equivalent to the loss sustained in
, the production of the crop removed, and the inev?
itable resnlt is depreciation, which becomes mani?
fest after continued use. Improvement can only
be had by the application of a larger quantity than
is removed ; this cannot be done by the use of
Peruvian Guano, without the useless, injurious and
extravagant waste of ammonia.
That the foregoing results, noticed in the use of
Peruvian Guano, constitute important defects, is'
manifestly true. That they are due to the causes
named does not admit of a rational doubt.
THESE DEFECTS DO NOT EXIST IN SOLU?
BLE PACIFIC GUANO.
First, This Guano contains about one-fourth the
quantity of ammonia found in Peruvian ; hence
the effects arising from an excess of that element
are not manifested in its use. That this quantity
of ammonia, accompanied with ready formed solu?
ble Phosphate of Lime, manifests equal effects in
the early stages of the crop is demonstrated by ex?
Secondly, The quantity of Phosphate of Lime in
this Guano is nearly double that found in Peruvian,
hence it supplies the soil with a quantity greater
than is removed by the crops, and thus necessarily
enhances its productive power.
Thirdly, More than one-third of its large quan?
tity of Phosphate of Lime exists as ready formed
soluble phosphate, hence its action is not contingent
to near the same extent as Peruvian, upon the
presence of moisture ; therefore, in the event of
drought, crops fertilized with it continue their
growth, and do notare and- fail as when fertilized
with Peruvian. That its effects are modified by
protracted drought is true, but not to one-fourth j
the extent as is the case with Peruvian Guano.
Fourthly, For purposes of rapid improvement it
may be applied in large quantities without loss or
detriment arising from waste of ammonia.
if the use of Pacific Guano confirms the deduc?
tions made, then we have a demonstration that the
defects of Peruvian Guano arise from the causes
named, and further, that this Guano is a fertilizer
of greater real value to the agriculture of the coun?
try than Peruvian Guano.
Pacific Guano was used on the last cotton, corn
and tobacco crops in all the Southern States, with
results fully and entirely sustaining our deductions.
'J he testimony of planters from all parts of the
South must be accepted as conclusive evidence as
to the fact. We and our Agents are prepared to
furnish an array of concurrent testimony on thia
point that must convince all who can be convinced
of any fact by human testimony.*
Another fact of material importance in relation
to this Guano is its economy. While its value is
actually greater its cost is materially less, its price
being from $20 to $30 less per ton than Peruvian.
The reason of this difference in price ia. that it is
owned and controlled by American citizens, and
not by a foreign government, hence it is not subject
to the same advance arising from the premium on
gold. The packages of this Guano are branded
with the name of J ohn S. Reese & Co. None other
JOHN S. REESE & CO.,
ros TBS SOLUBLE PACIFIC GUANO CO.,
Office 71 South Street, Baltimore, Md.
?Seo OtresgandaBca OD noct pajp>
The following table exhibits the analysis of 16
cargoes Soluble Pacific Guano, the average of
which_ is given aa the basis of comparison with
Peruvian. The original authenticatea manuscripts
may be seen at our Office. The cargoes do not
stand in the order of their arrival.
NAMES OF VESSELS.
a ?! C
C cV ; ail ea ?Si
s |2! fe Sis fe-S
Cargo per Mary E. Amuden
" " Carrie Melvin...
" " Trendllln.
M " Grace Clifton...
M M Oncdla.
" " Emily.
" " Damon.
" " Blrcherd&Torry
" " Lacon.
" " JOB Walpler....
" " Flyaway.
" Clara Elwell.
" LncyA Orcntt..
44 " IraLaffrecJer....
? ? Paladlum.
Average 16 cargoes. 36.10 353 1553 2452
16.40 22.93 Dr. Piggot.
16.63 22.11 "
16.47 23.09 "
15.04 I 26.74 "
14.00/ 23.?9 "
1753 2052 I " "
14.17 ; 22511 " "
?5.94 ! 21.74 " ?
17.10 I 26.07 ?Dr. Liebig.
1557 I 2550 Dr.Plegut.
12.90 28.40 .Dr. Liebig.
15.19 28.75 Dr. Piggot.
1450 28.12 " ~
15.10 2151 " "
17.07 2452 " "
BALTIMORE, DECEMBKR, 1866.
Attention is invited to the annexed statement by
Dr. A. Snowden Piggot, analytic chemist, in rela?
tion to the inspection of Soluble Pacific Guano,
from which it will be seen that the business of this
Agency is conducted on the only correct principles
aaapted to the prosecution of this important trade,
for the protection and safety, both of the buyer and
JOHN S. REESE & CO., Gen'l Agents.
ANALYTICAL LABORATORY, 69 GAY STREET, )
I hereby certify that I am in the habit of inspec?
ting every cargo of Soluble Pacific Guano arriving
in this market consigned to John S. Reese & Co.
The samples for inspection are taken by myself
or one of my assistants, without the interference or
presence of any one connected with the sale of the
A perfectly fair representative of the lots actually
offered for eale is thus obtained, since the samples
are taken/direct from the packages in which it is
sold. The sample thus taken is inspected by actual
analysis in this laboratory, and the report is based
in all cases upon the results of a veritable sample
of the cargo.
It is only just to the agents of this valuable
Guano to state that it is remarkably uniform in its
quality and composition, and that recent importa?
tions contain more soluble phosphoric acid than
previous cargoes, and are, therefore, to that extent
[Signed] A. SNOWDEN PIGGOT,
Analytic and Consulting Chemist.
Corresponde lice from Edgecombe Co.,
We invite especial attention to the following
communication from Edgecombe county, N. C.
The writer, Mr. Robt. Norfleet, is well known,
both in his own and other States, as a most sac- '
cessful planter, and was for many years identified
with the great agricultural improvements made in
the county of Edgecombe. The system of improved
culture, and the liberal use of fertilizers ia that
county, has rendered it famous for its large pro?
ducts of cotton. The crop of Edgecombe county
was increased over 400 per cent, in a period of fif?
teen years, up to 1861. The same results are prac?
tical throughout the South, if similar appliances
Tarboro, Edgecombe Co., N. C., \
Dec. 27th, 1866. J
MESSRS. JNO. S. REESE & Co., Baltimore.
Gentlemen : Your favor asking information in re?
gard to the effect of "Pacifit Guano" on the cotton
and corn crops of this County and the most popular
method of its application, came to hand a few days
ago, and I have sought the first leisure moment to
1 believe the fertilizer above mentioned, con?
stituted two thirds, or at all events one half of
all the bought manures that were used here on the
cotton crop of the past season, and if I may judge
from the applications that have been made to me
to furnish it for the next, I should certainly pro?
nounce it the most popular fertilizer that has ever
been introduced into this section, so proverbial for
high manuring with commercial ana home made
materials, and large productions of cotton and corn.
I was not at all surprised that the Pacific Guano
made so favorable an impression on those who used
it, as I was induced to believe from reading the
reports of the analysis of this guano, made by the
distinguished chemists of your city, Doctors Liebig
and Piggot, who concurred in the opinion, that
it contained in its composition, such a combination
of elements in quantity and condition, as to render
it an extraordinary and exceedingly valuable man?
ure, eminently adapted to the wants of the cotton
plant. The opinion expressed by Doctor Piggot,
which was so fully verified in the past season, that
this guano contained a peculiar quality that would
if give to the young plant great vigor in the first
commencement of its existence," places it in the
catalogue of fertilizers at the head of the list. A
guano or manure that has the tendency to hasten
the growth of the cotton plant from the time of its
coming up to maturity even under the most unfavor?
able circumstances, as was the case last spring, is
or ought to be highly valued by the planter, as it
is equivalent in this latitude, to the addition of
two or three weeks to the cotton season.
As to the '* Flour ot Bone " nothing can be said
in its behalf, than has been said before and repeat?
ed thousands cf times. Even before the raw bones
could be reduced to a powder BS it is now by
machinery, it was used in all the older countries
that had made much agricultural progress. In the
condition you furnish it, mixed with such other
material as will hasten ita decomposition, I con?
ceive it to be second to no other fertilizer, for the
crops of all kinds, grown in this state. I have
used Pacific Guano and the Flour of Bone in equal
quantities mixed in my garden the past season. I
have never bad so good a garden before, and am
compelled to attribute it to the manure used. Such
manures as answer a good purpose for garden
crops, where plants are maturing at all seasons of
the year, never fail in favorable seasons to produce
good field crops. Many of our planters used the
two manures combined, some using 100 pounds of
each, others 130 pounds of guano, and 70 pounds
of bone per acre, thoroughly mixed and sown in
the drill or furrow. This mode is gaining favor,
especially with such of our farmers or planters
who are firmly of the opinion that 200 lbs. of the
guano is more than ought to be used in the drill
unless mixed with some other less active material.
This may be a new and singular idea and perhaps
an erroneous one, but there was certainly much
force in the argument of one of our best farmers
who takes that ground and acts upon it.
It had for many years before the late war been a
custom of our planters to mix all of their concen?
trated manures such as guano, cotton seed, stable
manure, dc. with swamp mud, woods mould, ditch
banks,?c., in such quantities as to afford abou: 500
bushels of the compost to the acre for cotton. This
work was usually put through between the 15th
December and the 1st of March , at the cost of much
I hard work to hand and team. It was persisted in
I however, as it was considered the most speedy man
I ner of improving the land, and the surest system of
producing large crops while the improvement was
going on, but now that the labor of the negro can
j not be controlled as it was then, and bas an uncon
I querable aversion to this kind of work, and have
I pretty much their own way in all things appertaining
to field work, it is to be presumed that this method
of manuring will have to be relinquished, and some
other adopted that it is to be hoped will answer as
good or better purpose. If it should give rise to
deeper and better ploughing, more thorough drain?
age, and other improvements of which there is
much need, the time may come and that speedily,
when it may be considered a fortunate occurrence
that the whole system was broken up.
It is important in using guano to instruct the
laborers to apply it as equally as possible in the
furrows. To attain this end the proper quantity for
a furrow, fifty or a hundred yards in length should
be weighed to each hand, and let bim try it, and see
how near he can come to making it hold out. Let
this be repeated until he gels accustomed to spread*
ing it evenly along the furrow, which if he has any
tact, will be much sooner than one would suppose
at the first trial. No one need expect the full bene
fit from the guano, unless this matter is attended
to and accomplished.
I have heard of two persons who used guano for
the corn crop. Both of these speak highly of its
effect. ? much larger quantity in my opinion should
be applied to corn than cotton, and it should be used
To give you a better idea of the effect of the Guano
by itself and the guano and bone flour mixed, I
will give you the statements of several of our best
farmers whoauthorized me to do so if you desired it.
1 will mention here that of the large number of per?
sons who bought these fertilizers last spring, I have
heard but tivo speak of them in a way that could be
possibly construed as unfavorable. One of these
used 5 tons each of Pacific Guano, Flour of Bone
and Peruvian Guano, and if he can save it will as
he states make 190 bales weighing 400 lbs. each on
190 acres of land. The other used 5 tons Pacific
and 6 tons Peruvian Guano, and will make 130
bales. The latter has not said that he will use no
more Pacific, but he is very emphatic in declaring
he will never use any more Peruvian Guano. These
gentlemen certainly have cause to complain. The
former especially. What ! only one bale of cotton
per acre 1
Mr. Jesse Mercer, a practical farmer, and a man
of sterling integrity, made an experiment last
season with the following manures : Peruvian
Guano, Patapsco Guano, Pacific Guano, Baugh's
Raw Bone Phosphate, and Coe's Superphosphate
of Lime. The PacificGuano used in this experi?
ment cost $76 per ton laid down here, the quantity
used in the experiment was 35 lbs. which made
80 lbs. more cotton than the unmanured land of
the same size laying alongside of the manured.
Or in other word.?, the land without manure made
CO lbs. The guanoed land 140 lbs.
The Peruvian Guano cost $120 per ton. 35 lbs.
were used on land adjacent of the same size and
resulted in a product of 119 lbs., the unmanured
land along side produced 70 lbs. The Peruvian
cost 60 per cent, more than the Pacific Guano,
while the Pacific in the above experiment shows
in the yield of cotton a gain of 133} per cent, and
the Peruvian about 72 per cent. As regards the
otber fertilizers used in the experiment, I prefer
to say nothing, as the agents for their sale at this
point can do so if they think proper.
Mr. C. B. Killi brew opened his cotton furrows
and applied in the drill the usual compost manure
in the drill and then sowed Pacific Guano at tho
rate of 100 lbs. per acre, leaving six or eight fur?
rows without guano. The guanoed land produced
an excess of 200 lbs. over the land with compost
Mr. William F. Knight applied 200 lbs. of Pa?
cific Guano and averaged 500 lbs. more cotton
than tho unmanured laud produced. He made
1050 lbs. of cotton in the seed per acre and had
150 acres in cultivation,
Doct. Wm. G. Noble used 200 lbs. of Pacific
Guano per acre and averaged about 4U0 lbs. of
seed cotton in exc?s* of the unmanured land.
Mr. Blount Bryan used three tons of Guano.
He left one row unmanured in order to see what
effect the manare would have. He picked less
than half from that row, than the adjoining one