Newspaper Page Text
VOLUME VI.-NUMBER 773.]
[EIGHTEEN CENTS A WEEK
Our European Dispatches.
[PER ATLANTIC TELEGRAPH.]
MINISTER ADAMS RESIONED-FENIAN ATTEMPT AT
RESCUE-BISMARCK SICK-NAPOLEON AND THE
POPE, ETC., ETC., ETC.
LONDON, February 8.-Tho resignation of
Minister Adams ia announced by the press.
Mr. Adams expresses the usual complimentary
Farragut has beeu received at Florence with
Bismarck announces that the commercial
treaty with the United Stales is progressing
LONDON, February 8.-Napoleon has altered
ais policy toward the Pope in Italy in a sudden
and remarkable manner. He evinces a dis?
position to abandon the position of champion
of the Holy See, being assured, it is said, of
the existence of Bourbon intrigu?e emanat?
ing from Rome. The Imperial diplomacy with
Borne bas become colder, while the friendly
relations hitherto existing with Victor Eman?
uel are to be renewed.
Queen Isabella is forced to dissolve the Papal
Legion which waa being recruited under her
warrant in Madrid, as Napoleon flatly objects
to its service in the cause of the Holy See.
CORK, February 8.-A desperate attempt was
made to rescue the Fenian Capt. Mackey. The
police had to beat off the mob.
PABIS, February 8.-Young Iturbide Maxi?
milian's heir, has enlisted in the Papal Zouaves.
BERLIN, February 8.-Binmarck's health com?
pels several months relaxation, during which
time he will travel through Europe. In the
meantime the Minister of the Finance will act
ATHENS, February 8.-A new cabinet has
been formed, with Bulgaria at tho head.
LONDON, February 8.-Noon_Consols 93^a
93?. Bonds 71$.
LONDON, February 8.-Evening.-Securities
LIVERPOOL, February 7_Evening.-Cotton
closed active and firm. Uplands in port, 8d.
to arrive, 7|d.; Orleans, 8?d. Sales 20, OOO
bales. Afloat, 238.0U0, including 185,000 Ameri?
can. Manchester advices favorable.
LIVERPOOL, February 8.-Noon.-Cotton
firm. Sales 15,000 bales. Prices unchanged.
LIVERPOOL, February. 8.-Evening.-Cotton
closed active and higher. Sales 18,000 bales.
Uplands, on the spot, 8a3id.; to arrive, 8d.;
Orleans, 8^a8id. Lard 54s. Common Rosin |
69. Turpentine 30s.
South American News.
NEW YORK, February 9.-The Rising Star
D,inge one and a quarter million in treasure.
The ithmus and Central American news is un?
Lima alices to January 22 mention tliat
President Canico had arrived at Callao. Some
minor fights had occurred in the South, but
tranquility had been restored, and the whole
republic now recognizesCanseco's government.
The reported revolution in Bolivia had proved
to be only a local outbreak, which was easily
Valparaiso dates to January 10 state that
Chilian agents were to leave in March for tho
United States, Great Britain, Ac, to obtain im?
migrants for the southern portion of Chili.
Salt works on a large seal? ar? ancrn lo ^ -
tablishcd near VaJu&raitfO.
The Japanese Monitor Stonewall arrived at
Valparaiso January 6, in thirty-six days from
Another Revolution tn Mexico.
GALVESTON, Februarv 8.-Tho Bureau of Mex?
ican Intelligence, Brownsville, sends the follow
ingnews: Another revolution has broken out
under Valdes. A detachmont of government
troops has been routed by the revolutionists.
An expedition from Tabazco starts under com?
mand of one Bastia to march on the capital.
Mendez is reported as pri me mover. General
Sanchez Ociied, an Ortegist, has been arrested
and imprisoned at San Luis Potosi. There is
a movement on foot in the State of Vera Cruz
to detach several villages from that State to
form a new one. From all parts ot the interior
come reports of robberies, kidnapping, etc
Francisco S. Palaccio has been elected Gover?
nor of the State of Durango. The Gife Foli
ticio of Puebla has ordered the imprisonment
of persons unable to pay their debts.
Two Amerioans named Cook and Pillow, en
route for Tuxpan, were murdered by Mexicans
near Vittoria. They were emigrants from
Canales, Guoraga and Caravajal, are organ?
izing near Camargo, in Tamaulipas, prepara?
tory to a revolution. Their agents are in
BrownsviUe purchasing arms and munitions.
Troops havo been sent from Matamorae to
fight them wherever found. An oxpedition
which started under Telix Pisa to invado Tlapa
failed, owing to the desertion of the National
Guards. Tho ball v.ill open shortly. Corte?a
has threatened a revolution if Juan Jose de
La Sar8a was not given possession of the gub
ornatorial seat of Tamaula, which he claims
having won in the last election.
Our Washington Dispatches.
S ALNAVE EXCOMMPNICATED-THE OHIO LEGISLA?
TURE DEMANDS THE REPEAL OF THE RECON
UTUCTION ACTS-THR PRESIDENT TO BE IM?
PEACHED-QOVERNOR ORB RE-ENFRANCHISED,
ETC., ETC., ETC.
WASHINOTON, February [8.-Haytien advices
to the 17th ult., have been received. Tho
French clergy have excommunicated Salnave,
who had established a sort of Feti?h religion.
The British Government disregards Salnave's
request for the recall of the British Legation.
The Ohio Legislature have adopted resolu?
tions requesting tho repeal of the Reconstruc?
tion acts, and denouncing the pending Supple?
mentary and Supreme Court bills.
The Reconstruction Committee had a stormy
session, but did nothing definite. Mr. Beck,
of Kentucky, was added to the sub-committee
on the President's alleged violation of law in
forbidding Grant to obey 8tanton. Grant will
be the first witness. Thia evening's Express
savs: "The feeling arnon? the majority of the
committee is undoubtedly in favor of impeach?
ment, and there is reason to behove that a re?
solution to this effect Will shortly be reported
to the House."
Before adjourning to-dav tho committee
agreed to report a bill to remove the political
disabilities imposed by tho Reconstruction acts
of Gov. Holden, of N. C., Gov. Orr, of S. C., and
Gen. Longstreet, of the late Confederate army.
It was reported that Mr. Brooks moved to add
the name of Gen. Beauregard, but the commit?
tee refused to include him.
The National Bank statement shows no im?
Tho revenuo to-day is $335,000. For the
week $4,250 000. For the year $120,500,000.
A oommittee from Cleveland is coming hero
to secure the holding ot the Natioual Demo?
cratic Convention at that place.
The sub-committee of the Reconstruction
Committee have power to send for persons and
papers. Among those summoned are Grant,
the members of the Cabinet, including Stan?
ton, J. B. Stillaon of tho New York World, and
two members of v.rant's staff. Grant failed to
appear this afternoon. The committee ex?
The Senate Territorial Committee will re?
port in favor of Colarado's admission.
General Banka is sick. S. M. McKcan, for
tlfty years distributing clerk in the treasury
department, is dead.
Tin- Reconstruction Conventions.
RICHMOND, February 8.-The section of the
constitution authorizing the creation of bureaus
of agriculture and immigration were adopted.
In the debate, a Conservative, urged that
legislation against immigration was calculated
to inaugurate P. war of races. A colored dele
Rate, in ropiy, said that such a war would
never be inaugurated by the blacks.
RALEIGH, February 8.-The proceedings to?
day were of no general importance.
ATLANTA, February 7.-A tax of one-tenth of
ono per cent, on all taxable property, to defray
the expenses of the convention, has been im
The resolution for the expulsion cf the noto- I j
rions Bradley (colored) was made tho special
arder for Tuesday.
The adopted report on the franchise recog
aizea no distinction between the races, and ?
arovides that all voters shall have paid their
;axes. If challenged, they shall make oath that
;heir votes are not affected by any reward re?
lived or expected, and that they have not given
ir promised any reward, or made any threat to
irevent any one from voting.
JSEW OBLEAWS, February 8.-The convention
?tempted to repeal the act of the legislature
uthorizing the issue of levee bonds, but the
aatter was indefinitely postponed.
The convention to-day adopted an ordinance I ?
iroviding for election and ratification of the 1
on6titution immediately after the adjourn- -
nent, leaving the date blank. Another ordi- -
lance provides that the election of State, y
adici?l, municipal and parish officers, State
.legislature and Congressional Representatives
e held at the same time as the ratification r
f the constitution.
TALLAHASSEE, February 8.-The minority ?
f the convention is still in secret session to- y.
ay. In the morning the constitution was g(
igned. Many delegatss have come to the con- ej
lusion that they have been proceeding regard- n
(ss of law and precedent, and concluded <;here- c?
?re not to adjourn until they had beare, from -J
reneral Meade. -
The convention have nominated a State _.
ckot, consisting of Bilh'ngs for Governor, pi
mnders (colored), for Lieutenant-Governor,
id Gibbs (colored), for Congress. ^
A mass meeting of negroes, favoring the ^
linority, was held to-day. A colored mi aority W|
?legate called for the hanging of the seceding ? j
embei-3 by some of the crowd. The speaker nD
lid, "burn them." The delegates claiming to ac
3 the majority of the convention will proba
y assemble on Monday, and proceed as it
icre had been no interruption and no consti
tion acted on.
I ii* New Alabama Constitution.
*?-----> ^"'""'J - - ?-il ot Pa
uuiBumery Macon, Lee, timor*-. m-???iwDo, ,-=y
hambers, Bullock, and Coosa Counties, foots
) 13,159-all negroes but 77. The vote cast caJ
the same counties on the convention quea
sn wa? 17,590-registered vote 30,043. It is m
o soon to estimate, but the indications are 0TI
latthe constitution is defeated.
Louisiana Affairs. | th
NEW ?ELEAN8, February 7.-General Han
>ck has ordered the establishment ci new tri
lilitary posts on tho Northwestern frontier. he
Geoeral Hancock has removed twelve alder- tr<
ten and assistant aldermen who voted for the
solution in favor of military appointments. Ul
Fire In Norfolk. bi
NonroLH, February 8.-Eight brick houses to
?d one frame house, including the "Journal" tu
Kee and telegraph office, have been burned,
oas $100,000. rc
Market Reports. y
NEW YOEE, February 8.-Gold 142j. Money ^
nd Sterling steady. Old Bonds, 111*. Flour
uiet and steady. Wheat dropping. Cora 1 cont oj
etter. Pork a shade finner, at $22 7?. Lard Q
teady. Cotton firm at 19Ja20. Freights firm. n,
turpentine irregular al 60$a(*5. Rosins, y
trained, 3 3-16a 31 ti
EVENING.-Cotton firmer but less active ;
?ales 3000 bales ; Middlings 20. Flour more t,
'live for export and speculation, pr ces un- a
hanged. Whoat unchanged. Corn l:i2c. bet?
er ; Now Western mixed $1 27al 29 ; ?southern r,
vhite $1 20al 28. Pork firmer $22 85. Lard p
jal4?. Turpentine 60a60?. Rosin $3a$6 00. fj
heights firm. Money easy at 3a4 per ct. with ?
t liberal supply. Gold 42*. Sterling dull. Cot- tl
;on bills 109. C
BALTTMOBE, February 8.-Cotton firm at 19|
i20. Flour firm. Wheat dull and steady. c
Cora finn, white $1 IGal 20; yollow and western 0
nixed $l'T8al 20. Oats active at 75a77. Pro- t
risions firm and quiet. ?
CINCINNATI, February 8.-Flour duli and un- .
changed. Corn easier and in better s apply; in i
:hc ear 84c. 4000 bales of Cotton wero pur- t
;hascd on speculation. New Meas Pork $22. ^
Bacon unchanged. Lard buoyant at ?i2c.
ST. LOUIS, February 8.-Flour quijt. Corn
Juli at 83a85. Provisions firm. Shoulders 9$;
Clear Sides 12?. Lard 13al3$. j
LOUISVILLE, Fobruary 8.-Suporflna flour 8a
3$. Lard 14]. Mess Pork $22. Shoulders IO];
Clear Sides 13].
AUOUSTA, February 8.-Cotton firm at ll,.
sales, 740; receipts, 820. (
SAVANNAH, February 8.-Cotton opened quiet
and firm, and closed aotive; Middling, I8i; re- .
ceipta, 3025; sales, 18(50. (
MOBILE, February 8.-Market opened quiet
at 184, and closed firm at 18$; receipts, 2184;
salos, 2500; exports, 3971.
NEW OBLEANB, February 8.-Cotton activo,
firmer; MiddliiiRS I84al8$c.; sales 5200 bales;
receipts 4168; exports 5527. Sugar and Molasses
firm; tending upwards. Flour unchanged.
Corn firm at $1.05. Oats unchanged. Pork
asking $11.50; clear $14.50. Lard, tierces, 14]a
15c. Storling 52a5S$. York Sight i discount.
NEW OBLEANS, February 8.-Sterling 52a53?.
York Sight A discount.
WILMINGTON, February 8.-Spirits of Turpen?
tine buoyant at 55. Rosin steady, No. 2, $2 25.
Cotton advanced 4; Middling, 17$. Tar firm
at $2 20.
-The gin houBe of J. Rufus Symthe, of
Greenville, with twenty-five bales of cotton was
burned down ou Friday night. Fivo negroes
have been anested on suspicion.
-The Lancaster Ledger learrjs that the
South Carolina Conference of the African M. E.
Zion Church, will convene at this olace on tho
third Wednesday in March, next, it 10 o'clock
M., Bishop Clinton, of New York, presiding.
OUR FIRST RAILROAD.
ORIGIN. -PROGRESS- COMPLETION.
PAST HISTORY AND PRESENT CONDITION.
WHAT'S Ut A NAME-THE REVOLUTION-YIGD1AN0E
COMMITTEES-TEN YEAHS TOTE-COMMENCE?
MENT AND CLOSE OF THE WAR-ONE
YEAS A OX)--CONCLUSION.
A c., Aa, &o.
On Friday there was published a history of
the South Carolina Railroad from its projec?
tion to the opening of the Camden branch, '
ind the completion of tho union of the roads
(rom Charleston to Hamburg, and from ,
Branchville to Columbia. It is well, before 1
proceeding further, to state briefly how the 1
South Carolina Railroad obtained its present j
; o rp ora to name.
WHAT'S TN A NAME?
In 1827 the State Legislature passed an aot 1
ncorporating tho "South Carolina Canal and j
kilroad Company," with power to construct a '
aurosd or a canal, or a railroad and a canal, ?
rom the City of Charleston, on the most prac- I
icable routes, to each of the towns of Colum- (
lin, Camden and Hamburg. This act was r
Qodifled by the act of 1828, which directed the c
onBtruction of a railroad to Hamburg, with t
'branches thereof to Columbia." In 1833, an
ct was passed enacting that all lands unap- I a
.ropriated within ono mile of the centro of the I v
iain track of the road of the South Carolina i
?anal and Railroad Company and its branches, j t]
e vested in the said company.
In 1834, a survey of the route from Branch- ri
ille to Columbia was made by % committee of J a
itizens of Columbia, and a survey was also e
lade by the Canal and Railroad Company. j ?
In 1835, the Louisville, Cincinnati and ri
harleston Railroad Company was chartered tl
>r the purpose of establishing a communica- A
on by railroad between ?he cities of Cincin- ft
uti and Charleston; and this company acquir- j o]
i from the South Carolina Canal and Railroad ni
ompany the right to construct a line connect- fe
lg Branchville ai.d Columbia.
The project for connecting Columbia with
io Ohio River was abandoned, because a con-1 Ci
nuous charter through all thc intermediate 0f
:ateB could not bo obtainod; and, in 1837, thc j tv
;pediency of the purchase of the road from ai
?arleston to Hamburg by tho Louisville, Cin- fo
nnati and Charloaton Railroad, was discus -> pi
L In October, 1837, th9 directors of the $o
auisville, Cincinnati and Charleston Railroad fr,
are formally authorized to negotii to for the Vc
irchase of the franchises and property of thc jt
luth Carolina Canal and Railroad Company, tri
id in 1838 the purchase was effected. Tho to
tuth Carolina Railroad and Canal Company I re
is merged in thc Louisville, Cincinnati and
larleston Railroad Company, and in 1843 thc wt
ime of this latter company was changed by W?
tof tho Legislature to the South Carolina tia
lilroad Company, the namo which it has ever pr
ice borne. t^
1845 TO 1847. wl
?lien the first annual report of tho "South he
rolina Railroad" was made in 1845, tho com- au
ny Rod in Us puwofleion twenty-two loco- te(
ierewere eigliteen passenger and Daf/gage pa:
rs, and two hundred and eighty-three freight bo
rs, one hundred and forty-seven of whioh wo
ter were the old "canvas sides," of iuconBid- All
ible capacity. Tho locomotives could not cany 18!
;rain with more than five hundred bales of
tton;-three years later the now onginos ol roi
e company could carry fifteen bundrod bales, of
Already tho hill at Aiken was beginning to th
jublo the company. The grade was too wc
.avy for tho locomotives then in uso, and the th
Etina wore hauled up and lot down by a rope lei
irked by a stationary engine. It was found
at the heaviest load that could be takon over of
any one timo was a train of oars with 120 afi
des of cotton, and it was estimated that it bc
ok nearly three hours to pass a train of tho yo
mal sizo over the inclined plane. ar
At a meeting held in 1816 iL waa resolved to nc
?commend the projected road from Columbia fr
i Chorlotte to the favorable consideration of ps
ie city and State,-on account ot its impor- bt
ince to the South Carolina Railroad, to tho re- d(
ion through which it paesed, and to tho City bi
f Charleston. This was the beginning of the
harlotte and South Carolina Road, whioh is
ow desired to be used as a means of injuring C
lia city, as well aa the road for whoso ad van- c<
igo it waa built. c<
A proposition was also juade to remove the ai
?irainal dopot of tho South Carolina Railroad d
L Charleston to the Cooper River. Thia gave ci
iso to a lons discussion, which ended in the O?
yection of tho plan suggested. Tao principal a;
ersons in favor of the removal wore James n
iadsden, President; J. BL DeSausaurc, J. E. 8
lalhoun, and R. W. Gibbos, of Columbia; uud b
he principal opponents woro Mayor Schnierlo, tl
Colonel iiemmmgor and Charlea Edmonuton. tl
In 1847, nearly all the original material of the ii
ompany had disappoarod. Every ono ol' thc 7
ld engines wero stricken from tho rolls, with
he exception of tho "Edisto, ' which was con- il
lemned and ordored to bo broken up. The n
'Beat Friend," tho "Phoinix," the "farawell," t
he "West Point," had dono their work, and c
lad passed away to make room for their more s
lonfierous and powerful descendants. o
THE SITUATION IN 1848. . "
Revolutions in Europe had no effect upon a
he peaceful progress of the South Carolina c
toad; and, while kings wero slipping across ?
he frontier in disguice, and princes were Wieli?
ng they had never seen a coronet, tito main *
.ailroad of tho South named c ne of its loco- ^
notives "Buena Visita," hi honor of thc Mcxi- 0
?an war, and quietly kept tho even tenor of its 3
vay. TbiB engine of honor soon exploded, aa c
lid thc remembrance of thc war itself in later ?
A VIGILANT COMMITTEE. 6
In 1848 a Committoe of Inspection mado a c
report, and it was anything but a flattering 11
Dne. Tho depots were too small, and goods
bad to tn refused for want of accommodation.
All thc workshops wero dilapidated, influm- (
mable woodeu structures, without light, and i
with no protection from tho weather. Cars \
wero loaded at the ends instead of at tho sides, i
and, out of a reported total of thirty-nine lo- i
eomotivee, only twenty were o? a serviceable '
size. But time was tho thief that tho commit- :
tee wished to catch. It appeared that it look ;
the trains twenty-eight hours to ran-or walk
from Charleston to Columbia, and thirty-three i
hours from Charleston to Hamburg. Surely
this was mortal slow, worse even than thc
dawdling of Confederate days; but the inclined
plano at Aiken was made tho scape-goat, and
upon it all the blame was laid.
Tiie poor Camden Branch thou came in for a
gentle hint to do better. It was complained
that there were no sleepers miming tho whole
length of the raile, and that the crosB-tiea had
no other than an earth foundation. Thia was
declared to be injurious to road and machinery,
and dangerous to pisogers.' It is n
tbat tho longitudinaUoper is not i
and that tho earth is e best and mo
foundation ; but theimmittee kne*
of all this, and, not owing, know 1
In November, 1848, s Camden Br
completed, and tho rale road, inclu
main-stem and Columi and Camden I
was ranked as first-ess by the Unit
Postmaster-General. Business was
improving, and the ,mpany had m
seven hundred and flt persons in its
TEN YE;B' TIME.
In 1850 the freight tins were joggi
at the rate of six miletn hour, but lc
is not always safety. Tho trestle
Wateree Swamp gave vy with an en|
ten freight oars ; and r threo*and a
miles the trestles fell ID a pack of car
no lives were lost. A about this ti:
company moved their harleston dep
tfary-street to the castlated building
?treet, which, to this dy, is a monut
;he engineering skill i President G
[t has one great fault- is useless for 1
jose for which it was blt.
In 1852 the rebuildmpand relaying
?eavy iron rail, of the Bmburg road w
>leted, and, later ir the year, the
'James L. Petigru" aploded, by wbic
lent tho engineer ardoo li firemen wen
'art of the bridges accus the Savanni
bongaree Rivers had hen finished, and
oad, which avoided ;ho ad "scape-gi
lined plane" at Aiket wai happily in
In 1852 the Direction wa authorized
n additional track fron. Carleston to B
ille, an authorization whih was withdr
857, as the single track RS quite equa
bo demands which trafBcmade upon it,
In 1858 James Gadeda, President <
oad during its greatest nancial daffie
nd Colonel Wade Hamptn, one of thi
fficient and valuable morbors of tho ]
ied. But progress was.he word, ari
lents wero made to run tlrousrh to Atla
lirty-six hours, tho new railroad brid
ugusta was completed, ad the spacial
eight, depot on Ann-stret, Charlestoi
pened and occupied, lt) 1860 the is
sw shares was authorized to pr?vido i
?r extinguishing the fundd debt.
TOE COMMENCEMEN70F THE WAE.
Early in 1861, the alttrtion of the i
irolina Road was directec to the impor
'scouring an improved coinection hy ra
reen Charleston and Souhwestern Ge<
id Southern Alabama. Aproject was th
ot for securing this end and the con:
omptly carno to its assiitance, subscr
50,000 to insure the construction of a rai
?m Warrenton to Macon. This road is
it comploted, but when cpened throug
will be of vast benoflt to tois city and 6
id tho means ofpouringinb the lap of Cha
n a largo portion of the xade of the ft
gions of Alabama and Georgia.
The condition of tho South Carolina Rail
is exoellont. Road, bed aid superslruc
(re in good order, culverts were in subf
A repair, bridges and treaties had been
oved and strengthened. Somo portior
J track required relaying, but, upon
m?o, the company was prepared to me
avy and increasing traffic. Rolling stock
iplo in quantity and kind. There woro ?
?n passonger engines and fifty-one frc
Saunder auu utan um?, ?.?? MHW?~ ?.rv?
x car?, one hundred and sixty-two platfc
od and coal cars, and eighteen stock c
I tho engines had been put on the road s
Tu givo a hotter idea of the extent ol
liing stock of the company at the begim
tho war, it ia calculated that tho whol<
D carn and engines placed on a single ti
mid havo formed a continuous line of i
ousand threo hundred and fourteen yardi
igth, or nearly five and a half milos.
Expected hostilities, and thocommencen
active operations deranged commor
fail?, and the business of tho road at o
igan to suffer. The company, during
ar of 1861, transported 15,502 State tro
id 52,921 Confederate soldiers, but this
it mako up for tho falling off in gen
oight and passenger traffic. Already tho c<
iny was beginning to be injuriously affeci
it the management was still resolved to
;avor to meet promptly any calls that mi
j made upon tho resources of the road.
DUE INO TUE WAU.
The closo of the year 1862 found the Soi
arolina Railroa#in a somowhat embarras
mdition. For the year the income of
)inpany was noarly two millions of dolli
nd, deducting operating expenses and
ividend, as well as an appropriation lor int
it and damages, there still remained a balai
f $528,810. But this large sum could not
pplicd to the replacement of tho road. Lo
?olivos, cara and rails could not bo bouj
von at extravapaut prices. Tho road v
oing worn down, and Uie only satisfaction
[ic stockholders lay in tho knowledge tl
nar linc was a public convenience, and tl
s groaa rocoipta had increased from $1,16
42 in 1861, to $1,840,214 in 1862.
Machinery and rolling stock wero gradua
oteriorating. Tho demands of the govei
lent and of the public had been in excess
lie uatural capacity of tho road ; and both
oinotivos und cara siiff.rcd from tho excessi
train to which they were exposed. One-:hi
f tho locomotives reported to bo in good ord
11861 woro disablod during the following yea
nd the roinainder was on.y maintained by t
ouatant and vigorous effort* of tho mechanic
Thu bond dubt of tho cjmpany in Januar
8G3, was $3,1<.4,500, ii having boen incroasi
iv tho issue of $-45,000 in bonds for the purpo
if paying tho subscription to tho Augusta ai
lillo'dgovillo Road, tho floating debt of tl
ompany, and its obligation tc tho City oi A'
rusta. No money could be remitted to pay tl
breign creditors ibo January interest on tl
'tcrling bonds of tho company, but the final
??al agents in London wore kept fully informe
LS lo the nature and cause of the delay.
THIIID YEAR OF THE WAK.
Tho position ot a President or Superintendei
>f a Southern railroad during tho lato war wa
inything but a pleaaiut one. Military ordei
.vero supreme, and every privato or corporat
interest was made secondary to movements c
troopB and thc conveyance of army suppliei
Tho passport system was in full force, and n
much embarrassment ns posaiblo was throw:
m the way of civilian travellers. It was Borne
times impospiblo, for wcoks together, to mov
any quantity of primate freight, and tho rail
roads, while losing their regular peace business
had but the mclancioly satisfaction of knowini
that they wore accumulating vast sums in Con
federate paper cunency.
Schedules were manged or disatrnnged ti
meet the oxigcnoiei ot coining battles or ox
pectcd raids. Hero and there tho cavalr;
pounced upon a trihi and gobbled it up incou
tincntly. Frequet.tly a train would run off tin
track half a dozm time* in the course o
twenty miles, bul no one cared for the rail
roads or Rave their managers credit :
almost superhuman work which the;
called on to perform.
One of hhe most annoying features
times was the pert perkiness of the e
officers of the army, who, because attac
the staff of a general officer, imagined tl
whole Confederacy was theirs, and thai
could command a passenger coach
emptied for the benefit of their friends,
tain a special car for a favorite horse at
mont's notice. They were more annoyin?
dangerous, more brass than braid. Bi
rugged Confederate soldier, the riflec
blanketed private was a study in himsel]
THE CONFEDERATE SOLDIER
He was a curioue compound-a bun
virtue, frailty and old clothes. Nine-ten
his character consisted of what may be
don't-care-a-damn-ativeness. This wa
marked individuality, and five years of
olino, hardship and danger did not tan
unruly spirit in the least. Ia fact, the li
tho war continued, tho worse it grew.
For dress or porsonal appearance tho i
gard was snpreme. Give him a haversac
of corn bread and cold bacon, tobacco i
pipe, and a soldier on his travels was ae
touted a bein? as ever descended fron
loins of grandfather Adam. If without hi
customed ''grub." however, somebody was
to suffer. Wo once saw in Virginia a car
of these empty stomachs, on their way thn
a drove of cattle. ''Boys, there's beef," i
one; and in a jiffy the coupling came oui
breaks were put down, and the rest ol
train rumbled on, leaving three or four sec
hungry heroes behind. An ox was straiprh
slaughtered, cut up and, by the time th<
gineer discovered his cars in the vocative
returned, a doz n fires were musical with
simmering of roast beof, and no soi t of
suasion could induce the boys to give up
coupling until they had filled their stoma
Human eyes never rested ou a more mc
throng than many of the troops as they
peared when they left homo during the
yoar of Ihe war. And it'was then that all
railroad cars in tho South, and especial!;
tho South Carolina lino, were hopelc
ruined. Frequently, there was no marl
designate the several regiments. The d
was a tangldd compound of slouch and st
pipe hats, of frock coats, swallow tails,
jackets, and of pants of every hue and sh:
The outfit was completed by a dingy blan
or in lieu thereof, a patched bed-quilt, a hi
made knapsack, and a canvas bag for ratii
Sometimes a fiddle or acoordeon was addec
tho equipment, and wc remomber ono old
low who a arted frnm homo with a cow.
innocently proposed to milk it for the bec
of his company.
Of course, as the war progressed th
things were changed if not improved. Bul
LIFE IN THE CARS,
remained unaltered. In moving troops ev
available inch of space was occupied. 5
seats wero filled, the aisles crowded, an
fringe of legs dangled from the roofs. Bayon
were jammed remorseless into the ceiling,
that in time it looked as if it had been subj
to a severe attack of small-pox. The glas
were scratched over with ambitious nam
penknives inscribed mottoos on tho rosewc
back scats, and ' bowies" fulfilled their m
dangerous mission in 'whittling up the s
armo ?ua Minds,
lernai uoteuu o ..>?.?-,.. " ,. , , "_
made its rounds, somowhat after the followi
stylo: "Haiti who goes there?" "A fri?
with a bottle." "Advance bottle and dr
stopper." This was the fluid countersign.
For two or three hours after dark, when 1
soldiers could not seo each other, Jupiter '.
nau-i I how they did talk I Bedlam or Parc
Brownlow isn't a circumstance to it. Eve
body had something to say, and with an ut
disregard of Webster's Unabridged, they c<
verting air into syllables, syllables into wor
and words into a hair dishevelling, coat-i
agitating rhotoric that was excessively py
technic. It was orthography, etymology, a;
tax and prosody run riot.
When evorybody became exhausted, exc<
the one wre?,chod man, who from time imn
morial, in every car of sleepers, vibrates ie
lessiy from ono place to another, knocking
hats, punching heads, and disturbing drear
oursoldiors slumbered. Tho long-slab-sid
man always put his legs out of tho winde
Eis neighbor, if also ramrod-shaped, hung J
pedal extremities over the front seat. T
men sitting there divided them out in pillov
Tho aisles afforded tho only luxury of a f
length bed-chamber to be had, and, barri
just a small sprinkle of tobacoo juice, were|<
cossivoly comfortable. So much so indo
that the beys would agroe to lio spoon f&shi
throo doep, and when one wanted to turn ovi
all that wats roquired lo securo perfect una
imity of aotion, according to the arraugeme:
was simply toeing out "flop." Practico mn
thom very perfect.
Soldiers in thoso days used to swear oaths
monstrous proportions, and we prosumo thc
is not a conductor on the South Carolina Bu
road who has net boou thoroughly case-hai
enod by his experience in disturbing tho
somnolent crowds. Indeed, it is related
Captain Janies Meredith that his scnsibiliti
wero so affected by thc aval.mcbe of expletiv
which ho was obliged to encountor in his dui
career on tho road, that ho requested a transl
to another department whore they didn't "eua
But we leavo tho sleepers in their tangl
shapes, and pass to anotuor phase of car life:
THE RETURN OF THE HIOK AND WOUNDED.
Thrco yoars bavo rolled away since the spe
tacle of mon dying and dead by scores was
almost daily occurrence. And yot how vivid
tho mero thought recalls scenes which, whi
life lasts, will "hang like pictures on tho wal
of memory." We still seo tho wan, cmaciaU
faros of men who but a few weeks before we;
"at the front" iu all tho prido of strength; tl
cots and stretchers stained wit'i blood; tl
surgeons busy in fiflording relief; tl
well ones moving a comvado who has ju
died to some corner remote from tho livinj
tho rude boxes which encofflned the rt
mains of fathers, husbands and brothel
on th.ir way to a Anal resting place i
the old family burial ground ; and last bi
not least, how well do we remember our nob!
women !" How like sisters ul mercy they move
from bedside to bedside, from seat to seat i
every station, dispensing their offerings <
"wine, frankincense and myrrh," and tenderin
sympathy, such as only womau can feel, an
only woman can bestow ! Heaven bless thom
This conversion of cars into migratory hoi
pitala of course increased the draw backs t
the property of all roads, but it was a noccssit
which, appealing to the uubler impulses of hr.
inanity, secured moro than a willing acquies
cenco from tho President and Directors, an
, for all tho ruin oec.iiioiied, they have bee
amply compensated by thc consciousness tht
. their duty has been woll performed, Sue
I was car lifo among the soldiers.
I On the 9th and 10th of February, 1864, th
i annual meeting of the South Carolina Bailroa
was held at Columbia, and the reports then
presented shot? the condition of the company's
The earnings of the road amounted to
$2,990,002.85, i:i Confederate currency, and the
net earnings were nearly $2,000,000. This re?
sult was due not only to the heavy movements
of troops, bul to the -advances made m tho
rates charger? for freight and passengers.
But, while business was increased and rates
were advanced, the currency was depreciating
in value, and every description of labor waa
appreciating rn price. Clerical services had
advanced one hundred per cent., mechanical
labor had advanced two hundred per cent.,
general labor one hundred and fifty per cent.,
and wheels, liles, tires, nails, cotton, car
trimmings, Su-, no less two thousand percent.
Still the boarc: only consented to advance these
rates of pasas ge when it was Inevitably neces?
sary. The South Carolina Bailroad was the
last railroad in the South to put in force a
higher scale cf charges, for the directors "en?
tertained the earnest hope and anxious wish
of being able to pass through the war without
adding in ar y degree to the burdens of the
The deterio ration in machinery and rails was.
at the end of 1868, particularly noticeable. It
waa almost inpossible to supervise properly
cars and engines wbioh were incessantly on the
road, and the removal of the machine shops of
the company o Columbia but made the diffi?
culty greater. Therefore it was assumed that,
of the locomi itives reported in the preceding
years, not one half were in service at the end
of 1868, and of that one half but few were in
good order. Still everything was done that
could be dont; the speed of trains was reduced
to fifteen miles an hour, and a further reduc?
tion was cont emplated.
Of the road itself the accounts were not
cheering. The Charleston division, sixty-two
miles, from Charleston to Branchville, was in
better order than the other divisions were, but
it was rapidly giving way, and reqnired at
least six mi-es of new rails. The Hamburg
division, seventy-five miles, from Branchville
to Augusta, was insecure, and from ten to
twelve miles of rails required immediate re?
moval. The Columbia division, sixty-eight
miles, from Iranchvuie to Columbia, was in an
even worse oondition. Twelve miles of new
rails were at once required to enable the trains
to run with safety, but the structures were in
food condition, and the road-bed thoroughly
ditched. The Camden division was in a fair
condition, br t it required very general repairs.
The machi oe shops of the company could not
remain in Cl aries ton, md in 1862 the building
of new shops was began at Columbia. Toola
and implements were removed from Charles?
ron; ancfin December 1862, the repairing and
finishing shops were nearly completed. In
July, 1863, n JW and additional works were com?
menced, and the building operations wero
steadily cor tinued. Sixty-one thousand dui
lars had been expended up to January, 1864, and
it was estimated that it would take one hundred
and twenty-three thousand dollars additional
to complete the works.
The meeting of February 9th and 10th, 1864,
was the las. held before the close of the war.
The next mooting was held in 1866.
AX THE CLOSE OF THE WAU.
The conditions of tho road before and during
tho war has now been shown. It remains to bo
aeon what was its condition when the war came
order, all the locomotives, cars, and moveable
property of the company, then in Charleston
were withdrawn, and after sundry wanderings
finally located on the Camden Branch. On the
20th April, the most of this property was en?
tirely destroyed by an expedition commanded
by General Potter. On the approach of Sher?
man to Col nubia, all the property of the com?
pany at that place was withdrawn to the Char?
lotte Boad, where it remained principally at
Chester. But the loss of rolling stook on the
Camden Blanch was not all. At Columbia all
the shops and tools forming the most complete
establishment of this kind m the South were
destroyed. On thia line of road all the wooden
structures, culverts, station houses, and tanka
wore burned, and the rails, torn up from the
road, were twisted into all manner of fantastic
On the 19th June the road was turned over
to tho directors, and the South Carolina Bail
road was once mord under civil control.
The company was without one dollirof avail?
able funds, and, virtually, without credit. Only
eighty miles of the road were ii k working con?
dition. Pails, however, under military orders,
were tak in from the Camden branch and used
for repaii ing the Uno to Columbia. This was
tho beginning, and within six months after?
wards th aro were in operation one hundred
and fifty eight miles of road ni place ot the
eighty miles which were turned over to the
The followim? statement shows the property
lost by tho road in 1865 :
Machino shops at Columbia. $76,000
FreiRht ind other depots at Oolumbia
and Ci m den. 61,749
Injury tc road. 541.861
Nogrooa emancipated. 190,972
Four hundred cars destroyed.186,0i:3
Injury tc- cars. 49,700
Injury tc and loss of locomotives. 174 297
Material:! aud machinery. 860.000
Besides this there was a loss of $3,612 000 in
stocks, bonda ano. debta of the Confederate
States end transient cr?dite-making a total
loss to tie company of more than four mil?
lions of dollars.
ONE VE AR A QO.
The report submitted to the stockholders at
the mee :ln? held in February last, was an ample
vindication of the prudent and far-sighted po?
licy of the directors, and an ample proof of the
ability and energy of the officers and agents of
the road. The road had been oompleted to all
important points save Camden, the track was in
fair order, the equipment hod been thoroughly
repaired, and'the business left a net income
which would have paid a dividend of more than
six per cent, upon the capital stock. There
was spent on repairs and renewals, from the
time i Lut the company obtained possession of
their read in 1865, a sum of nine hundred thou?
sand dellars, and, as all the net earnings were
applied to meet this expense, the line had been
placed in thorough order, and had received
thc actual benefit of nearly one million of dol?
lars without the addition of one dollar to the
bonddobt, The road earned a dividend and
the dividend was expended in putting the road
in a running condition. Had not this appro?
priation been made tho road would either have
romair ed in an impassable condition, or money
must have been borrowed at eighteen oi
twenty-four per cent, per annum. Tho foreigi
bondh Mders had accepted the terms of renews,
offered by the company, and the now bonds
with the State endorsement were expected tc
be soon ready for exchange. Measures wert
adoptodby the shareholders to obtain the con?
trol of a line of steamships so ES to meet com?
petition by way of Savannah or Portsmouth,
and it was recommended by tho Board that a
most decided and earnest defenoe be made oj
those privileges which were threatened to be
infringed by the building of the Columbia and
In conclusion, it will be well to glance at the
general policy of the company, with a view to
ascertaining what has been accomplished, and
of seeing plainly whither the management haa
been such as warrant a lasting bellefin the ra?
ture prosperity and stability of the road.
The 8outh Carolina Railroad was an experi?
ment, and it was exposed to the dangers which
attend all undertakings whoso firat steps cannot
be guided by the lights of experience. From
the first it was warred upon by prejudice, and
against the positive assertions of its opponent?
:ould only be set the ho-es, and beliefs of its
friends. But as the work progressed the way
became more clear. .Traction by horses.waa.
rejected, steam power was adopted, and the
whole road was at length completed. Then tt
was no longer anexneriment, and they who had
been the ?r3t to ridicule were, reasonably, the
last to praifie.
In the management of the road from the
time of its completion, there were mistakes In
detail, but ther-> was no error of principle. It
oould not be told bv theory that an earth foun?
dation was better than one of wood or stone;
nor could it be told by intuition that trains
could run with safety at twenty, forty or fifty
miles an honr, or that the earnings of the
South Carolina Road could be counted by mil?
lions of dollars.
These things had to bo learned, and whun
they were known it is not surprising that they
should have been made the basis of exaggerated
calculations and unreasonable i-onfidence. But,
whatever the occasional chpnge of *ystem, the
policy of the road has from its earliest years
been direoted to securing, in the interest of its.
stockholders,-frequent trains, accommoda?
tion for all the trade that could be found, and
low rates for passengers and freight. These
principles were adepted in 1840, and they bare
been adhered to ever since. The South Caro
lina Railroad was tbs first road in this country
to enunciate eo liberal a policy, and. as wa?
seen during the war, when it. was the last
Southern road to advance its rates,-aa is seen
now in the frequency of its trains and ita
moderate o'- arges,-it bas acted np to the
standard which it established.
The South Carolina Railroad always kept in '
view the importance of through connections,
and, as already noticed, was.mainly instru?
mental in building the Charlotte and South
Carolina Railroad. It has also subscribed
largely to the Macon and Aunuata Railroad,
which is now near completion. The object of"
this action was to bring trade to the road, and,
by tho road, to Charleston. No President of
the South Carolina Railroad has used his posi?
tion for the purpose of drawing trade away
from this city. The interests of the State, of
the citv and the railroad, wero made one and
the same. As tho line passed through the
country, each district was beneflttod; as the
country districts were benefit ted, the general
prosperity of the State improved; as the pros?
parity of the State improved, the ttafflo
of the road increased; and os country, State
and railroad added to its prosperty, so the '
trade of Charleston grew larger andmore
This system has been continued with per?
severing zeal. When it was found that the
course of trade had been chanced and that
wttaritea 1;rpwn rr-Wrriir *" steffi nffi_
ton, the Board armed themselves anew and
prepared to make a good fight for then* own
and the general welfare They obtained an
interoet in a line of steamships, to run between
Charleston and New York, they sent out their
agents through Georgia and Alabama and to
the chief cities of Tennessee, they proved that
the Charleston route was the quickest, cheap?
est and beat, they put down their rates and
forced business. Asa ret ult they have been
enabled to make a profit for their road, they
have given this oily the benefit of tens of
thousands of bales of the staple, they have
been able to a comiuodate the local traffic by
giving it tne conveniences of frequent and
regular trains, they have worked upon the road?
bed and superstructures until their whole road
is in a botter and safer condition than it had
ever boen in its palmiest days before the war.
The South Carolina Railroad, despite grumble
and otmplaint, has a high reputation for finan?
cial integrity and business economy, and If ita
reputation has been sustained through trial,
danger and difficulty, tho result is only due to
the nkill which has directed its affairs and
dictated its management. Experience is neces?
sary oven in conducting a railroad; and ten
million of dollars is tco large a sunt1 to entrust
to the care of experimental philosophers whose
theories may prove safe in practice, but who, if
they fail, will bring to absolute ruin hundreds
whoso support depends upon making
the South Carolina Railroad a safo -nd
profitable investment. During the war overy
man thought that he could command an army
with sucass. Now, every man believes that
he can create businesu out of nothing, convert
loas into profit, and change pine treeB to green?
backs. The one idea is &a sensible as the
other; and it is certainly for better to m ike the
best of what we have, by giving it encourage?
ment and support, than to pet and caress
visionary schemes wi'.cb, at the best, will have
no other oharm than their novelty, and, at the
worst, will mako th? stock of the largest cor?
poration in this State worth no more than the
papor upon which it is printed.
FREEDMEN'S AFFAIRS IN NO&TH CAROLINA.
The report of tho freedmen's affairs in North
Carolina for December has been received at
Washington, from which it appears that the
close of tho year has brought with it more than
usual number of complaints in relation to
breaches of contract and non-payment of
wages for labor performed arising from mdiffer
ence to settle hon st debts or inability to fulfil
obligations by reason of tho failuro of crops.
The system of working for a share of the crops
has been so universal and tho almost entire
failure ot the same so marked that but few of
the laborers have realized anything, and are
now without the means of living by their own
resources, and employers are not in a condi?
tion to provide for them during the lona: in?
terval before t hoir tabors can ho mad J avail?
In thia uufortunat? state of affairs the writer
says it beoomes serious question au to the step
to be taken to provide in a measure for tho re
ief of the Buffering. The promiscuous distri?
bution of monov, Food or Olothing, affects but
a very limited portion of the good designed,
lt leads to imposition, fraud and idleness, and
hundreds who ?vie undeserving obtain what
thoao who reallv suffer bhould receive. Van- .
oue suggestions aro mado with a now to ad?
just tho operations of labor. There are two
hundred and thirty school-- in the ?tate. with
twelve thousand five hundred scholars. During
December three thousand four hun red and
thirtvntions were distributed to tho sick in
hospitals, otphan asylums aud destitute freed
-The Georgetown Times learns that a no?
torious thief, a npgro 13ob Jounsun by nama,
escaped from the Georgetown jail last Satur?
day night by descending thu chimney and
jumping from the lower story. The public are
warucd to be on the lookout as he is said to be
an adept at the science of burglar}*.