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VOLUME XI.-NUMBER 1671.
CHARLESTON, WEDNESDAY" MORNING, MAY 3, 1871.
EIGHT DOLLARS A YEAR.
TH? CITY ELECTION.
PROCEEDINGS OF THE TWO CONVEN?
TIONS LAST NIGHT.
Names of the Citizens' and Radical Can?
didates-Sketches of their Life and
Great was the excitement yesterday after?
noon and evening on the street, especially In
the vicinity of the Radical headquarters, at the
torner of Broad and Meeting streets, and n?ar
. the corner of Meeting and Market streets. The
hub-bub was not only because the nominations
for aldermen were to be made last night, and
because everybody was expecting, desiring,
praying, wishing, hoping and loudly soliciting
that himself and his friends might receive the
honor of a nomination, but still more
?because of the very stormy Badical
. caucus held on Monday night at Market Hall,
which caucus, in a certain 6ense, may be 3aid
to have been continued all day yesterday, lr.
*? every bar-room, and at every street corn or,
wherever two or .three "Bads" chanced to
meet. The said caucus at Market Hall was
held with closed doors, guarded by argus
eyed sentinels; still enough leaked out to give
som? Mea of the Internal harmony of the hap?
py family, as, for instance, when we learn
that one of the principal points of difficulty
was which of two respectable citizens of Ward
4 (with or . without their consent) should be
put on their ticket as aldermen. Another
a cause of contusion .Is said to have been the
nomination ot Mr. Thomas Jefferson Mackey
and Mr. Coroner Taft, which brought Sheriff
Edward William McGregor Mackey to his feet,
inspiring him with a protest more emphatic
than complimentary to those two aspiring j
young ward politicians. . I
One thing appears to be quite sure : The
caucus did not fail tor want of patriotic citU
.. J zens-icrespectlve of color or previous condl-1
tlon-willing to sacrifice > their ease and db
acuri ty of private station, and serve the city,
in the capacity ot alderman. [Of course E car- J
enger carts, contracts for plankroads, con
tracts tor furnishing the city with butcher's j
meat, and with medicines, Ac, were not sp j
muchas named.] Many of the incumbents, L
we learn, were willing to continue to aban- j
.-don both .privacy and comfort for the welfare I
. of the city, and still others, hitherto "out," I
s showed themselves quite willing to co me'1 in."
Such was the temper of the caucus-the dif-1
ferences irreconcilable-and great therefore
?^L the excitement among all classes of Repu bil-1
. - cans yesterday-every man almost distrusting
every other man of his party-a general un
easiness prevailing, but no curb strong enough
to control .he obstructives, so as to present a
placid front, and a unanimous ticket to the
v public this morning.
In the ranks of the Citizens" party, all waa'I
serene. There had been no stormy caucusing ;
?because there the best man was sought for tb
office, nod not the office tor the man. There
was consequently no excitement, and no I
. uneasiness even. Everybody felt confident that
. the convention would nominate a good
ticket, representing all classes and all j
Interests, and would specially hold In view
the Importance ol having men on the council
board who would be competent to grapple I
- with the difficult problems of finance that may
present themselves In the course of their ad
ministration. In short, the people were con?
fident '.hat the Citizens' Convention would I
nominate candidates in whose ability and In-1
tegrlty the entire community has confidence, I
. and the event has proved that the people were
The Citizens' Convention.
The Citizens' Convention assembled at the
Masonic Hall at 8 o'clock, the president, John'
C. Ml nott,-Esq., in the chair. . 1
On motion of Mr. John F. Britton, It was
resolved that a two-thirds vote be necessary
Xor the nomination of candidates.
The president then stated that the conven?
tion had'now met to nominate, for the.suf
?ftrages of the people, candidates for the City
'Council. Thesa should be men of well-known
honesty and integrity, ot ability and patriot?
ism. They should be chosen without regard
* to personal preference, and with the Bole view
to secure men In whose hands the interests of
. all ciasses would be safe.
On motion of Mr. Britton, the resolution
passed at the last meeting of the convention,
excluding the reporters of the press-from the
floor, was rescinded. !
The convention then proceeded to make the
WARS 1.-For this ward the candidates were
Messrs. 0. A. Bowen, Bernard O'Neill, Moses j
Levy and Thaddeus Street. On the first ballot,
Messrs. Bowen and O'Neill were nominated by j
the requisite majo; dy.
Wann 2.-The candidates for aldermen of j
this wald were Messrs. W. B. Smith, Charles
Michael and S. S. Solomons. On the first, bal?
lot Me; sra.. Smith and Michael were nom?
WARD 3.-The candidates were Messrs. Jno.
Kenny, James Cosgrove, S. L. Bennett, G.
.Foll?n, S. B. Garrett, J. B. Howard, Patrick
Moran and Alva Gage. On the first ballot Mr.
.Alva Gage was duly nominated. On the
second ballot. there was no nomination.
On the - third ballot, E. Louis, colored, was
proposed as an additional candidate. Mr.
John Kenny was then duly nominated. On j
the fourth and fifth ballots there was no elec?
tion. On the sixth ballot Mr. S. P. Garret was
4S| JVABD 4.-The candidates were Messrs. Jas.
H. Taylor, A. S. Johnston, F. L. O'Neill, G. A.
Glover, A. H. Haydeu (withdrawn on the sec- I
ond ballot,) E. F. Sweegan, Charles Voigt, E.
wulla and Holloway. Messrs. Charles Voigt, j
A. S. Johnston, E. F. Sweegan and G. A. I
Glover were1 duly nominated on the first bal-1
lot, and Mr. James H. Taylor on the third
WARD 5.-The candidates for this ward were
Messrs. 0. Wieters, Bev. F. Brown, Richard
Arnold and Wm. Moran. On ihe first ballot
Mr. Brown was duly nominated, and Mr. Mo?
ran was nominated on the sixth ballot.
WARD 6.-The candidates were Messrs. B. C.
Barkley, E. Gardner, M. H. Collins, *C. Mal
lonee,-Streckluss, W. E. Osborne and A. I
Slmoads. On the second ballot Ellas Gardner
was duly nominated, and On the third ballot
Mr. Andrew Slmonds was nominated. j
WARD 7-From this ward the candidates I
-were Robert Hunter, George 8. Gruber, F. J.
Pelzer and George S. Hacker. Upon the third j
ballot Mr. F. J. Pelzer was duly nominated.
WARD 8.-The candidates from this ward]
were Messrs. C. B. Slgwald, Wm. Chase, Wm.
Bro wer and John H. Graman. Tjpon the first'I
ballot Mr' C. B. Sig wald was duly nominated.
This closed the nominations, and upon mo-1
tlon of Captaiu James Armstrong, Jr., the
nominations of the Convention, for both Mayor
and Aldermen, were declared unanimous.
The thanks of the convention were then '
voted to the president, J. C. Minott, Esq
to the president pro tem., W. T. Burge,
The convention then, at ten minutes ?
o'clock this morning, adjourned, 5ub.it
the call of the president.
The Citizens' Candidates.
As will be seen by the following briefs
of their character and position in the co:
nity, the candidates chosen last night t
Citizens' Convention are .thoroughly B
sentative Men, lu whose discretion, ii
gence and probity the people may repo
entire confidence :
1. 0. A. BOWEN.-This gentleman
Charlestonian of high character and
mercantile experience. For some yeal
was a member of the large dry goods jol
house of Marshall, Burge <fc Bo wen,
now a member of the well-known fin
James Adger & Co.
2. BERNARD O'NEILL ls a native of Ire
but has been identified with Charleston
long series of years, in the course of whii
has acquired a handsome property, and e
lished an enviable name and character
merchant. He is one of our most prom!
wholesale grocery dealers. Tucre is no cl
more thoroughly possessed ot tfie "onfld
of the people of Charleston than Mr. be*
3. W, B. SMrrn is one of the oldest and i
successful merchants of Charleston, and ii
president ot the Union Bank. The shn
ness and energy which have enabled him t
quire and retain a large fortune,, caanot fa
be of high value In directing aright the pi
policy of the city.
4: CHARLES MICHAEL IS a stevedore of
standing. He ls trusted and respected bj
merchants who employ him, and by the la
ers whom he employs. As a native-born
ored citizen of Charleston, he has thc c
dence and good-will of all who know him!
5. ALVA GAGE is a Northern man, but
been a resident of Charleston for more y
than we care to name. He ls a-man ol li
means, but with unabated energy eontli
to direct in person all thu details of his t
ness. As a practical, large-hearted and pul
spirited man, he commands the affectloi
respect of all his fello w-cit?zens.
6. J. KENNT IS a native of Ireland, but
resided over twenty years In Char les ten.
Is an amiable and upright man, and ale
property-holder. Mr. Kenny ie highly pop?
both with his countrymen and the old Chat
7. S. F. GARRETT IS an Intelligent and inc
trlous colored man, who will carefully wa
over the Interests of his people.
8. CHARLES VOIGT ls a native of Germa
and an old citizen of Charleston. He 1
member of the present City Council, ws
be is constantly advocating retrenchment i
reform. Although not politically affiliated v
hin countrymen- in this city, he enjoys tl
confidence and esteem, and ls at this tl
chairman of the vestry ot the German Luthe
Ci.urch. His indefatigable Z?PI ' is acknc
edged to have contributed largely towards
speedy completion of the new German Chut
Of his participation in this great work
Voigt has reason to be proud.
. i>. A. S. JOHNSTON.-This gentleman basic
beon known as one of our most promlni
merchants, being the senior member of l
lar&e dry goods jobbing-house of Johnsti
Crows A Co. Being a mau of sound judgmi
and unblemished character, Mr. Johnston 1
been frequently called upon to bold import!
offices ot trust, the duties of which he has
variably discharged with credit to himself a
with- profit to the interests put tinder
charge. He will be a valuable addition to I
10. E. F. S WK EGAN.-Tills gentleman is
partner in the old established firm of H.
Baker & Co. He is an ex-president of t
jEtna Fire Company, and his portrait, paint
by order of the company, now hangs in th?
hall. He is now president of the Catholic I
stitate. Mr. Sweegan is a stralght-forwai
sensible man, who may be rolled on to do ti
whole duty without fear or favor.
IL JAMES H. TATLOR.-This well-know
citizen has been so long identified wi
Charleston that one almost forgets that he w
born in a Northern State. Mr. Taylor hi
always enjoyed public confidence, as is show
by the number of Important public posllloi
which he has held since his connection wii
the trade and commerce of this elly. He hi
been particularly zealous in promoting the d
velopment of the manufacturing. interests i
the State, and after the war became a partni
in the colossal firm of G. w. Williams A Co.
12. G. A. GLOVER IS a very worthy colore
citizen, a saddler by trade. He is well thougt
of by whites as well as blacks.
13. Rev: F. BROWN is a colored Methodl:
preacher, his chapel being in Laurel stree
His congregation believe in him firmly.
14. WM. MORAN ls one of the most thorougl
going Irishmen in Charleston. He is engage
in the draying business, and is a truly wortb
and deserving citizen.
15. ELIAS GARDNER.-There is not a colore
man in Charleston who stands higher tha
Elias Gardner in the estimation and good wll
ot the public. He is one o? the commission
ers of the Markets, and, as a man of propert,
and conservative spirit, possesses a large in
fluence, which he always uses with discretion
16. ANDREW SOCONOS.-For a number o
years prior to the war Mr. Slmonds was en
gaged in the jobbing trade- in this city. Whei
tho First National Bank was organized, hi
was elected its president, and lt has becomi
under his direction one of the most fiourishini
financial institutions in the country. He Is ?
man of broad views and liberal opinions, am
Will zealously guard the interests of all classe;
17. ?FRANCIS J. PELZER ls a native o
Charleston, and emphatically a self-made man
By unremitting labor, singular energy ant
strict mercantile Integrity he has succeeded
In a comparatively Eliort period of time, ir
placing himself at the head of th?
largest cotton lactorage business It
Charleston, that of Pelzer, Rodger? ? Co. Mr.
Pelzer has always given to the public positions
which he has held the same zeal and energy
which characterize the conduct of his private
business. The choice of the convention ls,
therefore, an eminently good one.
18. C. B. SIGWALD ls a nai "re Charlestonian,
a gentleman who has always enjoyed a con?
siderable degree of popularity among his fel?
low-citizens, and under Major Gaillard's ad?
ministration was captain of the elly police, In
which post he showed himself to be possessed
of all the qualities necessary for filling accept?
ably so important and onerous an office.
The Radical Convention.
Th's inharmonious body met at the appoint?
ed hour in the Market Hall, the president in
the chair. No outsiders were admitted, but
we have obtained- what may be accepted as a
correct report of the proceedings.
WARD. 1.-The candidates nominated for
this ward are Mr. T. J. Mackey and Coroner
W. N. Taft. m
WABD 2.-For this ward the convention
nominated Sberif E. W. M. Mackey and Vi
J. McKinlay, colored.
WARD 3.-The candidates were Messrs. G
rett Byrnes, A. B. Mitchel, colored, A.
Farrar, colored, Martin. Caulfield and Thor
Aiken, colored. Garret Byrnes, A. B. Mitel
and A. F. Farrar were nominated.
WARD 4.-For this ward Major E. Willie, t
Messrs. G. I. Cunningham, Wm. Fields, W.
H. Hampton and J. H. Albers were nomlnat
WARD 5.-The' candidates duly nomina
for this ward are. Messrs. Wm. Grant ?
WARD 6.-The candidates duly nomina
from this ward are M. H. Collins and R.
WARD 7_John A. Mushlngton Is the no
nee from this ward.
WARD 8.-James Powers is the nominee
The Radical Candidates.
That the citizens "of Charleston mayprope
appreciate the peculiar character of the car
dates nominated last night by the parti
moral ideas aud high-pressure civilization,
append a few words in regard to those ame
the would-be Aldermen who are not whe
unknown to fame. .
L THOMAS JEFFERSON' MACKEY was born
Charleston, and, like a better known a
eanally disinterested patriot, has been eve
thing in turn, and nothing long. After lollc
lng In the wake ol the Mexican war, Itel
ured for a brief space at the Citadel Mlliti
Academy. The profession of arms notaffo
ing full scope for his ambitious brain,
threw the sword aside, and took up the ga
pot and peBtle. Soon tiring of this unsayc
pursuit, he next became a divinity stude:
He made . his debut ai a Methodist, dalli
awhile with Unitarianism, then "prepared f
holy orders" in the Episcopal Church, Beii
still cabined, cribbed and confined, he abs
doned the church, and set bis face. towan
the forum. To this gratifying fact be ow
the abundant store of his legal lore, with whi
he periodically bores the public. In conni
tlon ^vlth his legal course, we next hear
him ss a Nicaragua filibuster. Later still,
entered the government service, and duri;
the ' '.onfederate war be served ia the Southe
army. Immediately after the surrender of t!
Confederate armies be figured as u Feder
provost marshal In Texas. His political h
tory in South Carolina during the last ft
years ls tolerably well known-one of t
most prominent Incidents in .his career, whl
alderman under the present administrarlo
being that shooting scrape in the Coun
Chamber, which led to his resignation. Ail
his retirement under the influence of mc
phine, he became the Inspector of lumber, ai
lastly, returning to bis old love,. expound*
the law as one of the magnates of the tri
Justice system. :
2. W. N. TAFT put in an appearance
Charleston after the war, and under the PH!
bury r?gime became a lieutenant of police. I
ls now coroner and colonel of militia.
3. E. W. M. MACKST is the nephew of t
uncle, (T. J. Mackey,) and was the shoot?e
the scrape mentioned ina preceding par
graph. He ls the sheriff of Charleston Cou
ty-a pretty profitable berth-and is amor
the most dexterous of our ultra Radical poll
4. W. J. MCKINLAY is a colored member ?
the City Council, and by his general respec
ability deserves to be in better company.
5. E. WILLIS.-Major Willis ls a well-know
cotton merchant, and president of the ?ti
Fire Engine Company. He is an active, ene
getic business man, and was a useful alderma
during Mayor Gaillard's administration.
G. G. I. CUNNINGHAM IS a substantial citizei
and a painstaking member of the present Cit
Council. . .
7. W. R. H. HAMPTON is one of the colore
aldermen in the present -Council.
8. JOHN H. ALBERS is a well-known Germs
citizen, and ex-president of the German Fl r
9. ARCHIBALD CAMERON was born in Seo
land, but has for many years been identifie
with this city. He ls a citizen highly respeel
ed, and was a member of Council with Maye
10. MICHAEL HILLIARD COLLINS, a mem be
of the present Council, who has perhaps mad
more noise in that august assembly than an
other alderman, first saw the light of life 1
in the Emerald Isle, but has been for som
years a citizen of Charleston, where, beglr
nlng in an humble way, be attained, about th
period ot the war, to the honorable calling of
horse trader, which he followed, with profit t
himself, .till chance made him the owner of
"doctor shop." During the Pillsbury admlnli
trallon he has been (and is now) city apothe
cary, as well as alderman. ' Whether or no
he audits his own accounts we are unable t<
11. B. H. CAIN, formerly known to the lrrev
erent public as "Daddy Cain," Is now mort
generally denominated ' the "Enlerprisini
Parson," perhaps because of his conneclloi
with a certain railroad project, tu which he ii
deeply Interested, and which he advocate!
warmly, week after week, in his dingy shee;
-the Missionary Record. Mr. Cain ls so wei
known as a preacher, real estate speculator,
ex-alderman (under the Canby regime,)-ex
senator from this county, andas a politician
at large, that we need say no more about him.
He ls believed to have considerable Influence
on a certain class of colored people. He ii
not a favorite with the managers of the
"Ring," as he ls too much Inclined to kick In
12. JOHN A. MUSHINGTON is a mulatto, very
young and very light in color. He is employ?
ed in the office ol Sheriff Mackey, the nomluee
for alderman from Ward 2. This official prox?
imity to a Radical luminary ls Mr. Mushlng
tun's only qualification tor the office to which
1?. GARRET BYRNES, a nominee from Ward
3, kept a grog-shop In Suite street during Hie
war. Aller the war he hud a similar establish?
ment In'Queeu street, and ls now eniraged in
the grocery business oin East Bay. Ho ls pro?
bably nominated I hat he may keep the new
council in good spirits.
14. JAMES POWERS is an Irishman, and best
knowu to the public as thu -head-centre of a
Fenian circle in this city.
15. A. B. MITCHELL and A. F. FRASF.R, the
nominees from Ward 3; WM. FIELDS from
Ward 4, and WM. GRANT from Ward 6, make
up . the rest of the Radical ticket. Who, or
what these are we are unable to state at this
present writing. In the language ol the Radi?
cal organ-"They are so obscure that their
own mothers would not know them."
The Chairmen of Precinct?,
The following have been elected by their co
managers to be chairmen of the polling pre?
Ward 1-J. J. Young.
Ward 2-F. M. Johnstone.
Ward 3-First Precinct,-; Second Pre?
cinct. A. B. Mitchell: Third Precinct, J. W.
Ward 4-Flr8t Precinct, L. T. Gardner; Sec
conrl Preclnt, S. G. Russell; Third Precinct, H.
Ward 5-First Precinct, W. S. Fraser; Sec?
ond Precinct, B. A. Carson. .
Ward 6-Flrst Precinct, J. H. Happoldt;
Second Precinct, Charles Lining; Third Pre?
cinct, 8. G. Proctor.
; Ward 7-J N. Gregg.
Ward 8-First Precinct, J. M. Dereef: Sec?
ond Precinct, J. F. MasonV
THE GERMAN NAYY.
ITS FORMER AND PRESENT CONDITION
-THE NEW NATAL STRONGHOLD.
The System of Naval instruction-How
thu . Officers and Seamen of the Navy
WILDEUTSHAVEN, June 24.
Ia the year 1847, there iras a Germany.after
a fashion, but \hat Germany bad no fleet, or
any notion of a fleet. In the year 1848, there
were ideas of a German Empire, to be con?
stituted in some revolutionary fashion or
other by a constituting Parliament sitting at
Frankfort-on-the-Main. It seemed good unto
this inchoate Empire that it should have a
fleet, the suggestion being owing chiefly to a
member named Eerst, who had first been a
schoolmaster, and then lived l'or a'long time
In Brazil. A fleet of some. kind was got UK
gether-If a curious collection of the "cast"
crafts from other'navies could be called a fleet
-and then came the question about a port
on the North Sea, for any port on the Baltic
obviously bad Its disadvantages. A committee
was delegated, with the right of secret slt
[ tings, to inquire into the capabilities or cer?
tain localities for havens, Eerst being the
moving power In the matter. While the com?
mittee was deliberating, and had almost con?
cluded a provisional bargain with the Grand
Duke of oldenburg for Wilhelmshaven, there
came a crisis In the affairs of the problematical
German Empire. . Its fleet was put up to auc?
tion. What came.of the offal lt Is not easy
now to discover; the ships that least merited
breaking up were bought at auction by Prus?
sia. Prussia, too, assumed ibe Wilhelmshaven
negotiation, and concluded lt In the year 1853,
buying lrom Grand Duke Peter a slip of bul
rush waste land, measuring about-3150 acres,
extending from the Banter Creek on the south
to Heppensertrilt oh the north, for the sum
of $375.000-a purchase not profitable on the
face of lt, but made with the'view of convert?
ing the bulrush waste Into a great naval port
and arsenal. Since then the boundary ot
1853 has been extended some little dis?
tance inland. The construction of the war
haven was commenced in the year 1854.
but was proceeded with In a very languid
manner for seveiai years. The annual sum
expended In the work for the first ten years
was never greatly over $250,000, and when
the magnitude of the plan ls considered, lt ls
obvious that such a vote as this was a mere
drop in the bucket But tn 1866 the works
were pushed on rapidly, and the expenditure
became more liberal; till, on the 17th of June,
1869, the new harbor was opened in form by
Wilhelm, then King of Prussia, now Emperor
of Germany. The opening was In form in
every sense. It le true the basin, canal and
moles were constructed, but the harbor was
yet dry land, or, at tbe most, mud, when thus
formally opened. A British ship ot war, the
Meteor, was present at the opening. Not be?
ing gifted with tbe capacity of vaulting over
earthen dykes and progressing on dry land,
she lay outside in the buy. The works con?
tinued to progress until the declaration ol
war between France and Germany In July ot
last year.- At that date Wilhelmshaven was
but a naval port In name. No German ship
of-war had ever steamed Into its basin, lt
existed Indeed, and the port had been opened,
but only by the nod of a King. An earthen
dyke Billi extended acrosn its mouth between
the moles, excluding thu sea water'wholly
from the new port.
Shortly before the declaration of war, a
North German squadron, consisting of the K??
nig Wilhelm, the Kronprinz, and the Prince
Friedrich Carl, had come to England, on Its
way professedly to a voyage to the Azores.
; The K?nig Wilhelm had nine Inches ot foul?
ness on Us bottom, for there was no dry-dock
In German waters where the monster ship
could be berthed and cleaned. Its speed was
thus reduced from 14 to 8 \ knots. Its cylin?
ders were on an old and obsolete principle.
In coming through the Kattegat the Prince
Friedrich Car! had broken off l wo of the four
fans of Its screw. But the squadron quitted
Plymouth lu July, nominally on the way to
the Azores, yet with a forewarning of what
was coming, with secret orders not to poss the
Land's-Ena, and with a rendezvous given at
the Start. An aviso from the flagship put into
Dartmouth without hoisting the North Ger?
man flag. An officer ran up to London, saw
Count Bernstorff, and came down again with
dispatches. On the 18th ot July the German
squadron was in the mouth ol the Jade,'
while the Frencb and most of the
rest of the world believed lt quiet?
ly jogging across the Atlantic to the
Azores. There were but three ships, not In
the best condition for offensive operations,
and, looking al the strength of the other side,
not calculated lo Inspire great confidence as
regards defensive capabilities. The three ships
lay across the mouth of tb e Bay of Jade, op?
posite to the Island of Wnngeroog, at tue point
where the channel ls narr J west and obstruct?
ed with banks. The protection of the Weser
was tardily confided to Alleen torpedo-boats,
that oi lue Elbe to six torpedo-boats (sleam
launches. ) Trie position seemed critical lu the
extreme. It is a well authenticated fact thar,
up to the month of August last, there was not
a single gun lu position on the German coast
of the North Sea for defensive purposes. It
the French fleet, as might reasonably have
been expected, had driven in ike delences con?
stituted by the three Iron-dads at the mouth of
the Jade, the works of Wllhemshaven lay at
their mercy, and there waa no retreat for tho
German irou-clads, lor the earthen dyke still
Blood across the throat of .the harbor of Wil?
helmshaven; and even it this had not been the
case, it was in an utterly defenceless condition.
How the French never came is now a matter
of history. Meanwhile, extraordinary ex?
ertions were made to remedy the delenceless
condition ol' ihc northern coast. Yet the bat?
teries protecting tho Elbe were not finished
till October, and mounted with 600-pounder
guns, some little time before this a battery
of 300-poundcr guns was got Into position at
Wilhelmshaven. Now, there are two batteries
oi guns of this calibre on either side of the en?
trance to the harbor. At Heppenserlrif "a
large fort is In course of construction on a
slight projectloninto' the bay. Its casemates
are now about to be arched In, and its scarp
is about finished. It will mount when finish?
ed-and no time is to be lost in its completion
-about 4011-mch guns, which will command
Hie fuir-wavleading to the mouth of the har?
bor. Another fort on the opposite side ot the
bay-here about 6lx miles across-is buildln
and an Iron-clad fort ls to be erected in the
centre of the channel. It ls reckoned, and
I Justly 60, that these defences, combined with
torpedoes and obstructions to be laid down In
the fair-way In case of need, will render Wil?
helmshaven impregnable on the sea side,
while a chain of earthwork redoubts on the
landward side effectually meet the minor dan?
ger in that direction.
One of the defects of the place-that of want
of good drinking water-Wilhelmshaven has
overcome. Springs have been discovered,
and watet is now obtained, so that the tanks
ol the largest ship can be filled at once with
good water. Another apprehension-viz: that
the channel aud harbor mouth wore liable to
becomo silted-ls contradicted; and lt seems
probable that any tendency ihereto may be
averted by the steady use of dredgers, which
certainly are not spared. In I'ecembor lost,
taking "advantage ol' a high tide, the Konli:
Wilhelm came in, drawing about thirty feet ol
water. But Wilhelmshaven is surely, in the
eyes of the German naval authorities them?
selves, Ihr from the beau ideal of a harbor for
a war fleet, lt Is utterly deficient In aggres?
sive facilities, while lt presents facilities of an
obvious character, not for being attacked, it ls
true, but for being blockaded. Like all
creek harbors, ll Is very much of the nalure
of a prison. There is a point In the passage
out where the fair-way is not over half a
mlle broad. With a blockading squadron of
very moderate force concentrating a fire on a
gulley like this,. not to be traversed save by a
single ship at once, a fleet in Wilhelmshaven,
trying to come our, would simply be sent to
the bottom, ship utter ship. Of course these
very defeots lu an aggressive sense enhance
Its merits in a defensive one; but then lt ls a
wrong application of the utility of a fleet to
slow lt away behind big land batteries at the
bottom of a gut, and imagine that a triumph
has been achieved when annihilation has been
escaped. Such a port as Wilhelmshaven ls
.Just the pori I? nullify the boldest exertions
on the part of. ?? peet fleet having it as a base
of op?rations, providing always that a hostile
fleet were prompt to take lime by the forelock
and blockade the exit. The German coast of
the North Sea ls emphatically an Ineligible
coast In point of aggressive facilities. -
The Prussian war navy handed over to the
North German Confederation and now become
the Imperial navy, owes its initiation to Prince
Adalbert, who ls now the admiral command?
ing lt. In the early days it was officered part?
ly by officers of other nationalities, and by.
suitable men taken from the merchant navy.
A naval school for training young officers was,
however, very soon Instituted, and for a long
time none have been admitted into the navy
except through its portals. The following are
the tests applied to a young officer to Insure
his efficiency: The entry ot a cadet is ad mis
sable between the ages of 16 and 17; the appli?
cant must come with a certificate that he has
passed a gymnasium examination In the first
class, and has, in addition, to pass a stiff ex?
amination in arithmetic, geography, trigo?
nometry, stereometry, spherical trigonome?
try, physiesi (comprehending optics, acoustics,
heat, electricity, magnetism, electro-male?
na tn and Induction,) geography, (phvsical and
political,) French and English languages,
drawing; and when not educated in gymna?
sium, history and' Latin in addition.
The - aspirant then serves for one
year in the cadetsulp, when he goes up
for his examination for the raak of midship?
man. The lad then goes afloat cm service for
two or three years as midshipman, and then
enters the Naval School'at K el where he
studies for a year br a year and a half, at the
end of which time he presents himself for his
examination to pass from midshipman to lieu?
tenant. This examination covers the same
ground as the former, but ls much more testing.
He is probed to the bottom In navigation and
seamanship, including tactics. Having shown
himself to be an Admirable Crichton, ne-ls
then at liberty to walt for his yticancy as 6?b
lieutenant.- When midshipman,- he enjoys the
'dally-pay of forty cents on shore, afloat, fifty
or sixty-five cents extra as table money. He
must serve two years at least as sub lieuten?
ant before promotion to lieutenant, but the
average ls from three to five years' service
prior to the occurrence of a vacancy. After
an average service of about six years as lieu?
tenant, ne becomes captain-lieutenant; As
captain-lieutenant the term of service may
average about six years, the next grade being
commander; the higher ranks are captain and
admiral, the attainment to which ls wholly
dependent on the occurrence of vacancies.
. Promotion is, without exception, by seniori?
ty ; lt being assumed, and surely not without
cause, that efficiency ls secured In all by the
rigorous examinations which have to be un?
dergone. The naval service ie,' with the ex?
ception of the officers of the merchant service
taken into lt at the beginning,'and still re?
maining wholly an aristocratic one. It ls the
fashion tojoin the naval service, and lt is at
once compulsory and the fashlot to pass good
examinations in that service. It is an achieve?
ment, the secret of which, the Germans seem
alone of European- nattons to have mastered,
how to make lt the fashion with young noble?
men to work, as he who w,orketh that he .may
five. Every ship in the German service, even
the smallest gunboat, ls provided with detail?
ed drawings and sections of every foreign
war ship. Its weak points are specifically stat?
ed, and details given as to the- spots lo be aim?
ed at with the most likelihood of disabling tho
machinery. "My word," Jo quote Ute naive
remark of an o (Beer with whom I happened to?
have conversation on this topic--"My word, I
know the ships of the British fleet better than
tluiir own young officers." Ar.d, I saw enough
to make me certain that this was no empty
boast. Every ship possesses accurate and de?
tailed charts of the naval* ports of the world;
and the examination to which officers are sub?
ject on this, as well as on other topics, Insures
their acquaintance with them, so that pilots,
the want of which was one of the piteous
complaints of the French naval officers on the
farcical northern cruise ot their fleet, are capa?
ble, in emergency, of being dispensed with.
"L'Orient is a very aifflcult port to make; I
would not like to try that without a pilot.
Plymouth ! there ls not a .lieutenant in tho
German navy who could not take a trip into
Plymouth In the night time." This was what
a naval officer quietly told me, with whom I
happened to bave a talk on maritime affairs in
a Berlin restaurant, and his testimony ls con?
firmed from other sources. It seems plain
Germany does not want for navEd officers, ber
lack ls of a fleet and of a seaboard. - The solu?
tion of the fleet problem ls simple, If costly;
the consideration of the other matter Involves
questions into which I do not feel called upon
O n? word about the seamen. They are drawn
from the seafaring population in the same
manner as the army is from the inland popu?
lation,- the term of service being for three
years. There are four classes. The first classi
from which the petty officers are found, comes
from a naval school, the pupils of which enter
as boys, and are taught seamanship in youth.
The term of service of this class ls 12 years,
after which they are provided tor in various
capacities In the civil service of the Crown In
the same way as long service non-commission?
ed officers ot the army. The pay of the first
class seaman Is about 30 cents per day. in ad?
dition to food and clothing. It does not seem
to be the custom to retain, while sblps are not
in commission, the services of^any save these
first-class men. At Wilhelmshaven there are
only about 200 sailors, who live. in barracks
on shore, and are all first-class men, In every
sense of the word. Some difficulty might be
experienced In getting together efficient crews
for a fleet at short warning. It Is not sufficient
to have gm? seamen such as the merchant
service would furnish; it would seem to a non
prolesslonal man that some experience in
the bandling of great guns would be
advantageous'. It is not easy to see how
they can be obtained with a scratch crew: nor
ls lt easy to see how, if Indiscriminate and un?
conditional discharges are given when a ship
ls paid off, anything but a scratch crew can be
got together on short notice, taking into con?
sideration the long absences from home of so
many seamen. Not the least Interesting ques?
tion affecting narai matters which the late
war brought up was that o? torpedoes. The
opinion of those whose experience of them
was largest ls not favorable to the value ot
fixed torpedoes. It ls impossible to be certain
that they remain stationary. "You never
know where they are," was the pitty remark
made to me concerning those at the mouth of
the Jade. Often they go adrift and get in a
tangle in a single night, and they block the
road for friends as well as foes. The best
means for the application ol torpedoes ls judg?
ed to be by means o? boats constructed spe?
cially as torpedo-boats, which in a single night
can lay down a belt ot torpedoes in a fleet's
pathway, or a ring of them round a fleet, in?
suring the minimum of possibility of getting
adrift. But my informant's sententious sum?
mary was, "Torpedoes will never supersede
loris, ships und big cannon, although they
may help at a pinch."
. WASHINGTON NEWS AND GOSSIP.
Tho Ku.Klux Committee and the Mis?
WASHINGTON, July 25.
Among the Ku-Klux wi messes to-day was a
member ot the Oxford, Mississippi, grand Jury.
He was a Republican. Their Investigation ol'
disorders showed that politics had nothing to
do with them. Their taxes were increased
three-fold; school teachers were sent among
theni at lilty dollars per mouth, :?nd were not
content with such bullditurs as Hie counties
could furnish, but must have new.ones for
their average ol'. 25 negro scholars. The co?
habitation ol'negroes willi white women al?
ways provoked assault, but the majority of
cases had their origin in theft.
The board of public works being enjoined
from negotiating tor a million of bonds, have
stopped work on the streets, avenues, alleys,
Ac, and many aro- thrown out of employ?
SPARKS FROM THE WIRES.
-Charles Dyke, assistant engineer of Ful?
ton's first steamer on the Hudson, and en?
gineer on the first boat, down the Ohio and
Mississippi to New Orleans, died yesterday,
-^A Washington dispatch says.* "Dr. Walsh,
who is here, bas a dispatch from Wllmans A
Kt nc man that they arranged'the Savannah
customhouse defalcation satisfactorily." \
-Red Cloud's preparations for war are con?
-The Supreme Court of Georgia, yesterday,
In the Macon and Western Railroad Injunction
case, decided In favor of the lessees.
-General Gordon has gone to Washington
to appear belora the Ku-Klux Committee.
A BRIG ASHORE.
NORFOLK, July 25.
The brig Muscovado, with a cargo of sugar,
bound for Baltimore, ls ?ashore on Body
Island. Assistance will be sent to ber from
FRANCE AND THE POPE.
PIUS READY TO LEAVE THE ETER?
[ His Expected Residence in Corsica and
Earthquakes tn the Phllllpine Is?
lands-Thiers Refuses to Accept the
Resignation of Jxles Favre.
LONDON, July 24.
[Special to the New York Herald.]-The
Pope may leave Borne at'any day; Prepara?
tions are making for his reception at a chateau
at Carte, Corsica. Valery, the owner.of the
chateau, has had aa understanding with Anto?
nella and ls to place it at the disposal of the
Pope. There ls a movement going on In
France to guarantee to the Pope temporal
sovereignty over Corsica. The disposition
rxade by the French Chamber of petitions lu
regard to the Pope's temporal power ls equiva?
lent to laying them on the table. The Pope
wishes to publish a syllabus In regard td the
occupation of Borne by the Italian Govern?
ment, and declaring that the measures with?
holding from him all temporal power are void.
Measures have been taken already in Borne to J
prepare for a choice of the next Pope. It ls
proposed to choose one who : s moderate in
his ideas and not unfriendly to Italy, and by
this mearft effect a compromise with the
Italian Government. Cardinal Camillo di
Pietro ls mentioned.
LONDON, July 25.
The Standard publishes details of a series of
terrible earthquake shocks which recently oc?
curred in one of the Phllllpine Islands. More
than two hundred persons were swallowed up,
and every one, of them almost Instantly killed.
Sixty bodies of the dead have been recovered.
The rest .of the inhabitants fled the island,
which ls utterly depopulated.
Dispatches from Madrid in relation to the re?
cent ministerial case aro somewhat confused,
for lt now appears the members of the cabinet
formed by Marshal Serrano have taken the'
oath of office. The Minister cf War acts as
Minister of State ad interim. Many Spanish
officials have tendered their resignations.
Russia has given in her adhesion - to the In?
ternational Telegraph Convention of Vienna.
This brings Bitsslan lines to Amoor and the
De-id Bea under operation upon the. terms of
PAWS, July 24.
Journals are discouraged at the apathy
shown by citizens In elections, abstentions
from voting on Sunday having reached an un?
precedented figure. The Souverain National
warns the people that a nation which takes
no interest In Us own affairs ls condemned to
VERSAILLES, July 26.
President Thieu has refused , to accept the
proffered resignation of Jules Favre as minis?
ter ot foreign affairs. The reassembling of the
courts martial ls positively announced for
July 31st. ._?
TOE COURSE OF COTTON.
Predictions of Prices.
[From the. New Orleans Price Current]
If a diagram of cotton prices for the last few
years should be made, the lines would be not
unlike the course of a bat In its Sight after
food; lt would be serrated by many very sud?
den zigzags In its general, lines of ascent or
descent. These sudden spurts or drops in cot?
ton price are generally explained or accounted
for to the satisfaction of some theorist of price;
but the fact carries an unappeasable chagrin
to the heart of the unlucky dealer. In truth
the subject of cotton price may not be reduc?
ed to any fixed principle, except that very
vague one of supply and demand. The sim?
plest way to treat this elusive principle ls to
keep an accurate tally of the growth and store
of cotton, and then predict that as the stock
on the 1st September of one year is to
the stock ol the 1st September the next year,
so must the price of the one year be to
the price of another. Those who assume
to represent the consumer apply the same
facts to their own predictions. Here then
begins the war between the factions called
the bulls and bears, each diing such , circum?
stances as may affect the growing crop, or the
probable caps cl ty ot tbe consumer to pur?
chase. It ls at last this proportion between
a comparison ot current stocks which really
regulates prices; though, Indeed, a strict pro?
portion between stock and price ls never pre?
served, and never caa be, because l he term
demand means really capacity to purchase,
aud this capacity depends upon as many and
os potent elements as the price of corn and of
gold. The state of finance, the prevalence ol
wars or other expediencies, or a decline in
the rate of wages; these influences all enter
into the ability of the consumer to purchase,
for no matter how much a man may need a
shirt, his demand ls not felt In the cotton mar?
ket if he ls wlibout th? meaus to purchase,
lt ls the ultimate withdrawal, of these
casual customers from the market and their
reappearance, which occasions those abrupt
dips and differences in the ascending and de?
scending lines of cotton price. The consumer
may not be immediately and personally pres?
ent, but his demand Is anticipated by the spec?
ulator, whose expectations may after all be
disappointed. We may take an example from
the recent war between Germany and France.
The general food markets of these countries
did not advance materially, because the peo?
ple must be led'ln the field or ai; home, and os
.tbe war was 6hort tho waste was small. With?
out food there could be no effective war, nor
domestic quiet. The clothing demand was sub
ordlnate,the people dedicated their wages to
the primary demand of the stomach-the back
must walt. Hence the large mass of cotton
consumers wore scam, or patched cotton cloth?
ing. They were not represented by purchasers
In the cotton market. The restoration of
peace, and the return ot the soldier to the
Held or workshop, renewed wages. This large
class of consumers acquired again the power
to purchase, and again represented demand.
Simultaneously with ihis restoration Hie price
of cotton labrics rose. It may have been the
cause of the rise. It must have hau its effect.
The application of this fact goes to show that
as there always must be some great Industrial
calamity occurring somewhere among the
civilized consumers ol' cotton, it is by no
means safe lo predicate an advance ot price
on a reduction of product, or vice versa. The
normal price steadily advances or declines
with the increase or dlmunillon of the quanti?
ty, bul the exceptional rates occasioned by cir?
cumstances which no human loresight can
anticipate, render speculation In cotton per?
haps the most precarious of all commercial
pursuit?. It makes a man's bank balance
shill like a weaver's shuttle, and, while be
watches tbe swill mutation, his life is wear
ins away, and his substance is whittled down
by inevitable brokerage aud Interest cu capi?
tal. How much belter for us that this cotton
should be manufactured at home ? The capi?
tal and enterprise of our citizens would then
be occupied with a permanent and profitable
business, aud thc gain of the cotton dealer
here would not be based, os ol;en at present,
upon the losses .ot his customer elsewhere.
Let us spin, weave and print our own cottons,'
and thus monopolize all the profit which is
now enjoyed elsewhere.
OFFICIAL DECAPITATIONS IN TETE
NKW ORLEANS, July 25.
The City Council to-day removed from office
Recorders Sloes, of the second district, and
Dumont, of the lil th district. No cause is as?
signed lor the removal, but lt is said that Gov
ertior Warinouth directed them, because lt ls ;
believed that these persons opposed his ad?
Frederick Seymour, an officer of the steam?
ship Sadona, at this pori, tell overboard and
was drowned on the isth. instanl off the Frying
The weather for the past two days has been
cool and pleasant.
THE GOULD DEFALCATION.
How a Hie? Little Game war Played in
?Savannah-Where the Government
[From the.Savannah Newa]
For some time past A well-known revenue
official has been engaged in trying to unravel
the transactions of the late defaulting collec -
tor, but failing to interview him out of any of
the facts obtained, and desiring to know both,
'sides, we undertook to And - ont oars elf, and
the result o? the investlgattonris as follows :
. In the summer ?f 1870 John H. Gould and
E. W. Kendall purchased In Boston a -large
amount ot furniture on credit, which, they
shipped to-this city and opened the house on
Broughton street, under the firm and style of
w. Krzyzanowskf ? Co. The company was
a merchant of this city, Kendall being em?
ployed on a salary. There was no money
paid in up to the time the house opened, ex?
cept $2000 paid for Gould by another party,
. to defray the expenses incidental co ' opening
the house, Ac. : Afterwards Gould - paid ut
$32,000, which was credited to all parties,
as follows: To Krzyzanowskl $6000. and
the balance to Gould and the' party
! already relerred to as the company.
A short time before Gould-left,' Krzyza
I nowskl, not having come - down with the
stamps to cover the amount placed to his cred
it, withdrew, leaving the whole nnderth?con
trol of the remaining partners. -The concern
was then sold out to still another party here,
whose not?s were given to tho silent partner,
known as the "Co.," for about $24,000, which
were, subsequently turned over to a merchant
on the Bay, who sold out the stock at auction
through Messrs. Bell A Hull, and received the
proceeds, so says the last bookkeeper In the
concern. This accounts tor $32,000 that Gould
did not lake away with him. The balance of
the $59,000 ctyalcation, viz.* $27.000,'lt ls said
was' also not taken by Gould, but by
others, as lt is expected can be proved.
So that alter all, Major . Gould .weat,away
minus, except the money he borrowed a day
or two before he departed, to pay n Is travel?
ling expenses with. It is said that Hrs. Gould
ls now in Washington, using- her endeavors to
obtain promises that her husband will not be
prosecuted if he returns. It ls thought she
will succeed, and that the major will return
and make a olean breast of rio whole business.
The United States district attorney has re?
ceived instructions to. prosecute two citizens
of Savannah as accessories to the defalcation.
Major Gould 1B now summering at 8L-Geo ree's,
Bermuda, within about tour days' sall of Sa?
vannah, where he is enjoying .the retirement
of which he ls so much In need, beyond the
reach of his enemies and the Inti uenoo of his
THE WEATHER TRIS DAT.
WABBINQJON, Joly 25.
Probabilities: The low pressure on Lase Su?
perior will probably move eastward, and on
wednesday extend southeastward to Lake
Ontario. Brisk easterly winds will probably
prevail on the east' atlantic, and partially
cloudy or clearing np weather on the south
Atlantic coast Southerly winds, with rainy
or threatening weather, are probable' from
the western Gulf to the Ohio Valley, and clear?
lng weather in the northwest, ; ,
Ye ?te rd ay's Weather Rtpor? of the
. Signal Service, Tj; S.'A.-4.47 P., fl.
Buffalo, N. Y.... 80.02
Cheyenne, W. T. 29.09
Cleveland. so. oe
Corinne, Utah... 29.30
Key West,Fla... 29.97
Knoxville, Tenn, 30.08
Lake City, Fla .. 30.04
Memphis, Tenn.. 29.90
Milwaukee, Wis. 29.94
New London, CL 30.76
New Orleans- 30.03
New York. 30.08
Omaha, Neb. '29.76
Oswego, N. Y.... 80.06
Pittsburg, Pa.... 30.71
Portland, Me.... 30.2a
Rochester, N. Y. 80.oe
san Francisco.. 29.91
St, Louis. 29.91
St Paul, Minn.. 29.76
Toledo, 0. 30.03
Mt. Washington. 30.38
< NB Light,
NE I Fresa.
NE Fresh. I
A STORM, AH EXPRESS ROBBERT, AND
A PRORABLE HANGING.
ST. LorJft, July 25:
There was a violent hail storm in Pike Coun?
ty, Missouri, which destroyed corn and tobacco.
The report that the Indian Chiefs Santanta
and Big Tree were killed while attempting to
escape ls untrue. Both were. tried and found
guilty of murder in the first degree. There
was an express robbery committed on the
Mobile and.Ohlo Railroad, In Hickman Comi?
ty, Kentucky, last Saturday. Three men got
on the train at Union Cit*/, and at Moscow,
when the train halted, two of the robbers got
off and the confederate remained on the plat?
form. As the train moved ont from the depot
the two Jumped into tho express car. over?
powered the messenger, and robbed the safe
ot twenty thousand dollars. When the train
halted they Jumped off and disappeared in the
A MILL BETWEEN COBUBN AND MACE
NEW YORK, July 24.
Mace and Coburn met to-day and agreed to
fijht on the 30th of November, within a hun?
dred miles of New Jersey. The stakes are
$2500. The articles are to be signed in New
Orleans. Stakes consist of the $2000 already in
stakeholders' hands; each man to put up $1500
additional. . _;
THE WEST INDIES AND SOUTH'
PORT AC PRINCE, HAyrr, July 8,1
Via HAVANA. July 24. I
The old currency has been called in and a
new issue substituted, the project of a loan to
redeem the currency and substitute specie
having been rejected.
ST. THOMAS, July 17.
The submarine cable between Saint Lucia
and Saint Vincent has been laid. Smail-ppr
rages at Puerto Plata. '
VENEZUELA, July 8.
i The country ls in a quiet condition except
the State ol Barcelona, where there has been
hard fighting. Guzman has returned to Cor?
?ceas, and SB looking for reinforcements.
LIFE AND DEATH AT THE SPBLNG8.
WHITE SULPHUR SPRC?OS, July 25.
W. L. Addington, a prominent.,lawyer of
Baltimore, and United States District Attorney
ol Maryland under President Buchanan, died
last night of a complication of diseases. The
weather is cloudy, and the thermometer 72 at
DEATH OF A GRAND-DAUGHTER OF
JOHN C. CALHOUN. ?
NEW YORK. July i&
The wife of Gideon Lee, a grand-daughter of
John C. Calhoun, died at. Carmel, N. Y., oa
Sunday, aged twenty-six.