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Resignation of Governor Brown.
To the People of Georgia:
I feel profoundly impressed with a
sense of the obligation which I am
under to you for the manifestations of
your kindness and confidence, which I
have so often received. At four dif?
ferent elections you liave honored me
with your suffrages fdr the highest po?
sition within your gift, and I have to
the best of my ability represented you
in the Executive office for nearly
eight years. While my duties have
been of the most laborious and trying
character, I feel the consciousness that
I have labored with an honest purpose
to promote your best interests. . That
I have committed errors, is not denied;
that they have boen intentional, your
conduct has shown you did not be?
During the period of my adminis?
tration the country has passed through
a most trying ordeal. The great ques?
tions at issue between the North and
the South having failed to find a peace?
ful solution in the" forum of reason,
have been submitted for decision to the
arbitraments of arm?, and tho judg?
ment has been against us in the high?
est tribunal known among nations.
The contest has been long and blaody.
Each party has learned to respect the
manhood and chivalry of the other.
But the South has been overcome by
the superior numbers and boundless
resources of thc North. We have no
further power of successful resistance,
and no other alternative but to accept
The Government of the United
States having refused to recognize 01
tolerate the State Governments which
have existed under thc Confederate
Constitution during tho struggle, has
ordered the arrest of the Governors ol
these States. I was arrested and im?
prisoned after I bad surrendered tlft
Georgia State Troops and Militia, and
had given my parole upon the satn<
terms allowed to General Lee 'and
General Johnston, and had receive?,
from the Major General, to whom th?
parole was given, the usual pledge o
the faith of the United States that 1
was not to be molested so long as ]
observed the parole and obeyed th?
laws in force prior to the 1st of Jauu
arv, 1861: Upon the facts bein?:
brought before tho President of th?
United States, he ordered that I b?
released upon my parole, and permit
ted to return home.
I ara embraced in ono of the ex
cepiions in the President's Atnnest;
Proclamation. I have received ni
pardon, nor have I taken any oatL
nor am ? permitted to resume th
exercise of Executive functions,
was in the Executive office prior t
the commencement of the war, and bj
the Constitution of the State then i
existence it is declared that I sha
hold it till a euccessor is chosen an*
qualified. I have felt it my duty t
announce these (acts to you, and as
can be of no farther use to m}' Stat
by attempting to hold the office <
Governor, I hereby resign it into th
hands of the people who have so lon
and so generously conferred it upon m
While taking my leave of you an
retiring to private life, I trust it ma
not be considered inappropriate for n
to add a few remarks upon what
consider the true interests and th
duties of the people of Georgia in tl
present hour. I ha. o lately passe
through several of the Northei
States, and have been in some
their largest cities; I have read the
newspapers closely, have had inte
views with public officials high
authority, and have taken pains
ascertain both the policy of the G
vernment and the popular sentime
of the country on the subject of t
emancipation of the slaves of t
South, and I bog to assure you tb
there is no division of opinion up
tho subject of immediate abolition,
is decreed alike by the people and t
Government. They have the pow
and they are determined to exercise
and to overcome all ohstacl whi
we may attempt to throw in the w;
"indeed, the^ treat.jf. as au accompli
ed fact, under the' proclama ions of 1
'..fe President, ironed an .or mea?n
' " ' ' T~" ? %
necessary to the life of the Govern
ment. .As matters now stand to fight
against it, is to coutend against mani
fest destiny. Besides slavery has been
so disturbed and the slaves so demor?
alized during the war, that it is a
matter of great doubt whether they
could ever be kept in a state of proper
subordination, and the institution
made profitable in future.
Under these circumstances the ques?
tion arises, what shall we do? Nothing
that we can do will prevent tho result,
audit is my deliberate . opinion that
any effort on our part to thwart the
will of the Government on this great
question will only add to our miseries
and our misfortunes. The statesman,
like the business man, should take a
practical view of questions as they
arise, and do for those dependent upon
him the best that can be done, under
all thc circumstances by which they
are at the time surrounded.
I Applying this rule to our present
condition, and remembering that revo?
lution and war often sweep away long
established usages, demolish theories
and change institutions, it is, in my
judgment, best that we accept the fate
imposed upon us by tho fortunes ol
war, and that we give up slavery at
once, by the action of the Convention,
which it is supposed will assemble
under the call of tho Provisional Gov*
ernor appointed to re-orgenizo th?
j State Government. That we organize
j a system of labor as speedily as pos
sible, which will be alike just to th?
late master and slave. That we return
to the Union in good faith and do al
in our power, as good citizens, t<
relieve tho distressed, repair the da
mages which have resulted from tlx
contest, and restore permanent peact
and prosperity to the whole country
under tho old flag, to which all mus
again look for protection from the At
lantic to the Pacific.
Aa I will give no advice to other
which I will not practice myself,
shall immediately do all which th
Constitution and laws of my Stat
will permit to emancipate my ow
slaves, and ehall treat them as free
and give them part of tho crop, o
such other wages as may bo agree
upon for their future labor.
During my sojourn there, I foun
among the people of the North muc
less bitterness than I had anticipate
towards the people of the South,
we act prudently and do nothing t
cause unnecessary agitation, or to pr<
voko angry and unprofitable discu
sien?, I think there are strong reasor
to hope that a sentiment of justic
and liberality will prevail as soon J
we have given up slavery, and tl
passions engendered by tho unforti
nate and wicked assassination of tl
late President have had time to subsid
In making their judgment, upc
cool reflection, it should be remer
bered by just men in the North th
they are sitting as judges in their ov\
cause; that their adversary's side of tl
questiou has ceased to be represent?
or heard, and that if thoy wou
restore unity, harmony and perraane
prosperity to the whole country, th?
must, while .flushed with victory, <
ercise magnanimity to their fall
foes, whose heroism they arc oblig
to respect. Otherwise, though he
in tho Union by force, they could r
expect thc people of tho South a
j their posterity to meet them in futu
I as friends and embrace them as folio
citizens. I trust their good practl
! sonso will teach them this, and ll
' moderation and wise counsels may
future prevail on both sides,
j Foreign nations have looked w
j astonishment upon the immei
I strength put forth by the two sectil
I duriDg the war, and they cannot fal
understand the invincibility and po\
of the Government which unites
harmonious concert the whole stren<
of thc two gigantic belligerents; wi
they would readily appreciate the
punished strength of this great pov
if roots of bitterness ave constar
springing up and bearing the fruit
discord and sectional hate.
When slavery has been abolishc
believe the present Chief Magisti
of the United States-who, ha\
sprung from the mass of the peo
and by his industry, energy and abi
having passed through almost e\
j ?rado of office, from the lowest to
I highest, may justly he styled a r?
;"V; !; 1 *. " ' ; VJ.-'"'. ?, 'Ci':
sentative nian-will cast Ins immense
power and influence into the scale of
equal rights and popular government,
and will leave the States,. when re?
organized, the undisturbed manage?
ment of their internal affairs, including
the questions of suffrage, police, regu?
lation of labor, etc. I therefore re?
commend the people of Georgia to
r give his administration a generous
I also recommend every citizen who
is allowed to do so and who expects to
j remain in the country, to take the
? oath and qualify himself to vote and
I to participate in the future Gov?
1 eminent of the State. Suppose tho
I mass of our best citizens refuse to take
the oath and qualify themselves as
voters under the modes prescribed by
the President, what will be the result?
The few who do qualify, whatever
may be their character, will elect
delegates of their own number to
represent their respective counties in
tho Convention which is to shape the
Constitution of the State for the
future government of ail. I think all
should take the oath and observe it in
good faith, and do all they can to
elect their wisest and best men ns
representatives, that all the different
interests of the State ma}' be peotect
ed as far as possible and her honor
and credit maintained against unwise
and unjust legislation. Many con?
scientious men object to taking the
oath because they believe the procla?
mations and acts ot' Congress during
the war on the subject of slavery are
unconstitutional, and t hey are not wil?
ling to swear to abide by and support
It must be rememberei that thc
late proclamation of President John?
son tenders pardon to all who are nol
excepted, if they take the oath. Th(
pardon then is conditional, and wbih
the President does not ftiterfero wit!
any one's opinions on tho constitution
al question, he requires as a conditior
to thc extension of clemency that h<
who receives the pardon and is allow
cd to retain the balance of his pro
petty, shall give up his slaves. Th
proclamation of President Lincoh
declared tho slaves to bo free. T<
abide by and support it is simply t<
treat them as free. Every intelligen
man in Georgia who has taken th'
pains to investigate the question mus
see that is now at an end. Tho oatl
simply requires that each so treat il
The other portion of the oath is nc
objectionable. Every man should b>
willing to support tho Constitution t
a Governmeut if. he intends to liv
under it, and to act the part of a goo
citizeu. If he does not he should see
a home and protection elsewhere.
I will only add in-conclusion, that
shall carry with mo into my retire
mont a lively appreciation of th
generous confidence which you Lav
so long reposed in me, and my cor
stant prayer to God will be for yoi
prosperity and happiness.
I am, very respectfully, your feilov
citizen and obedient servant.
JOSEPH E. BROWN.
Millcdgeville, June 29, 1865.
EDINBURG STUDENTS.-A strang?
on first coming to Edinburg mu
necessarily be much surprised at tl
very motley aspect ot the crow
which issues from tho college gab
when the bell tolls the hourly sign
for tho dismissal and gathering of tl
classes. Boyhood, adolesence, mai
hood, and even age, are there repr
sented. Two generations are mingh
together, for they may he count?
from 14 to 40. First, perhaps,
group of juniors, full of animal spiri
aud fun, charges clown the steps. Tin
comes a kuot ol' grave young me
evidently destined lor thc ministry,
whom education is a serious matu
for their future livelihood depeu
upon it, and, in the meantime, t
resources of their friends, far away
Angus or Dumfries, have been tax
to give them the advantages of
course at the University. Then stric
forth an unmistakeable nativo of t
North, older than the others, and w
the marks of stem determination
his brow, though somewhat uueot
in appearance. That is a specimen
a class of whom Scotland bas cai
to 1)3 proud, and of whom she is sor
times not even sufficiently proud. 1
the mau whom tho stranraer rem?
. tb'.Te bai ?oceiveJ no meliinmary e
cation which laxity itself coull] Je- j
nominate classical. Born of obscuro
parents in an "exceedingly ternoU-.
parish, and apparently destined to w in
Iiis bread by manual labor, he received
many years ago the common elemen?
tary education of a Scottish peasant,
and from that has passed to a bandi?
craft. But something tells him as he
measures himself with his fellows that
he is intended for a higher cnreer;
and, accordingly, he has worked double
tides, saved, pinched, almost starved,
throughout ono or more summers, in
order that he might be able during tho
Winter season to attend the university
classes. This is no exaggerated pic?
ture; uor are such instances uncommon.
Headquarters United States Forces,
CITY OF COLUMBIA, S. C.,
JULY 14, 1865.
GENERAL ORDERS NO. S.
A LL Permita issued from these head
JTV. quarters, in accordance with General
Orders No. 4, to sell intoxicating liquors
to citizens by the bottle or otherwise, are
hereby revoked, and all saba of such
liquors are strictly prohibited, except upon
certificates ot neceisity from respectable
surgeons or physicians and special permis?
sion froh? these headquarters. This mea?
sure has been rendered necessary by the
constant abuse of the privilege heretofore
granted liquor sellers, many of them hav?
ing repeatedly violated the order forbid?
ding the.sale of liquor to enlisted men of
the United States army, as well as ty ne
groes and citizens of a disreputable cha?
racter. By order of
Lieut. Col. N. HAUGHTON,
25th O. V. V. I-, Command'g Post.
JOHN WALTON, Post Adjutant, july 15 6
Headq'rs United States Forces, I
COLUMBIA. S. C., JULT-14, 1800.
CEN ER AL ORDERS NO. 10.
IV HEUE AS information has been ieee i ved
" at these Headquarters that cattle and
other stock have been turned into-'Sidney
Park without authority from the Belief
Committee of Columbia; also, that the
hydrants about the city have been opened
and left open by unauthorized persons,
whereby large quantities of water have
been wasted: -f
It is, therefore, ordered that hereafter
no person shall be permitted to turn cat?
tle, hogs, horses or stock of any sort into
the pound of Sydney Park, nor to destroy,
remove or pull down any part of the
fencing or enclosure of said Park, without
authority from the Relief Committee or
from these Headquarters. Nor shall any
person or persous, except the Fire Compa?
nies, or persons duly authorized by said
Belief Committee or from these Headquar?
ters, be permitted to open any hydrant
within this city; and any person or per?
sons offending herein, on being reported to
these Headquarters, will be punished with
thc extreme rigors of the law. By order
of . Lieut. Col. N. HAUGHTON,
JonN WALTON, Lieut, and Post Adj'L
July 15_ 6
Headquarters Military District of i
CHARLESTON. S. C.. tULV 6, 1665.
GENERAL ORDERS NO. 69.
ANY officer or soldier having tn his
possession captured or abandoned
property of any description, will, on the
demand" of T. C. CALLICOTT, Esq., Sup.
Sp'l Agent U. S. Treasury Department, de
Yivos the same to him.
Means of Transportation held fcy the
Quartermaster's Department, the neces?
sary Docks, Storehouses and Offices, with
the Furniture pertaining to the same, will
be retained by the Military Executive
Departments. By command of
Brevet Maj. Gen. JOHN P. HATCH.
LEONARD B. PERRY, Ass't Adj*t Gen.
July 14 6
Headq'rs Northern District Depart?
ment of the South,
COLUMBIA. S. C., JUNE 27, 1865.
GENERAL ORDERS NO. -.
ON and after the date of this order, all
telegraph, lines in trHs District are
placed under the control of the military
Any telegraph operator failing to give
precedence to military over civil de?
spatches, both in receiving and transmit?
ting the same, will be considered guilty of I
military misdenie-inor, and punished by |
sentence of a militaay court, or at the
discretion of the nearest military com?
mander. By command of
Brevet Maj. Gen. J. P. HATCH.
(Signed,) LEONARD B. PERRY.
June 28 15 Ass't Adjutant General.
THE TERMS OF PARDON. '
Proclamation by the President of the
United States of America.
Whereas the President of the United
States, on the Sth day of December. A. D.
1863, and on the 26th day of March, A. D.
1864, with the object to" suppress the ex?
isting rebellion, to induce all persons to
return to their loyalty and^o restore the
authority of the United State?, issue pro?
clamations offering amnesty and pardon to
certain persons who had, directly or by
implication, participated in the said rebel?
lion; and whereas many persons, who had
n;;m"m?"iw?*****"*' tmm^mkmm <
so engaged ii? said relic] J inn, have, since'
the issuance of suivi proclamation, failed,
or negive ted to take tdie benefit? offered
thereby; whereas many persons, W!JO
.have l?een justly deprived of ul! claim Ur"
umn?sly atid purdon thereunder by reason
of their participation, directly or bv im?
plication, in said rebellion and continued
hostility to the Government of the Uniud
States since the date of said proclamation,
now desire to apply for and obtain ani?es
ty and pardon:
? T ?? the end, therefore trial tb? authority
of the Government of the United States
maj- be restored, and that pence, order and
freedom may be established, I, Andrew
Johnson, President ol the United Statej,
do proclaim and declaie that. 1 hereby
";rant to all persons who have directly or
1 indirectly participated in the existing
rebellion, except ns hereinafter excepted,
amnesty and pardon, with restoration of
all rights of property, except as to slaves,
and except in eases where legal proceed?
ings, under the laws of the United Slates
providing for the confiscation of property
of persons engaged in rebellion, have been
instituted, but on the condition, ueverlhe
! leffl, that every such person shall take and
subscribe the following oath or affirma?
tion, and thencefoiward keep and main?
tain said oath inviolai?-, and which oath
shall be registered for permanent preser?
vation, and Khali be of tho tenor and effect
following, to wit:
I,-, do solemnly swear or
affirm, in presence of Almighty God,?that
I will henceforth faithfully support and
defend the Constitution of - the United
States and the Union of the States there?
under, and that I will in like manner
abide by and faithfully support all laws
and proclamations which have been made
during the existing rebellion with refer?
ence to the emancipation of slaves. So
help nie liod. 1
The following class cf persons'* are f-x
empted from thc; benefits of this procla?
1st. All who are, or shall have been,
pretended civil or diplomatic officers, or
otherwise, domestic or foreign agents ot
the pretended Confed?rate Government".
2d. All who left judicial ?talions nuder
the United States to aid in the rebellion.
3d. All who shall have bee? military ut
naval officers of said pretended Confede
rate Government above the rank of colonel
in ?he ann}- or lieutenant in the navy.
4th. All who left seats in thc Concreta
of the United Slates to aid the rebellion.
5th. All who resigned or tendered resig?
nations of their commissions in the army .
or navy of the United States to evade dury
.in resisting the rebellion.
6th. All who have engaged in any way
in treating otherwise than lawfully as jin
poners nf war persons found in the United
Slates service, as officers, soldiers, seamen
or in other capacities.
7th. All persons who have been or are
absentees from the United States for t he
purpose of aiding the rebellion.
bili. All military and nnv.il officers in
the rebel service who were educated by
the Government in the Military Academy
at West Point or the United States Naval
9th. All persons who held the pretend? d
offices of Governor of States in insurrec?
tion against the United Startes.
10th. All persons who Jell their homes
within the jurisdiction and protection of
the United States, and passed be3-ond th*
Federal military lines into the so-called
Confederate States for the purpose of aid?
ing the rebellion.
11th. All persons who have leen-en?
gaged in the destruction of the commerce
of the United States Upon the high seas,
and who have made raids into the United
States from Canada, or, been eng?ced in
destroying th? com ni er ce of the United
States upon the lakes and rivers that, sepa?
rate the British provinces lrorn the United
12th. All persons who, at the timo when
the)- seek to obtain the benefits hereof by
taking tho oath' herein prescribed, are in
military, naval or civil confinement or
custody, or under bonds of the civil, mili?
tar}' or naval authorities ot agents of the
United States, as prisoners of war or per?
sons detained for offences of anjr kind,
either before or alter conviction.
13th. All persons who have voluntarily
participated in said rebellion, and the esti?
mated value of whose taxable property is
over twenty thousand dollars.
14th. All persons who have taken tko
oath of amnesty a* prescr-bed in the Pre?
sident's proclamation of December 8, A.
1). lSl??, or an oath of alegiance -to the
Government of the UnitedlStatessince the
date of said proclamation, and who have
not thenceforward kept a nd maintained
the same inviolate.
Provided, that special application may
be made to the President for psrdon by
any perron belonging to the ?xceptedi
classes, and such clemency will bo libe
rall}* extended as may be consistent with
the facts of the ca6e and the peace and
dignity of the United States.
The Secretary of State will establish
rules and regulations for administering and
recording the said amnesty oath, so as to
insure its benefit to the people and guard
the Government against fraud.
In testimony whereof, I havo hereunto seL
my hand and caused the seal of the
United States to be affixed.
Done at the city of Washington, the 29th
day of May, in the year of our Lord
1SC5, and of the independence of tia
United States the eighty-ninth.
By the President:
WM. H. SEWAKO, Secretary of State