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The daily phoenix. (Columbia, S.C.) 1865-1878, August 01, 1865, Image 2

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Tuesday Horning, August 1, 1865.
Agricultural and Popular Educa?
It is now twenty years since the
editor of this paper submitted to the
State Agricultural Convention the
outline of a scheme of popular educa?
tion, as a substitute for the miserable
one in practice at the time, Milich re?
sulted equally in the waste of mind
and money. Events have served to
Aconfirm the writer in the convictions
that he then entertained. In fact,
> events now render the scheme which
he then submitted more than ever the
necessity not only of South Carolina,
but of all the Stal.es of thc South. In
that day, tl^jpL\grieultural Society it
. self was a subject of ridicule, as, in?
deed, were all societies and schemes
which contemphfted the overthrow of
a dull routine in the growth of now
ideas. The time seems to'have come
when dullness will no.longer dare to
cover itself with the mantle of conser?
vatism. We must try and sow some
fresh ideas now, if ever, and we re?
produce the preamble and resolutions
then .submitted and to hp found in the
proceedings of the State Agricultural ?
Convention. We may hereafter fol- !
low these resolutions witlra few illus?
trative considerations, and yet, per
haps, they will suffice to g;o abroad as 1
they an-. Our present experience of
evil will, perhaps, sufficiently show to j
our planters, here and everywhere, the :
many great benefits which must result ?
from the employment of such a sys- I
tem, carried <nit faithfully by teachers !
jind overseers. We commend them to
the consideration of future l?gislation,
with a prayer to the goddess Themes
that she sends us hereafter a superior
order of ' representation from her
coutts ami chambers:
Whereas1, in consequence of the
scattered condition of our settlements
throughout the country, the present
plan of our poor school education is
found inoperative in most insbuices, '
and partial and imsatisfactofy in all
those towns and cities alone excepted
where the number of pupil? is suffi?
ciently great to justify the employ?
ment of competent teachers:
Be it recommended to the General
Assembly .of the State, now in session,
that a tract of land not to contain less
thou 1,500 nor more than 5,000 acres,
centrally chosen, or vas nearly so as?
practicable, be procured in each of the
districts, with which the poor estab?
lishment of such district shall thence?
forward be endowed ; that on thc said
tract of land suitable buildings shall
bc erected for the reception and ac?
commodation of such a number of
poor boys as, according to the census
of the distinct, it shall'bc likely to con- I
taini that provision be made of all tho ?
usuahand necessary utensils for farm
culture as practised in said district; i
that it be moderately stocked witlj I
horses, cattle, sheep and all such other I
animals as are found useful in such an j
establishment; that, when this is done,
a teacher of known intelligence and
.- integrity be procured, who shall re?
ceive an adequate salary for the tuition
of all pupils who may be placed under
his care by the commissioners of tile
said district; and that, for certain
peifeds in the day, and in certain I
classes and divisions, to be hereafter
. determined by the commissioners, lie
shall have entire control of their
studies and their time; that at all other
periods the said pupils shall be placed
under +he control of a competent in?
tendant or.manager, who shall direct
their labors and industry while pre?
paring them as farmers and ''(Linters
( for the proper performance of such
, duties in after life us may seem best to
correspond with their condition und
necessities; and that the commission
ers of euch district bc empowered to
receive us indented apprentices to the
poor school of said district, on behalf
ol' the State, all such boys the parents
of whom may bo desirous of securing
for them the advantages of such tui?
tion, and all such orpha ns as, governed
. by a praiseworthy ambition, may be
willing to avail themselves of the same
-the term of apprenticeship in no
ease to be less than three nor more
than sev-m years-unless in the case
of such youth who may be already
greatly advanced towards the years
and purposes of manhood, and who,
. at the discretion of the commissioners,
may be received for a still shorter pe?
lie it recommended yet farther,
. *. . " ' '"ii
? "' . * * . .}>*. "..'? . ?i,
that, on thc tome plantation or tract
,,of land, ?but removed from close
; pro?mity to thc dwellings' and the
school house of the boys, there be
erected suitable houses for the re?
ception and accommodation of poor
girls, who- shall be placed under
the tuition of one or more female
superintendents, from whom they sholl
learn the ordinary elements of a plain
English education, and in addition
such duties pf a farm and household
as ordinarily devolve upon females in
our country; tliat they shall spin,
weave and sew, attend to poultry and
the dairy, the culture of the silk
worm, if "it be deemed advisable, and
be taught also to fashion and make
their own and the habits of the boys
-the latter, in turn, performing all
those severer labors of th? plantation
as will yield sufficient food and provi?
sion for both establishn mts.
Be it farther recommended, that, in.
addition to the studies <>f the ordinary
English grammar school, th?> master
j of ??ie male ?department shall 1?' re
j quired to instruct. Iiis pupils in a
i competent knowledge of .simple land
i surveying.
I It is recommended also that the
dress of, the boys br mal" uniform,
and that tin- cider boys, ranging from
j thc years of fifteen years to eighteen,
be provided with light muskets, and
I be subjected to the drill and instruc?
tion, once a month, of the neighbor?
hood captain of militia.
llvsnlrctl. That .these recommenda?
tions be respect fully submitted to the
General Assembly, with the prayer of
this Convention, tli^i they lu- subject?
ed to examination and experkuent iii
three of tho ilistricfc of the Stal . ii!
order that'their operation may be wit -
nessed previous to their general adop?
tion.tvs a system for all the districts.
That, in order that the experiment
should be fairly mad?:, thc districts
chosen should lie onciu each of tlc
grand divisions of the State, the
tipper^ the middle and the lower
country; and that the present com?
missioners ol' the districts chosen be
requested to take charge of the entire
Nick-Ncuc is a wretched fun-periodi?
cal of New York; full ot dreadful ef?
forts at mirth, diabolical attempts at
wit, and all sorts of rare atrocities,
which are the very mock of humoi
and the sublime of stupidity. Let uc
such stu tl* find a market in the South
at least, especially as the brutalities ol
the jests are not only as bad as thc
stupidity, but very frequently at oui
The United States Government ii
undoubtedly concentrating troops ii
large numbers on and along the Ric
Grande, no doubt with regard to theil
future use in Mexican affairs. Th?
North now insists mqre strongly thai
ever on the Monroe doctrine.
Three colored soldiers (one belong
ing to the Home Guard) have beei
arrested in Charleston, for the robber
of a paralytic gentleman in his bed
Crime is on the increase in the ol
Queen City.
"THJ: LATEST."-Thc corresponden
of the New York Time* writes fron
that great place of fashion, Saratoga
Th.0 male portion of the communit;
will rejoice to know that waterfall
are nea rh out, of date; those worn a
jill are thrown up higher on the head
with a fall of curls--a decided-im
provement. But the last Paris ?ushioi
--the Grecian Sj?ylc -(throe hands eon
lining the hair) ts now all the rage.
Trr.? Sri TUT OF STICSIU:. En reply I
the radicals, the New ?Vorl.: JOIIV.HU' t.
Cominera: says; It is gone?jdly su|
posed hereabouts that thc people i
the. South are exhibiting a wry cou
?m udable spirit, ant1 behaving ...
markably well under all the eircnu
stances. But iL is sadly probable th?
we have politicians who design au
desire to keop the country ifi trouhl
and to make dissension the norms
and unchangeable condition of thing:
Cn time? of peace and ealni. dem:
gogues sink out of sight, more easil
than in times of excitement. Hem
their desire to keep the war'alive.
TUE MARKETS.-The Herald, of tl
22d, quotes gold, in New York, t
M2%, aud steady. The cotton mark?
dull and heavy,' at 35 to 51 cents.
Cotton, in the Charlotte, N. C
market, as we learn by tho Democrc
commands 33 cents per pound, cu
The Winnsboro News quotes cottc
at 18 cents in coin and 2(5 cents i
greeubaoks per pound, with an n;
ward tendency.
To the President and Directors of the
Greenville and Columbia Railroad
GONT^KMKN : It is generally stated
that yon intend to abandon the line of
road from Alston to this place, and to
build on the other side of the river.
In connection with this, let me call
your attention to a brief statement of
facts. The city of Columbia and many
of the citizens subscribed largely to
the stock of your road, considering it
as indispensable to the prosperity of
the city that rapid conveyance be had
with the chief cereal region of the
State, and an outlet for their cotton,
bacon, ?vc., forming so large a portion
of the yield of the interior plantations.
While Lu operation, these conditions
were realized-the abundance of pro
visions and rapid .increase of Colum?
bia in every material respect'attested
to how groat an extent. In i'act, .
beneiitted us inure than the others
combined, as theirs was a through bu?
siness and yours c Mitered here. The j
loss <>;' ymir iv ul by freshet, in Janna
ry last] V is been'felt by all cbssos. j
nu av-especially in ?ir- great dearth of '
provisions. A few of thc prices paid i
herc', contrasted with tlui.se of the rp
couhtry, v.ili furnish Hie best com
mont. At this point, llonv is-iiiy per
barrel, lard . >.""> cents per nouud. bacon
'JO cents per pofvnd, corn ii 1.50 to if2
per bushel, tu thc up-country, {lour.,
is per barrel, bird 15 and bacon :
respectively per pound, and coin
75 cents per bushell. In abandoning
your original Hue from Alston hither, j
you will keep us from the gr< ?:t bene
iits ilorivable from your road fornearly
two yen rs. A.s no one can doubt the
scarcity ol* montry will greatly cripple '.
you in making advantageous con
tracts, ?md your assets, like those di'
all other Southern railroads, are j
strictly passive. Now, what is the
actuir? status ol' the old line? 6}? miles
are in good order hence to Frost's
?.Iills; 2 mil?s are in good order the
other sid? of Frost's trestle; 3 miles .
ai? in good orden above Littleton; 2%
miles are in good order below Little?
ton; 14 miles in running order out of
25 miles, leaving only ll miles to be
repaired, and this can be done fully in
ninety days, as it is well known the
General Government is very anxious
for" the road to be put in running ope?
ration as early as practicable, and will ,
render every assistance possible in re?
building, &c. A bridge is not neces- |
gary over Little River-the span being |
but 60 or 70 feet, and a trestle will
answer every purpose; Crane Creek I
Bridge is in good order; Frost's "big"
trestle was nearly completed in Febru?
ary, and the necessary timbers are still
there with which to complete Fsost's
upper trestle; most, ft not all, the tim?
bers are near and re ady for erection;
Booktcr's rtesfle, nearly all benches
prepared for raising; of the large tres?
tle, near Alston, the most important
portions of tho wood-worlc arc on the
spot, and the beni iron can bc <t raigh? -
cn d. Thc piers of the Broad Uiver
Bridge are intact., and tin-wood work
is the only expense that will bc in
curred, as the iron of the old bridge
can bc recov -red. But In ignoring
this bridge for the present, yoii
can forward? pnsseng rs and fricght
through in sixty days, i. e.. by ..lint
ting" tho river. u< v.as v .
done in '52. The grand washes in
Cedar ('rc: ': bottom can bc fro .tied
without filling; indeed, it would be
advisible tole,v.- them op?*n. to tur* |
nish free pas agc to sidise.rueut j
miles of goo.! iron for your trestles. ;
which voil can ' from the upper < ??d j
of the live by substituting inferior
nils on your tarn-.? nts. Von have .
meet the demands of the presen, bu?
siness. Cotton, pro vi; ions, lime and
wood-all great b needed would rush
down, and m nicy, so imperatively
dcm..mlcd. frc ly circulating, ami in
?liui ly days oar people would com- ;
menee to breathe again. ?Ho mitch for j
the "one. now for tee other side. |
It is necessary ro build 2S miles ol' j
new road, at si cost Ol' $050,01)0 t<i
$"?750,000. You will have to bani and"
boat the iron over the river; when on
the other side, it will have to be*
hauled again, say five miles. Your
present iron is old and not worth all
tha expense of transportation. You
will have to pull down and haul the
material of the Broad Uiver Bridge
piers to the new location, and wagon
transportation, besides being slow and
uncertain,is most expensiv z. You can?
not reach this point UDder eighteen to
twenty-four months, had you full fa?
cilities. ' '
The South Carolina Railroad will be
finished by 1st October. The Char?
lotte Railroad by 1st November. Your
road will still be unfinished, ii you
attempt to carry out your project. By
rebuilding your old line, yon form
immediate through connections, so
earnestly desired by the General Go?
vernment; and, since Governor Perry
is a prominent director of the road,
the impulse given cannot "be over?
estimated. Once here, and you still
wish to build on the other side-the
new survey-you can commence at
Smith's Branch and work up. You
will tijou have vour own motive and
car power to do" your hauling; vour
own employees and works to build the
bridge. Are. The earnings in the
meantime can be applied to the fur?
thering of the now route, and. in the
course of three or four yeara, sooner,
if needed, you can be in full operation.
The old iron will be available to pay,
in part, for ile1 new, or you may be
able to sell y mr old line to the Spar?
ta nburg road. Abandon your present
line, and you force that important
feeder of your rend to se :k som? other
connection; for tho President of the
Charlotte Railroad Company is very
energetic, and will, no doubt, offer the
Spartanburg Railroad Company great
inducements to connect with his road.
Again, ?ts. regards the planters, many
of-whom purchased lands contiguous
to the portion of your road, about to
be abandon? d. Would you be neting
in goo.1, faith t >\vards them? Have
they not already suffered sufficient
los<cs, but that thev must have what
is left swept away"? Recollect, that
a charteret a railroad company is not !
given to it. that it may become a 1
source of oppression to the public, 1
ando!' pecuniary benefit to its.stock-1
holders, bat.t > fester every source of
production, through speedy convey-,
mice, and Jissist in building up a
pMopio in UT thal render* it groat and '
respectable, ?iud that assistance isuow
demanded of you by the suffering
citizens of Columbia.
nosoKAiiY SUICIDE.-Recently (say
some of the Pat-is papers) the Empe?
ror of Japan had reason to be highly
dissatisfied with one of his officers,
and sent him the "renowned" salwe.
It is a sort of honorary sword, very
beautifully carved and finished. As
this officer held high rank and had
hitherto given his prince every reason
to be satisfied, the latter sent him, in
order to alleviate tthe effect of the
message as far as possible, one of his
own swords set with diamonds, and
selected his prime minister as bearer.
The officer received the present, and
was well aware what it signified. After
reverently regarding the instrument of
his punishment, he quietly left his
house, went tootha port, got on board
of a French ship bound for Havre,
and safely reached Paris, where he
sold the sabre for 150.000f.
The New Orleans Tm? ?Ml<t says it !
has been positively ascertained what j
was the fate ol? the specie sent away j
by tho New Orleans banks ar the time
fla' city was (raptured hythe Union j
forces. Immediately upon the sur?
render of the Confederate armies, a
commission v. :. < sent by the banks
into tho ConLV..! ;:--y to look sifter ami,
if pos ?hi?, to .secure this money. I
Telegraphic advievs have been re- I
reived from tin :u whi.1i do not leave i
room to doubt that tho money was I
used by therein?] anfli antics prior and
at the tin.n? of il ie j rand collapse. -It
has also biV'i pretty clearly ascer?
tained; thal largo sums of this money
were appropriai-. i bv . ?rae high Cou?
ped rale dignitaries for their own per
sima! fe'V. ill. There were about
-; !.r><>!UUi - cf this .-pecio in all, ?iudits
loss will prove a serions blow to the
On thc sib in California, tjie
notorious Billy Mulligan, who was
I?\T ?atrial d by tin? Vigilance Commit*
t? e of San LVancisco in Lcvio. shot anil
killed two men ?virile in a tit of deli?
rium tremens ?nd was'about to fire
(gain, wheu a policeman shot him
i--.nl. ?ie had defied sill previous
.floris to arrest him.
incendiary fires continue to prevail
n Russia. In spite of all the efforts
?f the"(Government lo prevent them,
md to arrest suspected persons, whole
villages, ?iud even towns, continue th
a- burnt down. The destruction is
supposed to be the work of the Polos.
The United States Pacific Railroad
3as placed under contract 1,200 miles
~>i the new Uno of telegraph to bi!
milt .before the end of July. Tho
?vhole line from Chioago to San Fran?
cisco will bc completed in one year.
A line of steamers has commenced
unning between Charleston and Phil
tdelphii-.. A. Getty & Co. urs the
Charleston agents.
t&sgggsggSjjSSSSSSSSSSBi t? 1 BBSS
IiOcaL Items.
Th* College Chapel, at thc head of Sum?
ter stroot, ia being renovated and repaired
for tho meeting of the Convention, on tho
13th prox.
Mr. T. S. Nickerson has engaged the
Methodist Female College building and will
open it as a hotel in a few weeks.
Fi:nt Fxurr.-Mr. George Shields sent us
another "pleasing romembraucc," yester?
day morning, in the shap" of a oankrl of
beautiful peachos and nectarines. May his
shadow never grow less, and his supplv of
the Juice of the former and "bee manufac?
ture" Always be large, is our earnest wish.
CoT.ORrn TROOPS.-.Several companies of
colored troops passed through rthis city
yesterday, on their way, as we. arc informed,
to garrison the interior towns. A corres?
pondent of tho Ne-.v W-rk Herald asserts,
with which wc entirely agree, that thc
policy of placing ncrjro troops to garrison
Southern cities is a very "questionable one.
These troops, many of thorn but recently
sliivof, look upon all thc people of the Sou; ii
as th#ir enemies, and in their new position
are disposed to lord it over them as much
as possible, which, ot course, is extremely
distasteful rind annoying, 'ibo result is,
constant difficulties ure, occurring, which
tend to provoke bad feeling between the
two classes at a time when it is essential tn
cultivate the most friendly relations. .V
removal of the colored troops wcfuld havo
an extremely beneficial effect.
Coin and Paper Money.
It is rather a curious fact that tin*
only coin now in current use on this
Continent which is not round, is the
fifty dollar gold pice1 struco from
California, which is octagonal inform.
All thc coins in .Europe are round. In
Japan they have oblong wedges of
stiver. It is curious, too, that for
many years rlfoncy has been made out
of paper, when leather or cloth would
se un to bc moiv durable. Yet paper,
w iou representing coin, lasts a great
while; and not unirctptcntly the Bank
of England received anots of extra?
ordinary age. and the Bank,of Bengal
in India, recently was called to pay
several thousand pounds of notes so
old that none of the present genera?
tion remembered the pattern.
It is also worthy of remark that
gems or precious stones have never
been used for money, nor has platinum
or any other metal taken the place of
gold. In Africa a species 01 shell
forms the circulating medium, the
value of which fluctuates sometimes
twenty per cent, a week. But all
civilized countries ? have gold as the
standard of money value, and all other
circulating media are but representa?
tives of the great standard. Only tho
Hindoo has never learned to test coin
by the hand.
Of all gold coin, that of England
is perhtrps the most beautiful. A new,
fresh gold sovereign #is probably as
graceful and attractive a coin as exists.
Next to it, thc American eagle is the
most elegant' gold coin. The twenty
frank pieces of the present kingdom
of Itt dy are also very neat.
Possibly the smallest gold coin in
use is the French five franc piece;
ilthough a few.half dollar gold pieces
have been struck ol?" in California.
\t present there are current in France,
n every day traffic, coins bearing the
tobie face of tiie first Napoleon, both
is Consul and Emperor; the heavy
.minds of diaries X and Louis XVIII;
he shrewd countenance of Louis
?hillipe, and the similar features of
he* prisent Emperor. In some cases,
Napoleon Jil i*? represented with,
md in others without, a burrel wreath.
Thc most beautiful silver coinage is
hat of Russia, each piece being in it
elf a work of art, sr? finelv and elabo
atelyis the die cut, 0I1 the other
mud. the ugliest silver coinage is that
>f the free city of Hamburgh. Each
liece, adulterated and poorly cut. is
isualiy found encrusted with dirt and
ilth, and looking like a refuse frag
ucnt of tin. The silver coinage of
rormany is also very bad.
[11 Italy, except the portion subject
o the Pope and the Emperor of Aus
ria. the franc piece istakingthe place
ii' former coins: though local coin
go of tho former Duchies, of Parma
nd Modena still infests those portions
if the country. Naples also retain!'.,
11 retail traffic, the complicated coins
u itS? under the Bourbon rule.
Perhaps the neatest paper money in
tse is that of Greece, which is mann?
tet ur. d by Ann-rica 11 engravers and
,-orkmen. The old bank currency of
his country is very often elegant,
'he worst and most wretched paper
louey in the world is thc five kreuzer
otc of Austria, printedwon a soft,
iiick, grayish paper, Avmeh has tho
lenity of washing and rubbingaway
kc ordinary blotting paper.
More tlmn eighty vessels of burden
re'now up at the North for sailing or
earning to Southern ports. Lines of
earners are freighted, or in progress,
>r Charleston, from the several ports
f New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore
ad Boston.

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