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DAILY PAPER $10 A YBAI. "LET OUR JUST CE2VS6rRE ATTEND THE TRUE EFJVET." TI-W4tKLY $7 A IEAR.
BY T. A. SELBY. COLUMBIA, S. C., MONDAY XORNING, SEPTEMBR 4, 1865. VOL. I.&-NO. 1
DAILY AND TRIWEEKLY.
y ASD THE
"BY JULIAN A. SELBY.
TERMS-IN AD VANCE.
Daily Paper, six months.$5 00
Tri-Weekly, " " ..3 50
Weekly, " " .2 00
. Bingle cvpies of the Daily and Tri-Weekly,
10 cents; of'the Weekly, 15 cents.
In sor tod in either the Daily orTri-Weeklv at
$1 per square for the first insertion, and 75
.cents for each subsequent insertion. In the
Weekly, $1 a square.
JWSpceial notices 15 cents a line.
To the PeopU or Fairfield District.
In the interview between the Pnpsi
.dent of the United. States and the
committee of tht* citizens of Charles?
ton, it was stated by the. President
that bef ore the State could be restored
to her political rights, it was neces?
sary that the j?eoplo of South Caro?
lina should amend their Constitution
-so as to provide for the abolition of
slavery. I consider that, situated as
wc are, this announcement renders it
imperative on the Convention to abo?
lish slavery. In going into the Con?
vention, I should make up my mind
to this measure.
It is scarcely necessary for me to
say to you, that in coming to this
conclusion, I yield only to what I con?
sider au overruling necessity, and in
no degree to what my ideas of social
and political policy would "prompt
under ordinary eircumsfcmcos. As
there is, so far as I am informed, a
universal concurrence of public opi?
nion on this point, I think it unneces?
sary to say anything farther.npon it.
Another subject on which it will be
necessary for the?Convention to act, is
the basis of representation in the State
. .Legislature. I think it will be neces?
sary to make some important modifi?
cation of the existing system. As the
Constitution now stands, each parish
in the low country is entitled to dne
?Senator in our State Senate. The
abolition of slavery, involving such
. an immense loss of property in the
* low country, has disarranged this sys?
tem, and destroyed the motive for
allowing it. Under the peculiar cir?
cumstances in which they are now
placed, I believe our fellow-citizens of
the parishes, with that intelligence
and patriotism for which .they tire dis?
tinguished, will cheerfully acquiesce
in tlie necessity which puts an end*to
what js special and peculiar in their
right of representation, and they
" 'themselves will desire to see.the power
of the State deposited in that section
.where it will be safest, which is where
.their own race is in the greatest a^ccn
In reference to the office of Gover?
nor, I4hink more important functions
should be assigned to this oilieer than
those he now possesses^ As the Con?
stitution now stands, the oiiiy impor?
tant power which the Governor pos?
sesses is the pardoning power. He
ought, I think, to have the power, by
and with the advice of the Senate, to
appoint many of tho officers now
elected by the Legislature, and the
veto power at least in a -qualified form.
The Legislature should be confined
to its appropriate functions-pas-sing
laws and resolutions. Where elections
to office are made by a legislative
body, it is apt to give rise to combi?
nations and manouvres by which th?
integrity of the legislative body is
affected, and its efficiency impaired.
The great and wise mon who framec
thc Constitution of the United States
' with the experience of history befon
them, guarded against . this abuse bj
-conferring the power of appointmen
to office on the President, with th?
advice of the Senate.
The practice of many years lias de
monstrated this to be a provisioi
founded in the most eminent wisdom
I would apply thc* same principle b
the Governor, and I have no de-ubt i
would be attended with like advan
tages. In regard to the Govern o
having at least a qualified veto, th
advantages sue so manifest t*u;t j
seems only necessary to state the pro?
position to obtain the consent of every
intelligent mind. The vet* power
enables the Executive to. protect his
dqpartment*against the encroachment
of^the legislative power, thus tending
to preserve the independence of the
separate departments of the Govern?
ment. " The veto power further
operates as a check on hasty or incon?
siderate legislation. Those who are
familiar with* legislative bodies know
that much of their legislation is crude
and ill-consid?red. It is clearly the
interest of the people to have a power
in reserve to carefully review and de?
liberate upon the action of their legis?
lative bodies. If the Governor be as
he should be, a man of superior
talents, his greater ability to the mass
of the Legislature will enable him,
with a higher degree of political wis?
dom, to pass upon the acts of the
Legislature; and his responsibility as
the one-man-power will induce him to
interfere on behalf of the people at
large against what he may consider
improper legislation, The veto power
is one which can rarefy- do harm, and
which may frequently do good, be?
cause two-thirds of the Legislature
can pass the vetoed measures over the
Governor's head. I think, therefore,
this change should be made in tho
Constitution. One great advantage
of giving the additional powers I have,
mentioned to the Governor, is, that
the office will become more an object
of ambition, and tho firsfinun in tho
State will seek it.
Having added to the powers of the
Governor, I would add to those i?f tho
"Cieutenant-Governor. ' As matters
now stand, the Lieutenant-Govern or is
a perfect blank, unless the'office of
Governor becomes vacant. I think a
beneficial change in this respect would
be to make the Lieutenant-Governor
President of the Senate. This would
make the position ono of considerable
importance, and secure a higher grade
of men to fill the office of Go vernor
in case of a vacancy occurring. ?
I" would also change the mode of
electing the Governor and Lieutenant
Governor. Instead of being elected
by the Legislature, I would give the
electionSto the people. The advan?
tages ol this, I think, are very great.
Every well organized government
should have- its great departments
the executive, legislative and, judi?
cial-independent of each other. ?This
principle is seriously violated in giv?
ing the election of Governor to the
Legislature. The Governor elected
by the Legislature is apt only to be
their echo. To insure his independ?
ence of the. Legislature, the only ef?
fectual way is to give the election to
tlte people. Another ad van tige of
giving the eleetion of Governor to the
people is, that men of superior ability
are more apt to be chosen.
Before a small body of mon like the
Legislature, wealth, or family influ?
ence, or management, may produce
an Selection without any particular
merit in the person elected; but these
influences would be of little avail be?
fore the people, who would be apt to
be influenced by a sense of merit or
superior ability, or political reputa?
tion. Besides, I think it elevates and
dignifies the people to make them thc
elector^ of the highest dignitaries oi
Another change which I would make
in the Constitution is this: I wonk"
require all elections before the Legis
lature to be viva voce. The reason foi
this is obvious. Legislators vote in i
i representative capacity, and theil
; constituents have a right to know hov
. they vote. There is no more rcasoi
i for secre8y on thc part of a membc
i of the Legislature, as to his vote fo
United States Senator, or any" otho
I public officer, than for Iiis vote on th
, passage of any bib. His vote 01
i every bill is public-why shouL
7 his vote for public officers be secret
t I see no reason for the distinction
i and I would Am away with it.
I have thus, with as great bro rit;
- as possible, made known such am?ne
i meuts as I think ought to be made i
. our State Constitution, and I luigi
o pause here, but that another subjet
t has been'introduced into the canvas,
i- I refer to the repudiation *of privai
r debts. On this point it is perhaj
e sufficient to say that the? Conventk
t is absolutely without authority, as tl
Constitution bf the United-States ex?
pressly provides as follows: "Art. 1,
Sec. 2. No State shall pass any law
impairing the obligations of con?
This clause absolutely and positive?
ly closes the door on any such legisla?
tion in the Convention. The 6th
Article of the United States Constitu*
tiou also says: *'This Constitution
shall be the supreme law of the land,
and tho Judges in every State shall bo
bound thereby-, anythiug in the Con?
stitution or laws of any State to the
contrary notwithstanding," How,
then, can thc Convention ordain repu?
diation of private debts, or contracts
in any form, when such provisions as
I have just cited m the United States
Constitution stare it so boldly and
unqualifiedly in the face?
Whatever* can'be done; to ameliorate
the condition of debtors will devolve
upon the Legislature/ Perhaps a
practical plan for tho Legislature to
pursue in thia regard would be to bor?
row money on the credit of thc Stato
and loan it on time with ample secu-'
rity to those who, by political vicissi?
tudes, find themselves more in delft
than their present abiSty to pay.
I would heartily approve of any
policy which tho Legislature might
puisutfto aid the debtor class within
the scope of the Constitution and a
wise foresight. . Pass a liberal insolv?
ent debtors law-homestead law--ex?
tend the stay law, or any measure that
would alford relief ip debtor, will
meet with a hearty concurrence on my
I am not without hopes, too, if the
Southern States manifest wisdom and
moderation in the present juncture of
our-affairs, that the United States may
be liruught to reimburse, in part at
least, the owners, for the emancipated
It is a well known fact that Mr.
Lincoln proposed, in the peace con?
ference at Fortress-Monroe, to pay the
South lour hundred millions of ftol
lars for their slaves. I don't despair
but .that some such measure as this
may yet become the law.
* * * * * ' *
W. H. ROBERTSON. .
WrjsNSBOKO, Aug. 23, 1805.
GENERALS LEE AND GRANT AS HISTO?
RIANS.-The following we clip from an
The* two leading generals of the late
war, Lee and Grant, aro now engaged
tn writing up the history of their
respective campaigns. lu both cases
we suppose that the histories' will lie
almost purely military in their charac?
ter. Lee, however, will have some
advantage over Grant, in that his his?
tory will not be made in the form of
an official report, and hence he can in?
dulge in greater discursiveness of
statement and a greater freedom of
style than is customary in official
d( ?cuments. *
Grant is a very* close and accurate
writer, and we may say that Lee in
general has the same characteristics.
The hist of Grant's campaign, of
which thus far he has given us a full
report, was that which was crowned
with the splendid victory at Chatta?
nooga in the latter part of 1863; and
we have always considered that report
as the master piece of military writing
and military philosophy that the war
has produced. The last ftill military
report of General Lee that'we remem?
ber to have seen, is that of the battle
of Gettysburg, fought two years ago.
Lee's report of his'campaign will be
confined entirely to operations in Vir?
ginia, while Grant's ro^i?rt Viii be of
battles fought and won over half a
continent. From Belmont to Vicks?
burg, from Donelson to Chattanooga,
he campaigned in the South-west:
from the Wilderness to Petersburg,
and thence, around to Louisa Court
House, was his battle mareil in Vir?
ginia; while during the last year ol
J the war lie directed, combined and co
^ ordinated the movements of all tin
forces over all tho States of the South
. It.will be interesting to rend the re
i ports pf Grunt and Lee of thc grea
t operations during tho last year pf tin
t war, when the two'.great masters o
. tho art struggled with cadi other ii
i Hon. John BeU is living unmolested
3 j in Nashville.
Lynch l*?w tm the Preaa.
We hope the courts now in session
in Washington and elsewhere "will not
allow themselves to influenced hy?
the current of .public opinion and
feeling which has been excited by the
major portion of the Northern press.
So strenuous have been the efforts of
journalism of late that wo doubt if a
sworn jury of twelve men could *pos
sibly be assembled in all that region.
We take the following just rebuke from
the New York World:
Rebellion is a bad thing, and- bush?
whacking is a worse; buA there aro
worse things yet than ?either bush?
whacking or rebellion, and one of
^?eso worse things is the trial and
condemation .of rebels and bush
.whackers by irresponsible newspaper
There is absolutely nothing to choose
between Lynch law administered by
vigilance committees in Alabama and
Lynch law administered through the
columns of the press in New York. The
journalist who clamors for tho blood
of captured prisoners not yet tried
and denounces them as guilty of tre?
mendous crimes on his own or any
other unjudicial authority, is just as
distinctly a murderer in tho eye of tho
law and of Christianity as any "regu?
lator" who ever ran lip a suspected
"abolitionist" to tho first convenient
tree in Arkansas or Texa?.
Crimes of this sort have been so
common in the press since the rebel?
lion was crushed that whenever tho
most conspicuous rebel prisoners now
awaiting trial at our vhahds shall be
brought into court, American justice
itself will necessarily be put upon trial
Without dwelling upon the news?
paper prosecutions of Jefferson Dans,
and move recently of Capt. Wirtz, tho
telegraph yesterday informed us from
Nashville that the "noted guerrilla,"
Champ Ferguson, now in prison in
that city, had an interview on Thurs?
day List with his counsel, being the
first interview ho has ever had with
him, and that he utterly denied the
most atrocious oj the charges brought
against him. These charges have been
sent broadcast over*- the country for
weeks on weeks; the prisoner who now
grasps at the tardy ?chance of exculpa?
tion held out to lum was long ago tried
upon them at tho bar of public opinion,
fount guilty without hearing, and,
"rhorally speaking," put to death.
Were he to be executed to-morrow
without the semblance of a trial, the.
telegram announcing the fact would
bo accepted without a thrill of interest
or inquiry by the whole community,
so thoroughly has the public mind
been imbued .with the conviction that
lje has committed pretty nearly every
crime, of which it is,possible for a
human being to be guilty.
Yefrdhis man may bc* innocent!
Tujg CHOLERA-ITS FLIGHT WEST?
WARD.-We have dates from Gibralter
to August tS. Cholera appears to be
cropping Westward. Tho towns on
the Eastern coast of Spain, in their
dread of the introduction of the epi?
demic, aro imposing quarantine on
each other. The following .are ex
tracrs from letters? dated Consttrnti
nople, July 27:
Durit^ the cholera, many people
don't come to town any longer; many
villages on the Bosphorous have b<#n
deserted. Our Stock Exchange (Con?
solido Khan) is open for only about
two hours and a half duly. I don't
remember eyer seeing such a gloom,
and well may people fear, after the
' example of ('airo ami Alexandria. At
, tire Galeata Tower, we have two pro?
visional hospitals. Up to the present,
I believe, we are on the increase, and
; although the nuJhber of attacks has
only been COO odd per day, which,
; with a populaban o? more than one
- million, is *aot a very groat number,
f yet, as no ono can tell when, where
- and how it will finish, it is natural",
; that the alfy m should spread. The
greatest member of deaths has been
- 1811 per day, but of course tltis may
t bo doubled, in thc course %f a few
; i hours, or it may bo redjneed as much,
f j One peculiarity is that up to the jire
l j sent momentvAt has, with one or two
I exceptions, bera exclusively confined
to the poorer and indigent classes.
1 It must be admitted, in justice to
the Government, that it has spared
no means to come to, the assistance o
the public. Money, provisions, shel
ter, and every other requisite or ne?
cessary, have been furnished with a
liberality which must call forth th?
praise of evesy honest person. Many- ,
very many-of the inhabitants ara
deserting the place altogether, and
every steamer carries away great num?
bers of the Constantinople people.
The French steamer which left yester?
day was s,o crowded that the agents
were obliged to refuse tickets, although
a very large boat.
JULY 31.-I am sony' to say that
since my last tho cholera has greatly
increased, and I am afraid that during
the last ' two or * Jhree days the cases
must have attained the number of
eight lmndred odd daily, although, for
some reason or other, the local papers
do not give tho number of attacks.
The mortality is about thirty to thirty
five per cent., as neal as I can learn?
.although some days it reaches fif
AND FOR SALE DY
M *j j&& m sw x.v^j
AT HIS RESIDENCE,
Cartier Blanding and Bull Streets,
T^rNE GtfRSETTS, Black SEWING SILK,
?C Ladies' BUCK GAUNTLETTS and
Ladies' Whito KID GLOVES.
Ladies' Mourning and Emb'd H'DK'FS.
SDL VER THIMBLES, SCISSORS.
Kev Rings, Crape Collars^
Cologne, (pure and line.T
Lubin's Extractsv Pomade.
Butterfly Cravats, China?)olls.
Fancv Tuck Combs.
Black Flax Thread, Satinets.
Cassimerc, for suits.
Embroidery Cotton, Silk Gloves.
Silk Tissue, for veils.
Bleached Shirting, LcatAor Belts.
DeBege, for travelling dresses.
Ladies' Merino Vests.
Low-priced Ladies' Hose.
Fancy Vest and Dress Buttons.
Diaper Pins? Agato Buttons. ?
Gent's linen Collars, Thatches.
Blade and Colored s Uk Belting.
Brooms, Black and Green Tea.
Spool Cotton, all numbers.
Boys' Half Hose, Felt Hats.
Ruta Baga Turnip Seed, ?cc. Ang 22 4
RUNS a CARRIAGE or SPRING WAGON
to Orangebnrg, at 2 p. m., Tuesdays,
Thursdays and Saturdays-making connec?
tion with ihe Charleston trains thc following
On arrival of train on Monday, Wednes?
day and Friday, a vehicle starts for Colum?
bia. For passage, apply to J. H. FOWLES
or E. COFFIN, at the store.-of R. M. Stokes,
Plain street. . Sept 2 4*
COLUMBIA, S. C.
THE undersigned, having leased
the LA lt GE and COMMODIOUS,
BUILDING known as tho "Columbia '
Methodist Female College," will open it as a.
FIRST-CLASS HOTEL, on September 7.
T. S. NICKERSON, Proprietor.
UV Papers thronghout tho State inse?t
^twice a week for five weeks, and send bills
to this office. . ' Aug 17
UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA. "
THE next session of this institution
(which was never discontinued during
the war) will commence, as usual, October
1, 1865, and end July 4, 1806.
The institution is organized into eleven
distinct schools, with as many Professors.
Six of the schools are Academies, (besides
that of Chemistry, which is also Medical;)
four bel#ng to the Medical and one to tho
The College expenses, for tho fsession of
nine months, will be from $320 to $350, ex?
clusive of text IxKiks, of which sum about
$215 will bo required upon admission, and
the rest between that time and the 1st of
April. For farther information, applv to
S" MAUITN, Chairman Faculty. .
Post Office-"University of Virginia."
ang 28 t5*
milE subscriber, thankful for past patron
_L age, woidd inform his friends and tho
public that he is still prepared to furnish all
kinds of BRASS CASTING in a workmanlike
manner and with despatch.
July 31 in Gadsden, near Washington bt.