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Thurs??y Morning, Sept. 7,1865.
How We Should Wot?t
Tho people who refuse to recognize
Necessity as a duty, will bo-compelled
to receive Necessity1!? a fate. This is
the law, written ?in .all human expe?
rience, for six thousand* years. To re?
ject the duty is to incur the doom.
Necessity comes to us first as a coun?
sellor, a friend, a monitor, a persuader
aniV beguiler. In these aspects, ste
would guide and succor. Denied tho
exercise of her? gentlor attributes,
scorned and forbidden, she arms her?
self with terrors, and holds over us
the, scourge. The sins of omission,
especially, on the port of the people,
are those which God punisiies through
tho fate, Necessity. The nou-user of
our individual endowments, the re?
fusal to'dtvelop, to full use, tho mate?
rial possessions, privileges and oppor?
tunities, accorded to us, are among the
greatest offences against the law; in?
asmuch as we are set to live in life for
tho two great objects, viz: tho deve?
lopment of all the capacities Of the
soid, mind, and body, in correspon?
dence with each individual endow?
ment, and through these we are re?
quired, in like manner, to develop all
- the capacities of the soul and the sub?
ject races allotted to our keeping.
Upon this development of our owr
nature and natural susceptibilities
depends our own growth to manhood
In the application of our faculties, foi
the improvement of all things accord
ed to our trust, hes tho only guaranty
for our continued possession of them
We have only to apply the potentially
expressed lessons of the Scripture
The miserable wretch who brought ii
no interest upon the talent kmnr(
him, was deprived of it; and it wa
given to him who had shown himsc]
capable of putting it to good interest
The trco that brought forth no fruit
was cut down and cast into the fire
The penal law, embodied in the fate
.the stern necessity scornfully demand
of such-"Why cumbereth it th
.ground?" If we apply these maxims
we shall readily see how and why th
gentle monitor, at first; the persuasiv
force-a friend, a teacher-is mad
finally to put on the aspects of th
inexorable judge, scourge in hanc
gand goading the offender or the reci
Bant with the scourge. We have nov
as a people, to put ourselves rectus i
curia-to find out the work which :
proper to our hands, and proceed t
its execution. Tho rule is easy-fin
out what yotrare good for, and do i
and seek to do nothing else, af a
events, until this one task is finishe<
No prayer, no plea, will avail for safet
-no religious rite or ceremonial
until this law is complied with; an
to him who honestly addresses himse
to the inquiry, who seeks to lean
and prays to know, what are his a]
pointed tasks, there can bo no possib
difficulty in discovering what they ar
The beginning of honest search is, ;
itself, the beginning of discover
Right resolve, in right working, is tl
foundation of all religion which
worth a farthing. As individuals, \
have to institute a close self-examin
tion under this law; so shall we so<
discover whether we shall till the s<
. or cultivate thc soul-whether wo c:
rightfully undertako*the professiot
or, modestly content with being t.
things we really are, we address or
selves, in the obscurer walks of Iii
. to the simple tasks of labor, having
contemplation the proper ends of t.
-the comfortable home, the happy j
mily, the education of our young, a:
the purity and weU-bjsing of our ii
mediate precincts; for upon their we
being and purjty must depend o
own secu^jties. As a people, we ha
a vast, a nobl? and a wondrous wc
before us, in tho development of
the resources of this noble old Sta
What vast varieties of soil and surfi
and situation; what susseptibilit
for production and cultivation* wi
noble forests for range and structure;
what admirable rock and marble f?r
art to uprear into grand edifices of
strength and beauty; what treasures
of metals and minerals close hidden
in the earth; what fruits, what flow?
ers; a genial climate; mild seasons,
and blessing airs. And all depending,
for development, upon ?he degree in
which we sholl prove ourselves indi?
vidually useful. To be useful is the
first 4 great beauty, es it is tho first
duty, of human life.
It is grateful to see that tho people
have not been unmindful of the ser?
vices of those who exposed lifo and
limb for them in the late fierce and
sanguinary struggle. All were in the
war from the beginning to the end,
except Col. Taylor, who, however,
raised two companies, and was only"
driven from the field by failing health.
Gen. Hampton's brilliant career was
illustrated by dangorous wounds, and
Col. Wallace was twice wounded;
while tho gallant McMastcr was se?
verely wounded. It is quite gratify?
ing to know that these military gen?
tlemen will bring to the Convention
ability and intelligcuice adequate tc
the discharge of the very important
duties which will devolve upon them.
Mn. EDITOR: The writer of tho "Ad
dress to the People of Fairfield Dis
tr?et" has touched, in a cursory way
or at the conclusion of tho article, 01
a subject which will probably b<
among the first which the Conventioi
will take up at its approaching session
Tho President having intimated to i
his expectation that its first act will b
to amend the Constitution, so a* t
! provide for the abrogation of slavery
it is to be hoped that this august bod;
j will not b?in any unnecessary hurr
on this subject, but will, before con
plying with this quasi behest, have tb
firmness to demand and stipulate ft
1 some indemnity for the sacrifice whic
] the State is thus called on to make#c
I an institution to which it owes s
I much-which was a source of securit
in peace and of strength in war. "V\
do not mean, Mr. Editor, to open ol
wounds, or vindicate the doomed ii
stitution of slavery, but merely ava
ourselves of your columns to exprei
a hope that the Convention will mal
a proper and a prompt move on th
subject; will also .seek to obtain fro
the Government some provision f<
the maintenance, during the approacl
ing winter, of the host of.paupe
whom it has thrown upon the ham
and the charities of the State. An i
sistance, by the Government, on i
unconditional emancipation of the who
laboring population of tho South, w
be to convert what was intended as
boon to the negroes and a triumph
humanity into a wholoq|fe spoliation
one people by another^f which the
is no parallel in the history of natioi
while the throwing of four minions
slaves out of employment, who a
without property, without trades
professions of any kind, has sudden
created amass of pauperism, vagran
and misery, which, as the delibtrs
act of a civilized Government,
equally Avithout example in the aunt
of the world. An exemption of t
abolitionized States for a term of yes
from Federal taxation, or from t
payment of import duties on the ai
cits most consumed by, or most nee
sary to, our agricultural populatk
or, lastly, the adoption by the Govei
ment of the Con federate debt, as 1
been suggested by yourself, Mr. I
itor, which could bo provided for a
paid off in a very few years, are
measures within the competence
the Government, and which we tn
that the Convention will submit to
attention, and urgently appeal to it
adopt and carry out.
In time of war, the slaves formet
non-combative and laboring class, w
produced in abundance the means
supporting our armies; and duri
peace, afforded to their owners opp
tunities for acquiring thfe accompli
ments Of the marksman, the kardibu
of the huntsman, and the comm:
of the martial horse, who, "with
neck clothed in thunder," bore hin
battle, or slept beside him in his tt
Slavery existed in nearly all of
Northern States, during tho revt
tionary war, and England felt, w
ont recognizing, tho influence of
institution, in the obstinacy, tho i
traction of the contest, and the ret
ance she so unexpectedly met v
from "undisciplined militia."
MAINE.-The right to vote may be
exercised by any citizen of the United
States who has resided in the State
thrr months, and is not a pauper or
NEW HAMPSHIRE.-Tax-paying male
citizens, twenty-one years old, are
VERMONT,-The privilege of votiag
is exercised by* every. good citizen of
the United States wno has resided in
the State one year. Each voter is
swf>rn to cast his vote for the interest
of thc commonwealth, as he believes
them to be.
MASSACHUSETTS.-The privilege of
I voting is enjoyed by every male citi
! zen, twenty-one years of age, not a
pauper or imbecile. Ho must have
resided in the State one year, and six
memths in the town or district where
he^l laims his suffrage, and must not
bo indebted to the State on account
of taxes. Foreigners must be citizens
two years before they vote.
RHODE ISLAND.-Thc privilege of
voting is permitted to citizens of
twenty-one years, residents of the
State one year, and of their voting
district six months. Each voter must
own real estate to the amount of one
hundred and thirty-four dollars, or
must be a native-born citizen of two
years residence in the State, register?
ed seven days, and a tax-payer of one
dollar per annum.
CONNECTICUT.--Every white male ci?
tizen of twenty-one years, and of good
character, a resident of the State for
one year, and of his voting district six
months, is entitled to vote. He must
first take an oath prescribed by law,
and be able to read any section of thc
United States or Connecticut Consti?
1 NEW YORK.-The right to vote if
held by every white male eftizen whe
has resided in thc State one year, ii
the county four months, and thirty
days in his voting district. Coloree
persons must bfi residents three years
and ?>wn a freehold estate of 6250
NEW JERSEY.-The elective frail
chise is common to all white mah
citizens, resident one year in th?
State, and five months in a votini
district, provided they are notineligi
bio to special provisions.
PENNSYLVANIA.-The right to vote i
held by every white male citizei
twenty-one years old. He must hav
resided in the State one year, and ii
his voting district ten days proviou
to election. Unless under twenty-on
years of age. he must have paid
State or County tax within two yean
Omo.-The right to vote is poi
sessed by every citizen twenty-on
yunrs of age, who has resided in th
State one year, and in an election dil
trict a specified timer
INDIANA.-The elective franchise i
possessed by all white citizens twenty
one years old, who have resided in th
State six months. Foreigners ca
vote if they have resided in the Stat
six months, and declared their intel
tion to become citizens.
ILLINOIS.-Suffrage is exercised b
white ^citizens twenty-one years ol<
resident of the State one year.
MICHIGAN.-The privilege of votin
is common to all white citizens twei
ty-one years old, resident in the Stat
three months, and ten days in a towi
ship or ward. Foreigners residei
two years and a half, who have d
dared their intentions to become cit
zens, may vote without being natura
IOWA.-Thc elective franchise
common to all free white males twe:
ty-one years old, who have resided :
the State six months, and in tl
County where they vote twenty day
MISSOURI.-The privilege of votii
is extended, to all free white male
Foreigners who have resided in tl
State one year after declaring the
intention to become citizens, are i
lowed to vote. % ?
CALIFORNIA.-The elective franchi
is extended to all free white mal
twenty-one years old, resident of t:
State six months, and of an electoi
district or county thirty days.
' MINNESOTA.-Franchise extended
all white male inhabitants twenty-o
years old, resident in tho State fo
months previous to election. F<
eignere who have declared their int
tion to become citizens, and who ha
been residents of the United Sta1
four months, are allowedtu vote.
OREGON.-The right of shift-age
extended to every white male twenl
one years old, who has resided-in t
State six months previous to an el
tion. If of foreign birth, a voter
required to have resided one year
the United States, and to liave ?
clared his intention to become a c:
zen one yesar preceding election,
negro, Chinaman or mulatto, is
lowed to vote.
We have no means at hand to fi
nish the laws of the States admit
since Oregon. In the Southern States
suffrage was exercised as fofiow s:
DEL AWAKE.-The right of .suffrage
is exercised by all free white nyde
citizens, residents fer one year of the
State, and one month in the county,
who have paid a county tax within
? MAKYLANI).-The right of suffrage
may be exercised by every white male
citizen twenty-one years old, who hts
resided a year in the Stifte, and tax
months in the county where he would
VntoiNiA.-:The right to vote is
shared by all white male citizens resi?
dent in the State two years; and in a
voting di st vic t one year before election.
Votes are not given by written ballots,
but by the voice in acclamation, unless
in case of dumb persons.
NORTH CAROLINA.-The elective
franchise is shared by all free white
males twenty-one years old, who pay
taxes. Tho privilege of voting for
Senators is restricted to owners of free?
hold property, comprising fifty acres.
SOUTH CAROLINA.-Tho elective
franchiso may be exercised by free
white male citizens, residents of the
State two years. Every voter must
own fifty acresof land, or a town lot,
or pay taxes in his election district.
GEORGIA.-Thc privilege is enjoyed
by white male citizens twenty-one
years old, who have resided six^
months in the county where they vote,
and paid taxes according to law. i
KENTUCKY.-Every free white male
citizen, twenty-one years old, resident
of the State two years, of his county
one year, and election precinct sixty
days, is entitled to vote.
TENNESSEE.-The right to vote is
held by every free white male, twenty
one years old, who is a citizen and
resident of his county six months.
Male adults of color, who are allowed
to be witnesses, also possess the right
LOUISIANA.-The qualified voteft} of
the State consist of free white citi?
zens, twenty-one years old, resident of
thc State a year, and of their parish
six mouths. A voter who removes
from one parish to another, its alloted
to vote in the former till he becomes
'qualifiedin the latter.
MISSISSIPPI. -^-Suffrage is extended
to all free white citizens twenty-one
years old, resident of tho State ono
year, and of the county four months.
An elector who temporarily removes
to another district may vote in such
ALABAMA.-The right to vote is held
by all white citizens twenty-one years
old, resident in the State a year^and
in a voting district three months.
MISSOURI.-The elective franchise
is open to all free white citizens twen?
ty-one years old, resident in tho Stato
a year, and in the county or district
ARKANSAS.-The right to vote is ex?
ercised by free white citizens twenty
one years old, residents of the State
six months, and of the county in which
they reside at thc time of election.
FLORIDA.-The elective franchise
may be exercised by all white citizens
twenty-one years old, resident in the
State two years, and of a county six
months, who arc enrolled in the
TEXAS.-The right to vote.is al?
lowed to free white males twenty-one
years old, who were citizens of Texas
at the time its State Constitution was
adopted, and ??'.'ho have resided in the
State a year, and in their voting dis?
trict six months previous to election.
If an election happens in dfcother
County, within his own District, he
may vote for District officers. An
elector may vote for State officers
wherever he may find himself at elec?
How TO COMPUTE THE INCOME TAX.
Since the publication of tho income
tax hst there has been considerable
discussion as to the rate of taxation
and the amount of the incomes oj
those whose names appear in the list.
Some persons who have not read the
law suppose that five per cent, is the
rate assessed upon all incomes, with?
out regard to the amount. This is
incorrect. The law requires that all
incomes over six hundred, and not
exceeding five thousand dollars, shall
bo taxed at the rate -of five per cent,
and the excess over five thousand at
the rate o* ten per cent. If an indi?
vidual's income be five thousand dol?
lars per annum, the six hundred dol?
lars exempted by law is deducted, and
the remaining forty-four hundred
assessed at tho rate of five per cent.
If the income be ten thousand dollars,
the rato -will be five per cent, on forty
four hundred, and ten per cent, on
the remaining five thousand dollars.
A daily train is run on the North?
eastern Railroad to connect with thc
trains of tho wilmington and Man?
chester Road at Florence, 3. C.
TO insure insertion, advertisers are re?
quested to hand in their no ticca before 4
o'clock p. m. .
MEDICAL STORE_Our readers will see,
from the advertisement, that Dr.* C. H.
Miot, has re-opened a drug and medical'
storo in Columbia. He' is an expert in the
business, having been engaged in it for
eighteen years m this cits, we cordially
ennmend him to the patronage of the good
citizens of Columbia.
Messrs. Shelton, Calvo & Walsh advertise
a choice, and varied stock of goods to-day.
The taste, discrimination and promptness ?
exhibited by this fixm in worthy of commen?
dation. They were among the very firpt of*
our business houses to commence opera?
tions after tho fire, and have been pushing
along to nuc?? an extent that their stock
now zs ss .complete as any in thia section.
Give them a call.
By reference to. our advertising columns,
it will bc seen that two of our young fellow
citizens, Messrs. J. ?F. Speck and Jacob
Polock, havo opened a commission house,
and have on hand a freahjrtock of desirable
goods. These gentlemen pYomise to devote
their personal attention to business, and we
have no doubt will give perfect* satisfaction
to their patrons.
THE CONVENTION. - As^beproceedings of
thc Convention may be expected to bs of
absorbing interest to all persons in the
State, and as the Phoenix will make daily
reports of its progress and thc results from
it, besides publishing in full thc new Con?
stitution the moment it shall be ratified, it
will be well that persons desiring to sub?
scribo should do so in due senKon. In the -
present scarcity and cost of printing paper,
publishers cannot venture to print upon a
mere speculative or possible demand. We
?hall publish but a few more copies than'
will suffice for our customers, and unless
they come forward promptly, they may find
themselves too late for the supply.
BUILDING AND BUSINESS IN COIXMUIA.
The work of renovation in .Columbia goes
bravely on. Tho buildings go daily and
boldly up-such as they are. They spring
up in a nittht, like thc prophet's gourd, and
some of them are not much larger. Still
they are welcome shows and sights, as pro?
mising for that day of better things, when,
through a brave spirit and noble energies*
our people, recovered from their overthrow,
shall convert their bricks to marble-their
cabins into strongholds and castles. And.
the shops daily increase. The young ad?
venturers hang out their banners from
every street, and through tracts of rain,
you occasionally meet with a quetr little
tem pife dedicated to the disposition of .blue
ruin. Thc soul of tho Gascon walks the
ruins undismayed. There need be no fear
that supplies will be wanting to thc commu?
nity, whatever tho' extent of the crowd
which shall appear next week. Our shop?
keepers are preparing for them. See the
advertisements in the Phoenix of all tho??
sensible merchants-of Zealv, Scott, Brana,
Cohen-father and son-Gibbes, Clarko,
Simons, Kerrison, Jackson, Moise, Bates, H.
Solomon, A. L. Solomon, Jenkins, Cantwell,
Kenneth & Gibson, Muller A Sonn and others
who, through our cofamna, speak daily in
trumpet tones to all the tastes, thirst, in?
stincts and appetites of the race-giving
ample assurances against famine and fast?
ing, if not against tho cholera.
New ADVERTISEMENTS.-Attention is called
to the following advertisements, which are
published for the first time this morning'!
M. Brennan-Attention'Emmet Guards.
A. It. Phillips-Auction Sale.
Durbec & Walter-Auction Sale.
Speck A Polock-Commission Merchants.
Daniel Crawford-Commission Merchant.
M. Ehrlich-Boots, Shoes, Ac.
James M. Daly-Watches, Jewelry, Ac.
Pollard's Variety Store-Choice Arrivals.
" " " -Spectacles.
" " " -Fishing Tackling
Shelton, Calvo A Walsh-New Goods.
Dr. C. H. Miot-Drugs, Chemicals, Ac.
R. Wearn-Photographic Artist.
. THE WAE IN PARAGUAY.-Little
Paraguay, however, ia making a most
heroic fight to save herself from ex?
tinction as an independent State, and,
as the struggle stands, the issue i*
doubtful. Brazil, it appears, haa
humbugged all the petty independent #
States below in an aetive alliance with
herself, oran advantageous neutrality;
so that little Paraguay is fighting the
fight of republicanism against im?
perialism in South America, not only
single-handed in repelling Brazil, but
with other States which .ought to be
the active allies of Paraguay os in a '
common cause. Our sympathies are
naturally with the heroic little repub- ? _,
lie aga i u st the overshadowing mon?
archy; for this is the war of ideas
which wo have successfully just fought
through in another shape.
[New York Hernld, 30/A ult.
ARREST OP BISHOP LAY.-Bishop '<
Lay, of the Episcopal Church, waa
arrested on Thursday last, at his home
in Lincolnton, by United States
officers scuff or that purpose, and on
Thursday passed through this place,
under guard for Washington.
Bishop Lay was the Bishop of Ar?
kansas, but has boen temporarily re?
siding at Lincoluton, North Carolina,
for some month* past. The canse of
his arrest is unknown to all except the
[Charlotte(N. C. j Democrat. Z*)th-ulk