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Stturday Horning, Sept. 23,1865.
When the armies of the Confede?
rate States were retreating -before
those* nf Sherman, .they burned . the
railroad bridges as they retired, thus
doing the very thing which Sherman
had principally set forth to do. Sher?
man was very grateful They saved
him feue and trouble. The question
?tras, why our troops should do this
thing and thus save the invader all the
labor* and loss of time ? They could
not be pursued over these bridges,
which were useless without the roll?
ing stock and the usual connec?
tions. So we lost the bridges over
the Edisto and Congaree. They did
not know what else to do, and when
folks are' greatly worried or badly'
scared, they have a notion, that some?
thing should be done, that t?y are
expected to do something, iffrnly to
keep themselves busy, and so they do
mischief. We appear to be carrying
this insane military policy into our
Legislature, and law-givers, with the
desire to be doing something, and
perhaps a little bewildered as to what
should be done, are about to do the
P very things which our political an?
tagonists are proposing to themselves
to do for us. The excellent Generals
Schenck and Cox, of Ohio,* have de?
clared themselves for denying, to tho
people of the Sqjith any represen A
tion of thd negro population' in the
Congress of the United States ; and
f they avow, as their reason^or it, the
necessity of stripping the South of all
possible political power. They are
now busied in teaching this doctrine
and desire, and upon- this one mea?
sure they indicate the organizationOf
a party. We are ail acconiumdating
people. We take our cue* from
Wheeler's cavalry, and save dir po?
litical enemies the labor. We burn
the bridges for them which they have
set forth to burn. We help ?heir en?
deavors, and in our eagerness to ob?
tain exclusive power in certain local
sections, at the expense of others in
the State, we cut the sinews of the
State itself. We strip it of half its
power in the Union, and reduce its^
representation to a thing purely
nominal, destined to be as great au
ab/surdity as that shadow of repre?
sentation which the Colonies in 1775
enjoyed in tho British Parliament.
We hold it to be certain that Messrs.
Schenck and Cox and their associ?
ates will be baffled-that, a census
being taken, the representation of thc
negroes of the South, as elements of
its population, will be insisted upon
by the abolitionists themselves. In?
deed, it is the inevitable law-^of the
land. It would then be seen, the
curious anomaly, of negro represen?
tation in Congress, when the same
population is denied recognition at
home. No longer a chattel, we deny
that negroes are persons-are a por?
tion of the people, the inhabitants of
the country. We do not say citiz . is
-such they, arts not, and Under the
laws of the United "States, and'the
ruling of the Courts, sr$h they can?
not be. But to deny'th?m tc? be peo?
ple and inhabitants, is to fly in the
face of a fixed fact. There they are,
four hundred thousand of them,
moro o? less, a multitude in compari?
son with the whites. It is patent
that they are people, and equally so
that they are inhabitants in the land.
It is a miserable fiction to deny this,
Which s tarps us in the face, and glares
out upon our imaginations with so
many hideous aspects of future evil.
We may loathe their presence-we
may desire to be rid of them; but to
ignore their very existence, as an
element of population, may well
. alarm the Abolitionist faction with the
question, "Ignoring them thus, is
your purpose their extermination?"
. Tho question will occasion lively in?
quiry, and no little suspicion and
apprehension. They w?l not conceive
it possible that, having our wits about
us, we shall foster with our institu?
tions, protect try our" laws, shield and
teach under our guardianship, a race
whose very existence m oitr country
we deny in our legislatfon. The pre?
text for .this; denial is a mere social
bugbear. Representation does not
imply citizenship or the right of suf?
frage; nor can the latter follow, unless
it be that, in despair, shorn of all
political power in the State, the
regions of country into which these
people will naturally crowd, being
crowded now/ shall insist for their
security* on according the 'inferior
race those privileges which are essen?
tial to the safety of their own,. Des?
perate measures are all that are left to
menin desperate situations. The negro
at the North is represented as an inte?
gral of the community, is subject to
taxation, yet denied suffrage. There
is no political or social wrong done to
him in assigning him this inferior
statu?,- since it is tho very same which !
we assign, und for a like reason, to
our vjpmenwmd children. They are,
from ?ertain peculiarities of constitu- j
tura, condition and character, held in
minority and under guardianship; ,In j
tho case of the negro, he is a creature j
necessarily of perpetual^mrdianship,
as the Freedman's Bureau will proba?
bly discover fast enough, az soon as
the Government of the United States
shall deprive their officials of fat sala?
ries and a grateful *exercise of autho?
rity. We turn once more to thc busi?
ness of our legislation. Mr. Aldrich
was only half right when he sought,
by his amendment, to accord a three
fifths representation to the negro.
Why this arbitrary 'assumption that
the negro had not his full physical
proportions-that he was minus a
right arm and a right leg? The arbi?
trary dismemberment of him, as it
occurred in tho maimed and halting^
compromise between the States at the
junction of the bond of Union, was a
coixccsijiuii 1-?y th*? So\ith tn
ishness and prejudice of the North,
and should never have been made.
The South should not have entered,
the Union unless with a full recogni?
tion of her population guarantees.
But. even this was based upon the
idea that the negro was a chattel
was property. He is so no longer.
Neither the Congress of the United
States, as. in relation to thc States,
nor the districts or counties of a
State, as in ' relation - tf? each other,
should be permitted to.enter within
thc sectional bound, and arbitrarily
prescribe and declare the status of its.
-classes. They should know us re?
spectively only by our totals, os sworn .
to under the State or National census.
We trust that all this legislation will
be scrutinized with great care before a
step is taken. We should not be such
blockheads as to burn dowii our own
'bridges with our own hands, thus
facihtathng the objects of our political
or military opponents. L?t them do
it if they will or eau ; but I?t us, if we
cannot find betterdwork to do, go, in
the language oft Hamlet, and be idle.
When we know not exactly what to
do-wh?n God has dropped the cur?
tain so closely before our eye and at
our feet, that Reason is compelled to
i 3 silent, and Conjecture.alone ven?
tures to deal in idle prattle-it is th en
that the wise statesman recognizes
tho advice of Burke, and awaits Ins
time in a masterly inactivity. This in?
activity, in our case, not implying idle?
ness, however, nor indifference, but
a steady watch, ? calm method, great
good order, sobriety, moderation, and
the furling of the sails against the
storm, and the maintenance of lights
and a good lookout from every mast,
keeping the pumps working all the,
while and all hands ready, either to
take in new reefs, or loose and spread
sail for running before the wind. To
do just as litt J* as possible at such a
juncture as the present-to do no
moro than is . absolutely essential to
safety-to try no hazardous experi?
ments-keep close in shore-ecbno
W -, ?L Jj
i .' *"?? ?6
mizas, force and provisions, and feel
diu: way cautiously along Sic sound
ings^rtt?ese should be our present
rules of conduct. 'Zeal, howey;er pa?
triotic and g?nerons, sho'ti?d not be
allowed, at such a time, to seize upon
the'hehn and take command. Good
senswrand great -prudence are' the.
essentials of command, and these are
to be. confined to the one objeot of
bringing the ship of State safely into
"We are greatly relieved^ to find'tiutt
our excellent friend, the Hon. J.
Orr, has had InV pardon issued Tinder
the great seal of Stalte. He% is now
secure. His head is safe on its shoul?
ders. He is in no danger in the fu?
ture for his deadly . S^DS in the past.'
More than once, during the session
of the Convention, while he lias been
thundering and lightning as he had
been wont to do in "Washington, we
trembled lest the Provost Marshal
should walk in, cut him off in the
midst of his finest passages, tuck him
under his arm, walk ham out in front of
the Convention Hall, decapitate bira,
and leave his head stuck up in lerrorem
to all future rebels, at the. junction ol
Plain street with Main, looking up at
the Capitol. The idea was a source
of continual apprehension. We had
enjoyed the honor of serving with
Mr. Orr, some twenty years ago, in
tho Legislature ; we had travelled to?
gether in search of" the picturesque
had peaced our knees under his ma
hogany; had hob-a-nobbed with hin
in Washington; and our association!
had always been so pleasant)? that, tin
idea of his.head, stuck upon a pol<
in the streets of Columbia, looking
still toward the Capitol, kept us fron
goodly sleep more than one midnight
We rejoice that he is safe, that he stil
retains the integrity of his h?atl, an<
trust that he will continue to do so
just so.lejig as ho is able to pay th
capitation tax, setting a goodexampl
of patriotism to the population a
large, white, idaoV, i>oi?>r^a anti equi
[For the Columbia PhonLc]
To thc Editors ?f-"New?p?pcrit in th
"GENTXAMEN : At this critical tim
in our political condition, I take th
liberty of addressing myself to yo
on a subject of vital interest to th
whole South. When the Legislature
of the different Southern, States meei
the great and leading subject fcrthei
consideration will be the pas jage <
such laws as will be most poi' ac an
proper to?Tegulate the new relatipr
of the whitfc-aad black population.'
To effeftt this great object, ii will ri
quire thft most 'mature wisdom an
wisest f tatesnnuiship. It is of th
first importance that the Legislature
of the Southern States should adoj
? a similar course of policy, and be ?
! near as possible uniform in their ai
tion. That tl*isc desirable object
may be attained; I respectfully recon
mend that the people of the Stmther
States send to a Convention to mei
at Augusta, Giorgia, on the secon
Monday in November next, some <
their best men to dejjberate on an
mature such a oMirse of policy as thc
may think best It will be for tl:
Legislatures of the difl'erent Statt
to adopt or repot the recommenil:
tiona of the Convention, as they ma
or may not apjrove.
If you approve of these -views!
respectfully asl that you recommen
this course to your fellow-citizen
Let each bounty, town or vii1 age sen
up their delegate. "In a multitut
of councillors there is safety."
The Grand Jury, at Salem, Oregoi
have been endeavoring to briD
odium and contempt on the Sunda
law by indicting everybody in sigh
They indicted a ferryman for breal
ing the Sabbath by carrying peopi
over the rivei-io church, and a doAcc
for collecting money with the contr
bution box, and were about to indie
the preacher for noisy and barbaroi
. ? i
STAT E jCJ?N VENT 10 N
Krii?ny, September 33,-1805. v
The President took the Chair, and
the pig?feedings were opened with
prayer.-' % ' i
The "discussion of the representa-,
tion question was continued, and sun?
dry amendments were ordered to be
laid on the table. jt*
The report of the Committee on
Amendments to the Constitution was
ordered to he on the table.
The report of the Committee on the
Legislative Department was taken up
for consideration, was discussed and
was finally agreed to.
The report of the Committee on the
Legislative Department, on a resolu?
tion as to the qualification of voters,
THE SMkjTHERX STATESMEN AN? THE
NIGGERHEADS.-It is very evident
that the negro worshippers of the
North estimate the Southern charac?
ter by their ftwn standard. They are
constantly charging them with hypo?
crisy, and "with ruanife?ting a desfre
to return to the Unio ; only for the
purpose of deceiving the North and
then secure an opportunity to carry?
out their secession dogmas. It is
weD known thai the niggerheads of
the North are, as public men, the
most unreliable in the country. They
are constantly professing one thing
one hour and doing the very reverse
the next, .there^is no reliance what?
ever to be placed upon their .pro?
But ! in basing their judgment of \
tthe Southern people upon their own
standard, * they fall very 'short of the
known character of those people. It
is well understood that the South?
ern men are open and above board
with their deeds. Long before the
war commenced they informed us
that they intended to break up this
Union, They made no secresy of this
met, nor the least attempt to conceal
it. Ort the stump, in their own State
legislative halls, and ia both houses
of Congress, it was proclajmed with?
out any effort or desire to disguise it.
So ifc-always has been; but the trouble
was that the Northern people would
not believe them. Now that the war
is over they are equally Jpold in pro?
claiming their d?termination and wil?
lingness to abide by the result and
come back and be good and faithful
men to the Constitution and Union,
accepting all the consequences ot the
war." This they are just as honest
and earnest in as they were in their
assertions to break up the Union
when the war commenced. But the*
radical negro worshippers know that
they themselves are full of hypocrisy,
and judge everybody else by their
own standard. The President, who
was brought up among the Southern
?people and fully understands their
character, does not view them in that
light, but, on the other hand, assures
them that he is satisfied that what?
ever they promise they will do. The
public believe the President is the
best judge, and prefer to follow him
rather than the niggerheads.
[New York Herald..)*
\ MEBTING OE FBEEDMEN ON ST. HB
jjiNA IsnTND.-A large meeting of
freedmen, held on St, Helena Island,
South Carolina, on the 4th instant,
adopted the following resolutions:
1. Resolved, That we, the colored
residents of St. Helena Island, do
most respectfully petition? the Con?
vention about to be assembled at
Columbia, on the 13th instant, to so
alter and amend the present Consti?
tution of this State as to give the
right of suffrage to every man of the
age of twenty-one years, .. without
other qualifications than that required
for the white citizens of this State.
2. Resolved, That, by the Declara?
tion . of Independence, we believe
these-are rights which cannot justly
be denied, us, and wft hope the Con?
vention will do us full justice by re?
3. Resolved, . That we \ will? never
cease our efforts to obtain, by all just
and legal means, a full recognition of
our rights as citizens of the United
States and this Commonwealth. S
4. Resolved, That, having hereto*
fore showu our devotion to the Go?
vernment, as well as our willingness
to defend its Constitution and laws,
therefore we trust that the members
o? the Convention will see the justice
af allowing us a voice in the election*
jf our rulers.
5. Resolved, That we believe the
uture peace and welfare of this State
l?penos very . materially upon the
protection of the interest? of the co
ored man, and can dniy be secured
>y the adoption of the sentiments em?
bodied in the foregoing resolutions.
To call a man a special telegrama
jflt, is the modern mode of impeach
ng his veracity.
We have been reqw?sted t<> state that the
Kev. B. M. Palmer, D. D., will preach in the
Presbyterian Church to-morrow morning,
at 10J o'clock, and in the afternoon, at 4.J
Mr. T. C. Polook has just opened an es
tablishmen t, near Main Street, opposite the
old jail, Where the best brande of wines,
liquors, etc., can be obtained. The thiraty.
can give him a call, with tho assurance
that their wants will be fully satisfiocl.
By reference to our advertising columns,
it will be seen that ^Ir. C. S. Jeukins has
removed his store to ? BOW building, on As?
sembly street, near Washington. His stock
is varied and well Worthy tho attention of
Mr. Patrick Walshe, who is connected
with tie New York ?fffropofitan Record, is
here as the ajent of tn*t paper, of thc Now
York Day Dook, Freeman's Journal, New
York Neics ?nd several other "journals*-all
of wliich we believe totVeof tho Democratic
order.. Our people kWw the character of
some of tlfese^ journals-possiblv of all.
Mr. Walshe is to be found at.NickersonV
Hotel, where those who desire* to have a
journal from New York may find him and
procure it. _
THE POST OFFICE.-Mr. Jauuey tells* us
that he will open the j^st office on Monday,
having received his commission as post?
master. Some-delay has been occasioned
by the difficulty of finding proper quarters
for the department. When oponed^ the
mails will be made up for Charleston New?
berry, Wmnsboro. Augusta. an# all route?
severally connected with these placos. Wc
?thon trust that tho' embarrassments of the
mail will cease, even though the transmis?
sion of letters bc slow. Thc Greenville
car? arc now running daily. We hopo that
Mr. .Tanney will procure promptly a? ade?
quate supply of post-stamps, the lack of
which is greatly felt in Columbia now.
. NBW ADVERTISEMENTS.-Attention is call- '
ed to the following advertisements, which
are published for the first timo this morn?
Gen. Richardson-General Order? No. 1. '
Lumsden * McGee-Com. Merchants. .
T. C. Polock-Wines, Liquors, kc.
Resumption of Exercises S. C. College.
C. S. Jenkins-WT and Choice Goods.
P. D. Lee-Mules for ?Sale.
Wm. Hitchcock-Budding Lot for Sale.
Apply ai this Office-Planing Machino.
T. S. Mood-Watches, Clocks',
RESUMPTION OF CIVIL AUTHOIUTT.
Our readers will bo pleased to learn
that ?ivil authority is now a fact ac?
complished. Oen. Bennett and J ohii
E. Carew, Esq., Sheriff of the Dis?
trict, visited the jail together yester?
day, when the charge thereof, to?
gether with the prisoners, was turned
over to the civil officers. Possession
of the court house has also been de?
livered, and the Sheriff, Clerk and
Magistrates enter on th/or several
offices, as we mentioned in our notice
of Gen. Gillmore's orders. It is not
probable there will'be Judges to pre
I side in the Courts-for some tim? yet,
but *he Clerk will jssue writs and the
Sheriff will execute them as of yore,
and all the entertainment to be found,
in thc light literature of initiatory
judiciaP*proceedings, is now open to
the public. In conversation with
Col. Carew yesterday, he remarket!,
and we are pleased to record it, that
Gen. Bennett has acted towards him,
in his official capacity, with a cour?
tesy and consideration wliich was ex?
ceedingly grateful, and he entertains
the hope that he wjjl find, in the au?
thority under that officer, relief from
many of the embarrassments which
he is Mkely to experience in entering
so unprepared, anil with such defi?
ciency of moans, upon the discharge
'of his official duties. The number of
prisoners is large, and it will not be
an easy matter at^onee to take charge
of them.-Chitrleston News.
BILL OF MORTALITY.-By the report
of deaths sent us by the City
Registrar, we find that there have
been during the past week thirteen
whites and thirty-five blacks and
colored who have died. Of these,
there were eight cases of fevfer-three
?yhites, two .of them children, and
nv$ black adults; of dropsy, five
blacks-four adults anet one child;
and of convulsions, five children
one white and four blacks. It will ba
;>bservea, also, that the black adults
who have died are over three times
;he number of the whites, and the
dack children are more than double
he white. The rest of the deaths
tppear to be of general diseases, and
n the same ratio as of former years,
;t this season, and we must still be
hankful for'the extraordinary heaitfa,
vhich has blessed our city.
Bigotry murders rehgipn and fright