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title: 'The daily phoenix. (Columbia, S.C.) 1865-1878, October 27, 1865, Image 3',
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became vacant on the third of March, 1861, and your election will be for
the unexp'red term of that vacancy, which will be till third of March, 1867.
Th? subject of finance is one of great embarassmcnt and serious diffi?
culty at this time in South Carolina, and will require great wisdom and
sagacity in your legislation. The people are in a most destitute condition,
without money, and without the means of paying their taxes. Their gold
and silver were exported during the war ns a species of commerce. The
State banks are all broken, and their bills have ceased to circulate. The
Confederate money, with which the country was inundated, is utterly
worthless. The Federal currency is inaccessible to our people. Their cot?
ton has been destroyed, and their provisions consumed by the armies, and
they have nothing to procure money with. Under these circumstances, it
would be well for you to consider whether or not it is possible to defray
the necessary expenses of the State by issuing and selling State bonds, so
as to avoid levying any tax during the ensuing year. The present indebt?
edness of the State is not large, and her credit ought to be such as to se?
cure the sale of her bonds at fair prices. If you conclude to raise money
in this way, you ought to include the payment of the direct tax, and which
South Carolina now owes the United States, and which her citizens will
soon be called upon to pay.
It is important that the courts of justice in this State should be once
more fully opened, civil law restored and properly administered. This
cannot bc done till you fill the several vacancies on the bench. You will
have to elect a Chief Justice of the State, two law Judges and one Chan?
cellor. Opening our courts, and thc administration of civil justice once
more, would have a most salutary influence on society, and do more than
anything else to preserve the peace and quiet of the State. We have been
living without law long enough, and have suffered enough from lawless
The Act to prevent the collection of debts, known as the stay law, was
wholly unnecessary at the time it was passed, but is now a matter of prime
necessity to the community. This Act should be continued, with permis?
sion, however, to collect the interest on debts dire. There are many
widows and minor children whose sole subsistence depends on the pay?
ment of interest due them on their estates.
The re-organization of the militia is a measure of the highest importance,
under existing eircunistances. I have received information from the Secre?
tary of State at Washington, that as soon as our State Government is or?
ganized, all the Federal troops would be withdrawn from South Carolina.
We must then rely on the militia for the protection of the State against
insurrection and domestic violence. It is a matter of serious consideration,
however, whether we should not desire to retain, for the present, a portion
of the Federal troops in the State. The freedmen and colored people look
to these troops as their friends and protectors, and would be much less
likely to have any collission with them than with the militia. The colored
garrisons, which were at one time stationed throughout the country, have
done infinite mischief, by inducing the negroes to believe that all the lands
of their former owners were to be divided ont amongst them. This has
made them discontented and unwilling to make contracts for the ensiling
year. In many portions of the State, there are serious apprehensions of
disturbance at the beginning of the next year. Strong garrisons ought to
be continued in Charleston, Beaufort and Georgetown, where there is such
a preponderance of the negro population. But these garrisons shoidd not
be permitted to exercise any civil jurisdiction, and should be subordinate
to civil law. Otherwise, their presence would be productive of more mis?
chief than good. You will take such action hi this matter as in your judg?
ment shall seem best for the State.
( The education of our young men and boys, during the past five years,
">^ias been sadly neglected. Your College, which has been the pride of the
State for more than half a century, is closed, and should be at once re?
opened. The buildings are all standing and uninjured. The Professors
are ready to resume their labors, and the young men are anxious to com?
mence their College course of studies. I hope you will make the necessary
appropriations for sustaining the institution. But it may be well, under
existing circumstances, to consider the propriety of converting the College
into a University, and making it, in part, a self-sustaining institution.
Give the Professors moderate salaries, and let them depend for further
compensation on the tuition fund. In a University, the student may
pursue such a course of studies as will most contribute to the particular
profession or business which he expects to follow hi after life. In a
College, he is required to spend four years in a regular course of studies,
many of which will be of no service to him hi after fife, and for which he
has no taste or talent. In consequence of the impoverished condition of
the country, there are very few young men, now, able to defray their
expenses for four years in College. Haring been so long in the army, and
their education neglected, they are not prepared to enter College. More?
over, being advanced in manhood, they cannot afford to go through a
College course of studies before commencing the active pursuits of life.
The University system of education will meet all these objections. It
would bring to your institution of learning three times as many students
as you could collect in a College, and in this way thc salaries of the Pro?
fessors might be paid out of the tuition fund.
The State Military Schools, in Columbia and Charleston, have likewise
been suspended, and the buildings of the former were all destroyed by tire
during the occupancy of the town by General Sherman. It is for you tc
determine what course you will pursue in regard to these schools. IE
them have been educated many of your most valuable and eminently
practical men. Very few have graduated at *!><> Citadel who have no1
been successful in after life.
The Congress of the United States passed an Act, during the war, au
fchorizing the Freedmen's Bureau to take possession of all lands whicl
were voluntarily abandoned by their owners for the purpose of going inte
the anny, or aiding the rebellion. Under a most unwarrantable construe
tion of this Act, a large portion of the lands of the lower country, when
the planters were driven off by the Federal troops, or forced to leave bj
imperative orders of the de facto Governments, State and Confederate, hav
been seized and appropriated, as abandoned lands. In many instances
thc homes of widows and minors, and old men, incapable of serving in th<
army, and never aiding, in any way, the rebellion, have been taken posses
sion of, and kept for the use of the negroes, whilst the proprietors wer?
starving wanderers and refugees throughout the State. But with tha
sense of justice and kindness which has characterized everv act of hi
administration, the President has ordered these lands to be restored tt
tho proprietors on their taking the oath of allegiance to the United States
or receiving a special pardon where they fail within the excepted classes
under the Amnesty Proclamation. The Convention ordered the Provisional
Governor to appoint a suitable agent to represent the State at Washing?
ton, in regard to these lands, and ? cher matters. I immediately appointed
the Hon. William Henry Trescott, a gentleman well known to you for his
high character, talents and diplomatic experience. Eis report will be
communicated to you as soon as it is received
As soon as the Convention adjourned, I communicated to the President
and Secretan.- of State copies of the new Constitution of South Carolina.
I have the pleasure of informing you that President Johnson lias expressed
to me his gratification at the amendments made in our Constitution, and
his confident hope that we should soon be, once more. " a united, happy
and prosperous people, forgetting the past, and looking only to the future
welfare of our common country."
There is one matter of embarrassment in your legislation, under the new
Constitution, which I think it my duty to bring to your notice. Tho
Constitutional Governor will not. and can not be inaugurated, till the first
week of your regular session. And yet the Constitution requires all Acts
I tn be presented to the Governor for his signature. If he does not approve
j them, he must return them with his objections ; and then, to become a
law, they must be passed by a majority of the whole representation of both
Houses. Although the State Convention acknowledged the authority and
existence of the ProA-isional Governor by several of their ordinances, yet
they omitted to authorize him to act as Governor till thc inauguration of
the Governor elect. AU your Acts should, there fore, be passed 1 >y a majority
of tlie whole representation if both. Houses, unless you are disposed to
recognize the Provisional Governor as Governor of the State. But even
I with this recognition, I think it would be safe to see that your Acts are
passed by the constitutional majority required, in the absence of the
approval of the Governor. This will place beyond controversy any Act?
i which you may see proper to pass at your extra session, in the absence of
your newly elected Constitutional Governor.
' The State Works, at Greenville, for the purpose of manufacturing-arms
and munitions of war, have not been in operation since the surrender of
General Johnson. They were unprofitable, and it is not likely that you
will be disposed to continue them. I understand that the buildings and
machinery are well adapted for a cotton factory, and that there is a com?
pany of gentlemen from different parts of the State who propose to pur?
chase them for that purpose. I would recommend sale of the entire prop?
erty, with all the machinery app< rtaining to the same. It would be well
to dispose of the Columbia canal for the same pmpose.
The State Road, over the Saluda Mountains, is in a most dilapidated con?
dition. The former lessee of the read was released from his contract by
the Legislature last session, anti the Commissioners of Roads for Green?
ville District were authorized to h L it out, for the present year, to the
lowest bidder, for keeping it in repair. This was not done. No toll has
been collected over the road, or work done on it, for two or three years
past. It should be leased or sold.
The State House requires your immediate attention. Something should
be done to preserve the biiilding, in its present unfinished state, from
ruin and destruction. If the State is not able to proceed with the work
and complete it, you shendd provide for having a temporary roof throwi:
over the budding, so as to preserve it and make it useful. If covered, il
might be used for your sessions, and the accommodation of the public
The Bank of the State, like all similar institutions, is in a most enibar
rassed and crippled condition by the loss of its advancements to the lat*
Confederate States. I have no t had the pleasure of seeing the report o:
the President. This document will be submitted to you in proper time
and then you will be able to take such action in reference to the bank a:
its condition requires. Whatever may be the state of our finances, I an
sure South Carolina will never sully her honor by any act of repudiation.
If we have lost everything else, let us. on that account, be more carefid o:
maintaining the honor of the State.
The aclmirable codification of the Statute Laws of the State, by tin
lamented Petigru, has not yet been ad pted by the Legislature. I woulc
recommend its adoption, and the appointment of an editor to supervise it?
publication, and make the necessary verbal alterations, to adapt it to tin
present condition of South Carolina. It is a work greatly needed by tin
profession and the people at large, and will be an enduring monument t(
the fame of one of South Carohna's most highly gifted and beloved sons
I have received several official communications from the Northern States
with public documents, asking a renewal of the exchange of such books
which I hope will be acceeded to by the Legislature. I have idso receive<
from the Department of the Interior, at Washington, sixty-seven copies o
the Acts of Congress, passed since 18G0, for official distribution.
I have received communications from the Postmaster-General, statin j
that the mails would be carried over all the railroads in South Carolina, a:
soon as the Department was assured of their responsibility ; and that hi
would receive reasonable offers for carrying the mails from the railroads t<
all the county seats or court houses till the first of January, when penna
neut contracts would be made. There has been some difficulty in regare
to the appointment of postmasters in South Carolina. I have informet
the Postmaster-General that it would be impossible to till his appointment
if he exacted the whole oath sent, till another generation had risen np ii
I have received a communication from the Secretary <d' State, enclosinj
information forwarded by our Consuls abroad, in reference to the sprea<
of cholera, and requesting that the State would rigidly enforce her qnai
antine laws I gave these papers to the Mayor of the city of Charleston
You will take such action as in your judgment may be necessary to preven
our State being visited by this terrible scourge.
In conclusion, I would urge you, gentlemen, to look only to the futur
in your legislation, and forget, so far st? yen can, thc p? ;t. There is niue!
to hope for and live for, yet, in South Carolina. We should congratul?t
ourselves and the country that civil war has ceased, and peace is restore
to the land. No longer are our citizens to be forced from their homo
and families and offered a bloody sacrifice on the field of battle. N
longer is our beloved Siute to be ravaged and desolated, and our town
and villages committed to the flames. A merciful Providence has one
more blessed our land with an abundant crop, and no longer have we an
apprehensions of want and starvation. We are in tho enjoyment of heult!
Our young men, noble and gallant soldiers, are peaceably resuming thei
former vocations, and exerting themselves in restoring the State to ht
wonted prosperity and happiness. No civil broils or deadly feuds are di
gracing our people as in other States. We have no political dnisiou!
South Carolina presented a unit .after her act of secession, and she :
now united as one man in returning to the Union ; and will be as true an
loyal to her plighted faith as any State north of Mason's and Dixon
line. In this respect, there is no difference between former soevssionis
and old Union men. They all have equally, at heart, the peace, bono
glory and prosperity of the American Re?)?1 lie. And I earnest!pre
that*all your legislation ami deliberations may temi to this great purpos
under the guidance an<! protection of Almightv Cod.
B. F PERRY.
NEW YORK MEP.CHTNTS ANJ PRESI?
DENT JOHNSON.-Tho success of Mr.
Johnson's re-organization pohcy is of
more than ordinary importance to the
merchants ond business men of this,
tho commercial metropolis of the
nation. It will revire the agricul?
tural interests of the South and open
a new fiei<l of enterprise, furnishing
great inducements both to capitalists
and emigration: thus bringing about
a prosperity of the Southern States
beyond anything ever yet known in
that section. This will come back
with a reward of a hundred and a
thousand Md lo tue commercial and
mercantile interests of this city. On
the other -md, should the programme
of the radicals be successful, and the
restoration of the Southern States
delayed until they can insert as its
basis negro suffrage, repudiation and
financial disaster are sure to follow.
Anarchy will be the order of the day
in the South, accompanied by a se?
vere contest between the two races.
This will re-act upon the commercial
interests of the country, and delay
the return of that permanent prospe?
rity which is only to bc found under
the reign of peace. The national
debt will bo largely augmented-dis?
trust, disaster and ruin the sure re?
sult. In view of these facts, is it not
the duty ol oar merchants to lend
their aid to strengthen the hands of
the Administration, and counteract
the influen e of the opponents of the
President at the polls and elsewhere?
[JY'.'T York Herald.
Tile carpenters and some other
mechanics are holding meetings in
New York city, to bring about a
reduction of the hours of labor from
ten hours to eight hours a day. The
mechanics say they could do as much
work i the shorter period as they do
now. Reductions in the prices of
labor of many kinds have taken place
within a few months past, and the
men have usually -incepted the di?
minished rates. Demands for in?
creased wages, nearly reaching the
highest prices that were paid last
year, have recently been made, how?
ever, by the (men of some of the
trades. A rise was this week con?
ceded in ship-ioiners' wages, and
tho sums most of the employers have
agreed to pay are four dollars a day for
"old" work, and four dollars and a
cmarter a day for new work. Ship
joiners have always received larger
compensation, comparatively, than
other mechanics. Journeymen shoe?
makers have demanded an increase of
twenty-five per cent, in their wages,
and the employers who met to con?
sider the demand, resolved that it was
exorbitant, but that an increase of
fifteen per cent, would be fair. ' The
shoemakers have not decided to ac?
cept the offer.
MICE MULLS.-Au ingenious Scotce -
man has found ont a method of utiliz?
ing the hitherto wasted powers of the
common house mouse. He has in?
vented a cotton spinning machine, so
constructed that a couple of mice, if
tossed into the right place, cannot
help working it. It is inado on the
treadmill plan. A half-penny worth
of oat meal will keep each mouse five
weeks, and during that time it will do
the work for which a woman is now
paid ninepence. Tn other words, it
will earn seven shillings and sixpence
a year, which, after deducting six?
pence for board and a shilling for
wear and tear of machinery, leaves a
net profit of six shillings to the em?
ployer. The inventor, ii is said, is
putting up ten thousand of these mice
mills, with the view of getting his
living out of them.
An ?xtraordinary match of carrier
pigeons has recently taken place at
Brussels. Not less than 53S of these
winged messengers, which had boen
sent to Toulouse for the purpose, were
released there one morning to contend
for the prizes, amounting in number
to eighty-two. The first pigeon ar?
rived in Brussels in fourteen hours.
The distance is 300 leagues, and it
must have flown at thc speed o?
twenty-two leagues an hour.
Rrsii OF IMMIGRATION. - Emi?
grants from the Easiern States are
pouring into Missouri, apparently,
without Limit. Not only is St. Louis
receiving large accessions, but all the
towns along the Missouri River. On
the 9th, no fower than thirty large
covered wagons entered that city and
The population of Paris is rapidly
overtaking that of London, and has
increased more rapidly. It is now
ove r 1,700,000, whereas London must
still be under 3,000,0<K). Formerly,
thc difference between the capitals
was much larger.
The stand.ag army will probably
number I'M ?.OOO men*