Daily Paper $10 a Year.
"Let our Just Censure
Attend the True Event.
Tri-Weekly $7 a Year
BY J. A. SELBY
COLUMBIA, S. C., FRIDAY MORNING, DECEMBER 15, 1865.
VOL. I-NO. 222.
PUBLISHED PA.1T.Y K'S]} TBI-WEEHXT,
BY JULIAN A. SELBY.
S T A T E F It I NT E P..
TERMS-IN ADVA NOE.
Dailv Pa?>er. six mouths.$5 00
Trf-Wcokly, " " .3 50
Inserted at $1 per squaro for the first in?
sertion, aud 75 .-outs for each subs?quent.
KT Special notices 15 cent;1 a lino.
Counting House C'ulenc?ar for 18C6.
Tlic South-Its Duty anti Destiny,
The writer of tho article which
follows, is a. distinguished Professor
in the ?South Carolina College, and
gives expression to the views of the
most hopeful class of Southern peo?
ple. What lie says of t?ie West ludia
experiment will receive further elu( " .
dation in the next number of the
Review, when we hope to give full
examination to the recent work of
Mr. Sewell, who visited the islands
and furnishes an elaborate and favora?
ble exposition of their present condi?
tion.-EOTTOB DEBOW'S RH VIEW.
On the fourth of July, 1865, the
citizens of Columbia, S. C., were the
spectators of a scene most impressive
aud instructive. A large body of
freedmen gathered from the sur?
rounding districts, united with their
countrymen in the city to celebrate
the day of national festivity. There
were not less than twenty thousand
present on the occasion; yet no act
of violence nor even of incivility was
perpetrated. N > disturbance oc?
curred. .-Ml were sober, sedate and
courteous. The cup of freedom bad
not made them delirious. These
sanguinary barbarians, who, accord?
ing to the theory of fanaticism, had
been kept in subjection by the whip
aud the chain, adjusted themselves to
their new relations with a calm digni?
ty which, however subversive of the
aforesaid theory, reflects the greatest
credit upon their former masters.
The institution of slavery had trans?
formed the African savage into the
nucleus of the American citizen.
The South is thus vindicated from
unmerited calumny. "The past afc
least is secure"; and the Southern
master, thus unexpectedly cited be?
fore tho world's tribunal, has proved
that he has discharged his high
trust, by the employment of an in?
stitution devolved upon him by the
cupidity of the North, in the moral
improvement of the class thus com?
mitted to his charge. That institu?
tion no longer exists. The stern
arbitrament of the sword has decreed
its extinction, and tue South, ac
quiescing in the inevitable result, has
surrendered its trust. A n-w era luis
dawned upon it. The relation ol
labor to capital assumes a different
position. By a revolution unex?
ampled in the history of mankind,
philanthropic projectors have con?
verted slaves into freemen, without
warning or preparation, without that
apprenticeship which has been hither?
to deemed the appropriate and ever
necessary transition from bondage tc
liberty. It remains to be seen hov,
the South will un ofc this new condi?
tion of affairs. Is it adequate to tb*
crisis V To deny this, would be ai:
ungenerous reflection upon its es?
tablished character for sagacity and
energy. A people that converted au
inconsiderable foreign plant into thc
autocrat of the commerce of the
civilized world, and made cotton
king, defying and distancing all com?
petition in it? cultivation: that held
at bay for four years tho most power?
ful Government on the face of the
earth, and succumbed at last only to
overwhelming numbers, waging a war
of devastation, plunder and rapine,
has settled thc question of their ener?
gy and endurance. Such men even
an enemy might be proud to claim as
brethren. They have asserted their
high lineage, and proved themselves
adequate to any task -which Provi?
dence may devolve upon them.
The vital question for the South at
the present time, is: Can the colored
man be profitably employed as a free
laborer ? Will he work ? or is he an
exception to the general rule, which
determines that /hen the laborer is
remanded to Iiis own interests he will
prove most effective ? The results of
the experiment in the British West
Indies would throw great light upon
this inquiry. But unfortunately the
requisite documents are not at hand.
Gen. Sherman, in his devastating oc?
cupations and marches, has so effect?
ually done his chosen work, that the
private libraries, to which we might
repair for information, lie in ashes.
We can avail ourselves only of snob
information :i3 is within our reach;
and fortunately we have at hand the
'"Edinburgh Review," which happens
to have escaped their touch and
A writer in that quarterly for April,
1859, affirms that "the West Indies
are ?aising with great speed to a
height of wealth, happiness and com?
fort unknown before," that "they
are swiftly becoming a gem in the
British crown, of higher value than
they ever wrere before." The act of
emancipation took effect in 1834; the
apprenticeship system ceased in 1838.
Tile new system seems to have worked
very well until 1847," when a dreadful
crash came, brought about mainly by
a vast fall in the price of sugar. Free
trade exposed the planters to the
competition o? Brazil and Cuba, whilst
the protective measures of France
and Belgium and other continental
countries in favor of their beet sugar
excluded cane sugar from their
markets, and caused a surplus in
England, so that, although the pro?
duce of the islands continued to in?
crease, the profits were as steadily
i diminishing, and the planters, crip
j pied by the debts which they had
brought with them out of slavery,
were crushed and ruined. But from
these disasters the islands have gra?
dually recovered;, and the writer
affirms that "official statistics and
reports absolutely demonstrate that
tire West Indies aro rapidly advanc?
ing in wealth and prosperity, with a
corresponding advance in tho general
character of thc people. "
Thc South enU-rs upon its new
career under circumstances strikingly
different, and far more advantageous,
! than those which attended the ex?
periment in the West Indies. Om
colored population is far superior iii
intellect and morals. The plantations
in thoso islands were, managed princi
I pally by agents, the proprietors re?
siding in England; and there wa)
. little intercourse between the whitei
. and the blacks. The latter remainec
i in ignorance and barbarism. Om
I j people have been civilized and chris
i tianized. They are intelligent, hav(
: been trained to habits of industry
and can appreciate tho importance
of regular and well-directed labor
Moreover, we have the advantage o
. climate. Those tropical regions en
; abled the negro to live upon tin
; spontaneous productions of the soil
- arni hence tempted him lo sloth
i But, in our elim tte, work is indis
> pensable to existence. The negr<
' must lal>or or .starve. Hence tin
? proprietor of land can present ? con
? ' trolling motive to overcome the nativ
i j a?uggishness of the African. Again
tim British Government committed
the fatal mistake of allowing the
emancipated negroes to become
owners of tho soil. The wild lands
wore occupied by the freedmen; and
cuffie settled down upon th"m in easy
indolence, content to live apt n pump?
kins and whatever a bounteous nature
might lavish at his feet. But here,
the white man is the proprietor of
the land. Cnflie must work for him,
or try the experiment of living with?
out work, with the privilege of starv- j
ing. He is free to starve if ho pleases.
But >ven the negro can understand
that starvation is not the most desira?
ble privilege of freedom, and his own
sad experience will impress him with
the importance of working for a
We arc, we confess, deeply solicit?
ous that a fair experiment shall bc
made with the free colored popula?
tion. Tho South has already proved
itself their greatest benefactor, by
rescuing them from barbarism and
heathenism aud blessing them with
the light of a pure christianity. It
now romains to complete the great
work by elevating them to the status
of intelligent, industrious and effect*
ivo hirelings. Let us not shrink
from this arduous, but benevolent,
enterprise. The negro is indeed
ignorant, and he has been perverted
and demoralized by fanatical teachers;
but the instincts of humanity are yet
vital in him; and the kindly remem?
brance of former and brighter days
will concur with a regard for his own
interest to attach him to his former
master. Prudence, forbearance and
a tender iudulgence of his infirmities
may yet protect him against tho in?
sidious in?uenees which are employed
to make him regard his former master
as his enemy, and may revive those
earlier associations of love and duty,
which once made him contented with
his humide lot.
The primary condition of success
with the Southern planter consists in
a full appreciation of tho altered re?
lation of the negro laborer and a
corresponding change of treatment.
In this respect the West India
planters blundered most sadly. The
managers of estates (for the pro?
prietors were mostly absentees,) for?
getting that the negro was no longer
a bondman, carried into their new
sphere the habits of thought and
action to which they had boen ac?
customed, but of which the freedman
was very naturally most impatient,
and attempted to subject the latter tc
a system of discipline which thc laws
had made obsolete. Distrust anti
alienation were the inevitable conse?
quence. The laborer in disgust
abandoned his old home, and set ny.
for himself. 14 is not without som<
degree of truth that a writer in tlu
'. Westminister Review," February.
1853, asserts, "The diminution o
labor was the direct and imm?diat*
consequence of tho mismanagemen
of the planters."
Sout hern planters, it is to bo hoped
will avoid this error". Our coloree
people are possessed, we believe, o
tho most kindly feelings towards thei
late owners. Many of thom hav>
declined to accept'the proffered booi
of freedom; all, with perhaps th
exception of the few who have bee:
corrupted by those who left thei
masters and took up arms again.S
I thom? in the late struggle, wish an>
I hope to live amongst ns quietly an
orderly. The negro is by nat.ir
submissive and peaceable. Ile ha
no propensity to acts of violence, an
! blood. Intemperance is not arnon
j his Climes. His chief faults aro fais:'
hood and theft, and these were th
incidents of his servile conditioi
just as gaming, gallantry, tho plei
mires of tho table and extravagai
display iu dress and equipage are tl?
products ol' a higher stage of civilize
tiflh. Possessing within himself th
constituents of an effective laboro
ho may be transmuted by judieion
' ?nd pains-taking efforts into ? valu:
' ble coadjutor in the now carew ?
I progress upon which tho Soufch IK
One striking peculiarity of bia
character is his .strong local attach?
ment, his love of homo and its sur?
roundings. The Southern planter
may avail himself of this element of
his nature, and turn it to beneficial
uses both for himself and his depen?
dent. The negro's original attach?
ment to the homestead may be con?
firmed and invigorated by kind and
courteous treatment, by affectionate
interest. i:i his family and regard for
his welfare. He may thus be made a
permanent fixture of the plantation;
and our patriarchal institution may
be replaced by eua combining all its
advantages with none of ?LJ evils.
Slavery is an abnormal, and, as tho
history of the world has proved, a
deciduous institution. Whether this
is the growth of man's virtues or his
vices, we stop not to inquire. Wo
accept the fact. But the relation of
master arid servant is natural and
unalterable. Our former system may
bc replaced by oue such as that which
exists in England, where the play?
mate of childhood becc s the con?
fidential agent of later .ars, resides
at the old homestead, and dying,
leaves his children in the service of
his original employer, and attached
to their nativo spot by all tho sweet
and gentle associations of home,
kindred and friends. Such a system
of hereditary employment, of trans?
mission of duties and affections from
parents to children, is the fairest
school of human nature. It is the
nursery of all that is noblest, and
dearest, and best in our social re?
lations, and far transcends the misera?
ble scheme of mercenary and transient
service which pervades tho domestic
economy of the North.
Wc arc, as we have said, anxious
that a fair experiment should be made
with thc colored people. We aro
hopeful, even confident, in regard to
its issue. BUL should the experiment
fail, there exis s no ground for de
spondency in reference to our future.
Our broad lands and fertile fields will
invite foreign etniprration. The young,
the vigorous, and the enterprising
will come among ns to seek their for?
tunes; and tho indomitable Anglo
Saxon spirit will in the end, triumph
over all obstacles. We have said
nothing of thc aid which we may
derive from the influences of Chris?
tianity in subsidizing the colored labor
of the South. We hope to discuss
that subject in another article. The
religion of the negro is sui generis,
and demands the careful scrutiny of
But we must stop. The conclusion
of the whole matter is this. We call
\ipon the people of thc South toi bc
manly, enterprising, hopeful. Their
fortitude, in adversity is even more
admirable than their gallantry in the
field. They are capable of great
things, and may achieve a high des?
tiny. Let them turn away from the
dead past, and look at the living
future. 4 ' Men are sometimes masters
of their fates;" and the critical period
has'arrived in which they ?ire sum?
moned to enter upon a new career of
unexampled prosperity, happiness,
and virtue. Adversity is a stern
school, but it is the gymnasium of
great, souls; and the awful calamities
which have befallen the South maj
prove in the end to have boen only
the discipline of Providence to purify
and consolidate ifs character, and to
nmke it, as hitherto the ornament, so
now and hereafter, the support of a
COLUMBIA CITY PROPERTY.
rilli':: undersigned is aui.horiy.ed to seil \
X Humber of HOUS] > and LOTS, situ?
ated in vai i a-.s portions of th? city. Nota
is tin' lime for capitalists. They mar he
treated for on advantageous terms, i! ap?
plied for soon to W. A. HAI'.KIS.
Nov 28 *W
HOESE FOE SALE.
j- A SADDLE ?nd DRAFT HORSE,
r/t?y perfectly gentle, ii? offered for sade
?gncheap, 'apply it. thia office,
REAL ESTATE FOR SALE.
?OFFER for salo several valuable tract?
of OAK and HICKORY LANDS, situated
in Pickons District, on tho lino of railroad
and around 'Walhalla. Also,'some highly
improved Grain and Cotton LANDS, ia
Fairfield District, located near thc Colum?
bia and Charlotte Railroad. Together
with several superior PLANTATIONS, in
Richland District, one of which is bounded
on one side by the Charleston and Colam
bia Railroad, i'or particulars, apply to
Dec f W. A. HARRIS, Agent.
IAM now receiving and opening one of
the largest stocks of
! That has Reen brought to this mar-ket.
All of which will be sold LOW FOR CASH.
I Call and be convinced-I charge nothing
I for showing goods.'
A. C. DAVIS,
2d door above old City Hotel Corner,
Dec 13 ?_" Mainstreet.
I Notice cf Assignment and Dissolution.
j rpilE undersigned, firm of LUMSDEN A
i JL McGEE, composed of J. L. Lumsden
i and John W. McGee, doing business in the
city of Columbia, have this day made an
assignment of all their stock in trade,
debts, assets and personal property to
Francis M. burdell and James S. McMahon,
who have taken charge of the same for the
benefit of parties named in the said deed
of assignment; and the said firm is hereby
dissolved hy mutual consent.
J. L. LUMSDEN,
JOHN w. MCGEE.
! Thc undersigned have accepted the trust
' of the above assignment, and will proceed
j to wind up the same without delay, by sell
: ing out thc stock on hand at private sale,
! at thc; store lately occupied by Lumsden &
j McGee, on Assembly street. All debts due
! to the said late firm must be paid to us,
! and wo request that it be done promptlv.
F. M. BURDELL, "
JAS. s. MCMAHON,
Assignees of Lumsden A McGee.
: Dec 12_
Commission and Forwarding Agency
' rpiilE undersigned will continue the busi
J. ness of COM MISSION and FORWARD
1 ING AGENT, and will give his attention to
! the sale, storing or forwarding of Cotton,
; Country Produce and Merchandize gene?
rally. Can always be found at the corner
of Asseroblv and Lady streets.
" J. L. LUMSDEN.
R?F?RENCES.- H.T. Peake,Esq.,Charles?
ton, S. C.: Hon. T. C. Perrin, Abbeville, S.
C.; Mos. s M. Grinnell, New York; Rufus
M. .lohnstot,, Columbia, S. C. Dec V2 G
d> HEIL JO JES 3FL & ,
WILL BE AT THE STORE OF
C. S. JENKINS,
ASSEMBLY STREET, NEXT MARKET.
Dec !> 1 mo
BOOTS, SHOES MD LEATHER,
THE subscribers har? just receded
general assortment of BOOTS and
.si;: ?ES, consisting of: Gent's Single
and Double-soled BOOTS, (Iluladelph?
make,? Balmorals, Gaiters, Bootees, ltr<?
UM'.IS Ac Also, a Sne lot of th? very best
Baltimore Oak Side LEATHER. We will,
as usual, make to ord. r all variot'es of
Root s an 1 shoes, of the best material and
workmanship, Tor cash only a rule fron
which there wiU he no exception.
J. & A. OLIYER,
Sumter between Richland and Laurel
Dec 7_ Imo*
PEI SB W. KRAFT would
respfctfuliy inform his old
friends and customers that
(.he hst) n sumed his old busi?
ness of a GUNSMITH, and w.ll promptly
attend to ?ll order*. Dec 7 12.-J
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