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ADDRESSES DELIVERED BEFORE
A PUBLIC MEETING, HELD IN
RICHLAND FORK, NOVEMBER
REMARKS OF GEN. HAMPTON.
Fetloio-CUixens of ?tich in ml District : I
thank you for the honor you have paid to
mo by asking mc to consult with you on
tho grave issue before us. And, whilst your
partiality may induce you to attach greater
weight to my opinions than they deserve,
yon cannot, 1 assure you, over-estimate
tho zeal, the earnestness, and the sincerity
which I would bring to any consultation
involving the welfare or honor of our State.
And, if there is ono thing in this world
which, more than another, could stimulate
that zeal, or gaiu greater strength to that
earnestness, or deepen that sincerity, it
would be the fact that I am addressing my
old and honored constituents, and that wo
have for the subject of discussion tho pros?
perity of Richland District. Mr. Randolph
once declared that '?' no man ever had such
a constituency as he hail." I can, with
equal truth, reiterate that declaration ;
and I do so with an honest pride. Years
ajio, without any agency on my part, you
called me from private lifo to represent you
in the Legislature, and at each succe'eding
election ? had but renewed evidences of
vour regard and confidence. And when
legislation and statesmanship failed to
secure to us our rights, and our State
trusting moro to thc justice of her cause
than to numbers, buckled ou her armor
for an appeal to the last great resort of
nations, it was my good fortune to lead
many of the sons of Richland forth to
battle. No District in our State contribu?
ted moro largelv of treasure, and of still
moro procious blood, than ours did. I have
seen her sons bearing, with heroic forti?
tude, privations at which the boldest night
well be appalled. I have seen them on
manv a bloody battle-field, bearing a1 oft
the banner of our State as far into the
fight and as nobly as did any others. And
I have seen many, too many, alas ! seal
their devotion to their country with their
" And sink to rest
By all their country's virtues blest."
All these memories come thronging thick
and fast upon me now, and should be false
to them, false to you, and false to the best
instincts-of my heart, could I forget them,
or fail to respond promptly to any call you
could make upon nie. I come, therefore,
most cheerfully, in response to your invita?
tion to consult with you upon our prospects
and our duties ; and your Chairman has
well said that no graver issues were ever
forced upon a people for solution, than
those now presented to us, and upon their
solution depends, in a great measure, the
future of our country. On the surrender
of the Confederate armies, the people ol
tho Confederate States were left prostrate,
bleeding, helpless and well-nigh hopeless.
Nearly the whole of our territory had been
devastated by a warfare, savage and inhu?
man to a degree hitherto unknown amongst
nations claiming to be civilized. And, as
if to cut off all hope of recuperation, out
system of labor, which had existed for cen?
turies, blessing the land with plenty, whilsl
it christianized and civilized our laborers,
was violently swept away by a single des
Sotic stroke of the pen. This was the con
ition in which wc found ourselves when
our armies laid down their arms, and one
more nearly despotic it is difficult to ima?
gine. The President of the United States,
in his capacity not only as the Chief Execu?
tive of tue nation, but as Commander-in
Chief, in his proclamation of May 29th.
there offered terms to us under certain con?
ditions. These terms, with which you an
all familiar, we accepted, and we are nov
bound, by ovary consideration of self-re
Bpect-every dictate of honor-every im
pulse of true manhood-to abide by man
tidly and honestly. I do not propose ti
discuss these terms ; nor will I say that i
was the true policy of the South to accep
them. I only state the fact that our poop!
accepted them, and I, therefore, regan
them as binding. The main condition o
these terms-that upon which the who!
action of the United States Governmen
hinges-was the requisition made upon u
to recognize the abolition of slavery. You
Convention has declared that slavery shal
exist in tlus State no longer. Your Legis
latine has ratified the amendment of th
Constitution of the United States, abolish
ing slavery, and the freedom of the negroe
is a fixed and irrevocable fact, and th
sooner we recognize and act upon this fact
the better it will be for all parties. Th
relative positions of the two races ar
changed, but there need be no antagonist
between them. Our fields must be tillei'
Unless this is done, and done speedily
famine will destroy what little has escape
fire and the sword. How are these desi
lated fields tobe cultivated? I answer, b
thc same labor that reclaimed them froi
the savage wilderness and made them ric
with the food of man, or white with tho
staple which not only gave to us our wealtl
but built the cities of the North and covere
every sea with Northern commerce. Tb
same trained laborers who produced thes
f;olden harvests are amongst us, and I b<
ievo that their services can still be mad
available. How can this result, so desir;
hie to thc whole country, be obtained? W
can accomplish it, in my opinion, but i
one way, and that will be by dealing wit
the negro fairly, frankly and equitabi;
Let him see that we not only recognize h
newly acquired rights, but that wo wi
protect h m iii trie enjoyment of thes
rights. Necessity will soon teach him th;
he is not exempt from the primal euri
denounced by the Almighty : '; In tl
sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread ti
thou return unto the ground." When th
great lesson baa been learned, he mu
seek employment. Meet him kindly ; e?
courage him when he is disposed" to i
well : offer fair terms to him, and whil
you demand from him a strict observan
of bis obligations, carry out honestly ai
fully your agreement with him. Show hi
that tho white man of the South is his be?
friend. .You will speedily eradicate tl
foul, the false, the pernicious doctrines i
stilled into his heart by thc abolitionists
the North. Do this, and you may aga
have in the South a happy, contented ai
laborious peasantry. To bring about the
happy results, time will be required, ai
you will be called on to display great f<
bearance and much patience ; b:;t the en
yousejk not only justify, but demand t
exercise of these virtues to their great?
extent. You seek to restore the prosper:
of your country-to rebuild her cities
rfcclftitn h?ir desolated fields-to re-anims
lier with new hope. These are the obie?
nearest to a patriot's heart, and, to obtf
them, no sacrifice should be too great,
labor too arduous. But to pursue tl
theme, so wide in its range, so general
its application, so important in its bearii
farther, would divert me from the subj*
which is the special occasion of our me
ing, thar of the formation of volunteer
ganiaatious for home police.
iou aro aware that Governor Perry,
his proclamation, directed that one or im
volunteer companies should be formed
each District. At a public meeting of I
citizens of this District, held some ti
ago in Columbia, it was determined tora
several companies, in accordance with '
suggestion 6f thc Governor, It waa p
pi?bod that one of these companies sho
lie organized in this part of the DJ ?tr
and I am glan to leam that its roll is cc
HUUi', and it suffice rs elected.
Bk'' duties ?!' those ?.> mi pana .- arc ph
|^m-CHt Ai preserving order, enroro
law, and protecting the citizons. Your
company ia not to be a vigilance,comtnittee,
nor will it have any authority beyond such
as is delegated specially for the preserva?
tion of law and order. " Ita duties will bo
to protect all citizens, to repress all disor?
der, arresting in such cases all guilty
parties, be they white or black, and to act
strictly as custodians of the peace. Let
your company discharge theseuutiea faith?
fully and persistently, and you will inspire
confidence amongst all classes of our peo?
ple. The very fact that these companies
nave been organized throughout the Stato
will obviate all-necessity for their usc. I,
therefore, regard it of the last consequence
that these volunteer organizations should
be at once raised in every Distsict of tho
State. Efforts have been made to procure
arms for your company, which I hope will
prove successful. 'Should they not, how?
ever, you can, for thc present, obtain pri?
vate arms which will answer. I urge you,
therefore, to organize at once, and when
organized, to watch earnestly over the wel?
fare of the District, to protect all persons
against evil doors, and to preservo
thc peace. To perform these duties, you
will have to exercise firmness, forbearance,
patience and prudence. By the constant
exercise of these virtues, you will be able
not only to extend the most efficient pro?
tection to both thc whites and the blacks,
but you will secure tho confidence of the
latter, lt is well that these should under?
stand the objects and intentions of your
company, and I am glad to seo that so largo
a number of them have boon allowed by
their employvrs to be present to-day. With
your permission, I snail avail myself of
tbs opportunity afforded by*their presence,
to offer them a few words of kindly counsel.
And I begin by saying to them that, if they
will ask my people, wno have lived with me
for years, not one man, woman or child on
my place will say that I ever deceived them,
or told them what was not true. In what 1
shall say to you, then, to-day, I shall speak
only what I believe to be true, and I shall
-3viso you honestly.
You aro free-free to seek your own hap?
piness-li ec to do the best you can for
yourselves-free to make contracts for
yourselves-free to work, and ./Vye to starve
if you tlo uol work. Freedom has its duties
id well as pleasures. And the first duty of
?very free man is to support himself and
lis family. You will all have this to do now,
nd to do this you will have to work. Laws
viii be made by which everv man, white
und black, in the country will have to show
l at he is making an honest support for
?1 uself, or ho will bo taken up and put at
hard work. Now, how can yon support
} inreelves and your families best ? I say,
1 bv hiring your labor to the white people.
We want labor to cultivate our fields, and
we would rather hire you than strangers,
who know nothing about planting. You
must make the best contracts you eau, and
when you have made them, you must stick
to them, AlLwho are willing to work can
got such wages as will enable them, i>>t
only to support themselves, but to put up
something for a rainy day. There is not
an able-bodied negro who is not abbi to do
I this, if bc chooses to work. But if you do
not work, you will surely starve, for noone
can live without work. You know ibis coun?
try was full of Indians when the white man
first came herc. They would not work, and,
though they were a larger and a stronger
race than yours, they were driven off by
the white men, as the wind drives the chaff
before it. This will be your fate, if you
will not work, but choose to live like the
Indian, in idleness and drunkenness. We
must have labor for our fields. If you will
work in them, we will give you good wages:
if you will not, then we will get laborers
wdio will, and they will come here to take
the very bread out of your mouth ?. The
Yankess don't care for you, and they would
bo perfectly willing to see you all die off, so
that room would be made here for their
poor people. I happened, to-day, to see,
in a newspaper, a speech made to the ne?
groes in Florida, by the Governor, who was
appointed by the President of tho United
States; and, as there is good sound sense
in it, I will read it to you. He said :
" If you ask me tho question, whether
the white man of the North or the man ot
the South is your friend, I will answer you
by saying that I hope and believe both ol
them "are ; but if it comes to a question ol
certainty as to which of the two is your bet?
ter friend, I shall answer plainly and tell
yon, tho white mau of the South. I was
born in thc North, raised and educated
there, but I have spent the last thirty years
of my life in the South, and I consider my?
self capable of judging between the twe
people, particularly in reference to your
! selves. I know the Northern man, or Yan
i kee, as you call him, from tho crown oi
his head to the sole of his foot, and I tell
you to-day as your friend, that the South?
ern white man, with whom you were raised,
and who is acquainted with your habib
I and customs, is the best friend you have
.' Now, after you shall have found youl
freedom, and, driven by stern necessity U
do something for yourselves, the questioi
is, what is the best for you to doV Mi
advice is to remain on the plantation when
you have been accustomed to work, witl
your former owners, if they will make :
contract with you. Make? the best contrac
you can with them, and show them tba
you are willing to work better, now tba
you are compensated for your work, thai
von ever have done before;. Bu faithful, bi
honest, be interested in the affairs of tin
plantation ; see that the mules aro wei
fed, that the hogs get good attention, am
I that the things entrusted to you be no
j ? * * * # # *
j "But. you must not think, because yoi
are as free as the white people, that yoi
are their equal, because you are not. Yoi
will have to do a great many things yoi
I cannot do before von begin tobe as grea
as they. You will have to be able to writ
a book, build a railroad, a steam-engine,
I steamboat, and thousands of other thing
i you know nothing of. They are far ahea
j of you, and it is foolish for you. to thin
: they are not superior to you and will eve
, be ; but they will help you risc if you try t
raise yourselves, and you must try, an
j make fast friends of them, and not, by ba
behavior towards them, make them hat
I ****** *
1 "The President will not give you or
i foot of land, nor a mule, nor hog, nor cov
nor oven a knife and fork or spoon. Il
j has given you your freedom, and that
, everything he intends to give you. and tin
is enough ; and some of you will undo
stand me when I tell you why. Before tl
I war, each one of yon was worth in dollai
i and cents to your owners eight hundred <
I a thousand or fifteen hundred dollars
worth more than fifty acres or eighty ion
of land, and a mule "thrown in. Well, tl
President has, in giving you yourfreedor
taken so many dollars and cents from yoi
old masters ; and he thinks, ns I do, thi
I have lost enough, an 1 you by it have hi
enough given you. If ho were to give yi
; more, it would prove a curso to yon."
Now you see what Governor Marvin, wi
says hu is a Yankee himself, and wi
i " knows thc Yankee fi om tho crown of 1
I hoad to the solo of h's foot," told the ii
i groes in Florida, ?nd he gave them goi
? j advice. Think of these things, and io
.i around you to seo what you can do f
I yourselves, Try to get good employe!
. and when you have found a good hon
' stay there, and fulfil your contract fait
i fully. Do this, and my word for it, y
: I will find us good friends to you. Wo c
get along bettor without you than you can
without us. There are twice as many white
people in tho South as negroes ; so it is to
your interest to be friends with us. I have
always tried to treat my negroes well, and
I intend to do all in my power for them
now. I have offered them good wages,
and I tell them if they can do better else?
where to go there. Most of them are going
to remain with me; and I advise all of you,
who have good homes and good masters,
to stay where you aro. Bo orderly, quiet,
attentive and industrious, and you will do
well. The law will protect your rights, and
vou will then find your best friends in us.
I am sure, fellow-citizens of Richland, that
I speak your sentiments when I give this
assurance to the negroes. You will be kind
to them, I am sure ; and if you are, you
will not only be promoting their interests,
but your own. I thank you for tho atten?
tion you bavo given to me. I pray that
your efforts maybe crowned by all success,
and that tho richest prosperity may reward
them. And in bidding you an affectionate
farewell, I beg you to remember that you
may always command my services whenever
you need them.
REMARKS OF E. ~BT HEYWARD, ESQ.
FELLOW-CITIZENS: In addressing you this
morning, I am confident that I entirely
express your feelings, as well as my own,
when I say, that tho first sentiment this
meeting calls forth is one of sincere con?
gratulation, that we have once more thc
opportunity of welcoming among us thc
long-tried ?oldicr and true patriot, who has
just taken his seat-Gen. Wade Hampton.
Passing through many an arduous cam?
paign, t^e cares and hardships of thc
camp, and the dangers of the battle-field,
ho has been restored in safety to his native
State, and has stood before you, to-day. as
able and willing as ever to labor for lier
good. It is for such as he, my friends
associated with all the sacred memories of
our past, and with whatever there may be
of hope for thc future-it is for such as he,
I say, to rally the broken energies of his
countrymen, to lead us in peace, as he did
in war, and to restore, if possible, some
degree of prosperity to an unfortunate,
but still proud and honorablo people.
On my own part, I have also to thank
you for tho mark of confidence you have
bestowed upon me, in electing nie to my
present position, and to assure yon that I
will (lo all in my power to justify your
choice. Under present circumstances, it
is a situation of much responsibility-and
while willing to do all that 1 can person?
ally, I must hope for thc hearty co?
operation, not only of every officer and
private in the company, but of every
citizen in this District. If you will now
give me your attention for a few moments,
I will endeavor to lay before you my"ideas
on the various subjects of interest which
have called us together.
Five years since, we unanimously decided
to withdraw from the association of par?
ties, which wo thought plotted treason
against the General Go. ernment, and after
unexampled endurance, we find ourselves
compelled to yield, and to accept such
terms as are offered us. I trust upon our
return we shall find the conspiracy ended,
and that some degree of peace and pros?
perity yet await ns in thc future. I do not
myself believe that the majority of the
people at tho North will deny us the righi,
of self-government, or that their present
temper is hostile to us-the war seems
certainly to have accomplished somewhat
in that respect. The President enjoys tho
eonfidenco of all parties, and his policy
for the reconstruction of the Government
seems to meet with very general approval,
and it is probable that our Representatives
will be received, and the right allowed us
of participating in the affairs of thc
country. But, my friends, one thing wo
should never for "one instant forget-it is
this: We aro not yet back in tho Union,
and until wc are, there will be no quiet,
and not the smallest chance of SUCPCSS
with anv of us. Wc may talk, and plan,
and work, and worry ourselves; but unless
we can bc received into tho Union, it will
all he labor in vain-our existence will be
embittered by ever recurring humiliations
and annoyances, while every element of
destruction will be fearfully developed
amongst us. Another season, like the
past, and wc are ruined. Indeed, had this
state of things commenced a month
earlier, our crops would inevitably have
perished for want of proper culture, a
kind Providence above bas by natural
means saved. We will simply have a
famine, and, with lack of food, will over?
come every well-known act of violence and
barbarism, such as have been always pre?
dicted for us, as the consequence of a
chango in tho labor system of the South.
Our country must be made to produce
that is the word. Wc must make money
and I assure you we are now only spending
it. Every halo of cotton which leaves this
District is just exactly so much" wealth, tc
be calculated in dollars and cents, going
away from us. It is tho very life-blood
bowing out. We are only weaker every
day. Wo must stop it, and that, too, iii
the next few months. Before next Marci)
I we must all be at work. Thc attempt ol
the United States to interfere with, anc
direct our domestic policy, has been, as fai
as our welfare is concerned, a total failure
We all see it, and I am prepared to prove
that they have succeeded no better in thal
portion of our State, of which they hav<
had undisturbed possession for the last
four years. During the war, and that ai
this moment, corn is selling in the city o
Beaufort (brought ground from New York
at nearly $4 a bushel-this, too, at a tim*
I of the year when their barns should b<
I full. Tho country, simply, does not sup
j port itself, and "tho negroes are mostb
I paupers on the Government. I could tel
j von many curious things on this subject
j but it is enough at present for us to'knov
1 that tho failure there is complete, ant
they have ruin staring them in the face
: Such a fate awaits us, and cannot b
j averted, so long as we arc deprived of th
right of self-government. Wc must, thou
get back into the Union; and to do so, it i
necessary to find out what is required o
us by those who are arranging tho term
I of our admittance. Thc Northern people
i though willing to receive us, are evidents
and perhaps naturally enough, extremcl
oautious in tho matter; and nothing whic
we do, say, or I believe, think, or drean
escapes their vigilance. Remember, t
thom belongs the right to make the term'
I believe, in the end, they will be foun
such as we can honorably aceept, and tha
only a certain portion of tho Norther
peoplo desire anything to tho contrary.
The size and strength of this party
known as Radical,(has yet to bc testet
The President himself is evidently uneei
iain on this point, and he is exerting a
! his sagacity and prudence to avoid ai:
I act which might, result in adding to the
numbers. This party do not intend us I
return on any terms, except such as woul
prove repugnant to most of tho race 1
whom tina Continent belongs. These R;
diesis aro our enemies, and have al wai
boen so; tho enemies, I believe, of t?
country; but wo must hope to find ne
month, in Congress, their power consul
rably weakened. They have been stroi
enough, however, to break up for
season tho Government, and to drem
our country with tho blood which has bet
s ) liberally poured ont for the last fi'
years. Now, I say distinctly, you ha'
. much to fear from tins party; the Pr?t
dent himself will tell you so, if you a?
him. Ho knows it, and has very iuc
cioosly put us on our guard against tnet
At the samo t.imt?. on ono snhject, i
parties at the North aro agreed. On this
point tuero is no disunion of sentiment.
They all demand one condition, and that
is, that tho institution of slavery bo abol?
ished. Tho result of tho war will at last
bo found to be merely that ono great
change, namely--that slavery ss at an end,
forever, ou this Continent. Now, these
distrustful men will not be content with
our siraplo acquiescence in this change.
We must not only placo it on our Statute
Book-they demand that we acknowledge
it in our hearts. Our whole sentiment on
tho matter must be in accordance with
thok own. This to be dono at once, and
at their bidding, does seem nearly impos?
sible. I trust, however, wc will be found
equal to tho occasion. Our failure to do
so will bo disastrous, and will defeat all
the efforts of our friends for a speedy re?
storation. We have no choice, and the
sooner we decid'- upon our course of action,
and let the Nortli sec the change is accom?
plished, tho better for us. To a South?
erner, tho earnestness of these people on
this subject scorns strange, andean liardlv
be understood, and I am afraid we have
always under-estimated it. What it will
finally end in, no ono can now see; it is
enough for us at present to be extremely
careful of olTemling this sentiment. De?
pend upon it they will resent it. They
nave the power, and they will not hesitate
to use it. Though a nation of philan?
thropists, they have somehow or other not
many miles from here left some ugly marks
of their disposition when irritated."
Fortunately, what is now demanded of
us will be found, u|s?u consideration, to be
a course of action in accordance with the
promptings of our own self-respect. By
our failure in this war, ?PC have lost many
of our rights, and we must Lake the conse?
quences, however terrible. The policy of
the President, and we must conclude it to
be the same as the majority of the North?
ern people, was to treat us as honorable
foes; and, upon certain conditions, we
have, most of us, been allowed to retain
our property of all kinds but one. These
conditions we have accepted and have
bound ourselves to abide hy them. We
must, in honor, stand up to them, agree?
able or not. We have pledged our sacred
faith, and must not only in words but in
actions prove to the world that we under?
stand and fully rt cognize this oath which
wc have called God to witness. Wt- must
realize our position, ami with it must come
a change in our estimation and treatment
of those who have been so faithful to us,
and who have, by their labor, so largely
contributed to our wealth. We must not
confound old things with new. <>r put new
wine into old bottles lt may require pa?
tience, but certainly no people ever showed
more ot' this virtue tiian ourselves during
the past five years. I cannot fear, then,
that we will be found unreasonable or un?
true to our pledges. Ami, after nil, whai
is actually required of us? Simply kind?
ness and justice. And have these quali?
ties never before existed in tho Southern
man? And towards whom are we thus
called upon to act? Not to an enemy; for.
if so, it would be our forgiveness which was
required. It is to our servants who now
stand around us. These are not our enc
mies. They are our fri? ads, who, undei
our protection, have passed their wholi
lives in total ignorance ol' the responsibilt
tics ami trials of the great world in whicl
they have lived. Have we ever been faith
less to these people so dependent upon us
I say no. Have wi-, by our influen?a, de?
graded them? I say no. Have we mad?
substitutes of them, to stand in our place
on the battle-field ? I say no. Have the;
received no ?ducation or pay in return fo
their labor? I say they have, inasmuch a
we have given them constant religion
culture, and had the life-long care of th
old, the helpless and the young. Tba
these teachings were not lost is proved b;
their generosity and constancy with whicl
they, while our men wen- away from home
remained the faithful guardians of our un
protected families. Their whole contine
during the war was unexampled. Yo
know it, and must acknowledge it. I
could not have been better, and this re
flection must influence us at such a mo
ment as this. No act of violence betrayer
their desire to be free, but calmly hav
they awaited the great change upon whicl
they have been taught to rely fm- ultimat
and" extravagant enjoyment. This chang
is now complete, and we have to ?leal .'-'.t
the most serious question which has eve
arisen. Step by step we must commenc
to build up a new system, upon th? succ?s
of which our prosperity, as a people, am
I may say, the very existence of the m
groes, in a great measure, depend. Th
first difficulty we timi is our inability to ii
fiuence, by reason, those whose labor w
desire to obtain, and we are, therefor?
somewhat at a loss to know how to pr?
teed. Before we teach others, or blain
ignorance, let us endeavor, first, to have
clear idea of our own duties. Our se:
vants, remember, ar?; in a great degree 01
imitators, and many of their impressioi
they derive from us. This will still be :.i
ami 11 rust will always prove for our mutu
benefit. Let us be calm and dispassiouat
divesting our minds of ?di prejudice, an
?hiing all we can to regain tin- confident
of our servants who have been estrange
i from us by the teachings of those wh
undoubtedly, ar?; not our friends or their
Hold out your hand to them franki
Promise them your protection thc sanie i
before, and you may rely upon your ol?
not being rejected. We must come bold
before th?- world -say we have nothing
our past conduct to regret in the trea
met of onr servants. Wo acknowledj
their faithfulness, and, in their preso
changeil condition, we intend to be as tn
to our duties as before. We willprote
them, not only by passing laws, but 1
honestly abiding by their spirit. We w
?lo more than be simply just to them. Y
owe them something more than that. V
intend te guard them from all wrong. \
are sat ?stied of their helplessness and s
their necessities. We had them attach
to us before and intend to make them
again. Let us determine to show t
world that we can do more with these pi
plc than has ever been ?lon?; before, ai
perhaps force our enemies to admit tl:
our previous system, in the close relatio
which then existed between master a
slav??, has prepared them for a step mu
higher in the standard of civilization, a
such a position as has never before be
reached by the same race anywhere in t
world. The result of th? "war has 1
made mc ashamed of myself or of my pi
pie. Our system of labor is changed. 1
not the sentiments of our people. Tho
thank God, arc still preserved, and I tn
will remain the samo forever. From tin
have sprang our institution^ which In
produced thu most noble, patriotic u
enduring people the world has ever ne
Time will reveal the purity of our thongl
the wisdom of our acts, the generosity a
endurance of our pe ipi?;. Ami futi
generations at tho South will yet liv?
revere our memories, and at the North,
comprehend the sacred principles
which we have contended for the last
years. No, my friends; all is not 1
where honor remains. This has b
manfully sustained by our gallant boys
many a'bloody field. They proved tn*
their duty. Let us follow their glori
example, walking honestly before (rod ;
man, and all may be added to us in ti
Each ?lay reveals some facts to opr er?;
! We are now judged by disinter, st -d par,
j and rest assured we have little to fi
I The charges of our calumniators ar?; ht
i refuted by truths which meet them
! ?very stcii. I tell yon, my friends, tl
failure to substantiate their vile slanders
is a terrible rebuke to the insolence of the
j honest among them. Nothing under Hea?
ven can convince thc certain few, who
wore most prominent in accusing aa of
cruelty in trading in human beings for the
benefit of their labor. These are the iden?
tical men who hired three hundred thou
Band able-bodied negro men, at eleven
dollars per month, and a promise of some
amount in the shape of bounty, as their
substitutes in the desperate charges upon
our works during thc war.
I again insist that wc can rely upon the
kind feelings of our servant.-". We have
had too much experience of this to doubt j
it. Wc must bchve it, and act up to that
belief. Seek their .confidence, and show
them in every way that we have their real
interests at heart. We have the opportu?
nity such as no strangers can ever enjoy
of influencing them, and I know you will
continue to exert it for their benefit. He
member, the inure you elevate these peo?
ple, the better for both parties. Just as
you progress, so they will be found follow?
ing you. I again repeat, that they arc
more improved than any other class of
field-laborers in the world. Don't indulge
the mistaken notion of exchanging for
white labor. In the first place, as a reme?
dy to meet our immediate wants, the plan
is impracticable; and if this was not the
ease, in my opinion, it would be at any
time very much to our disadvantage. Un
this subject, I would wish to .y a word or
two. Tlio want in our su^^ly of black
labor for our fields, may some day make
this change necessary ; but the vacancy
must be the result of natural causes. We
should be careful not to force it. In fact,
we ought to do all in our powei co prevent
it. The labor which would be furnished
us would be found totally distasteful to
us. Tin would be merely the scum of
Europe, thrown oil' by the process of puri?
fication, which seems never to cease over
there. We would simply be filling the
country with ignorant, lawless, infidel
scamps, who would turn everything up side
down, and who, after a few months1 resi?
dence, would join the radical party, vote
for all their abominable measures, and
make the place too hot to hold us both.
1 have seen enough of this class tramping
over our fair ileitis at the South, and 1
would rather not meet them there again,
if even armed with nothing more formida?
ble than a hoe. In the large cities, they
will, ofeour.se, find a place and an occupa?
tion, ami will gradually expel the blacks.
This, in some measure, had commenced
before the war. For myself, I never wish
to woe them taking the places of my ser?
vants, ami it would take a good deal to
convince nie that, for our purpose as labor?
ers in tlft- fields, any Europeans ari' supe?
rior. Alni this would always bc the case,
as no system for white labor could ever be
devised whieh.would include that degree
of protection for them which formed so
prominent a feature in our former institu?
tion, and which, I hope, will still be found
practicable in our changed relations with
I the blacks. A better class of whites is also
i spoken of. These you cannot afford to
I hire. They are clever, honest anil indus
? trions; hut they have expensive idoas, and
. will only come when they can hire farms.
\ The laud about us here will require too
! much outlay to make ehort leases prorit
I able, and we will be obliged to be satisfied
I with long leases, which, though in England
are understood and can be relied upon, yet,
in this D?mocratie country, would cause
difficulties in collecting rents, and we
would have endless trouble and perhaps
Some advocate cutting up our lands and
sidling them, but, in my opinion, we woulc
profit less by this than we expect. Bul
worse than all, it would introduce amont
us those busy-body ami wonderfully phi
lanthropic Scotch and English farmers
who would consider it their mission to Ix
our teachers in agriculture, as well as iu
everything else, ami who expect to displac?
and push aside the small fanner-' of tin
South, who arc native to the soil, and a
whom they have always been sneering
These- known abroad as "the poor whit?
men of the South"-arc by us regconizei
ns the class who in the war pursued a pa
triotie course, so unexpected to our ene
mies, and which, so long as their distill
gulshed services are remembered, mus
make us keenly alive to their interests it
the future. ! don't want these people ti
be forced to go away from us. They hav.
beon true once, and will be so again; the;
have, with everything to lo ie and nothinj
to gain, followed us to the field. 1 cunno
desert them now, and I will labor mos
earnestly for their benefit, and hop
they will live anti multiply, to furnish U>
their country's service another army c
patriots and heroes. Tile English hav
been among our worst enemies during th
war, professing to admire and encourag
us when successful, but shuddering wit
horror at even our acquaintance when ur.
fortunate. It is they who, by asharpstrok
of diplomacy, iu the shape of athwart C
their much dreaded recognition, force
from the late President of the Unite
States his Emancipation Proclamation, th
necessity of which, in his public capacit?
ho might have seen, but from its probabl
consequences upon our helpless familk
during the war, his kind nature must hav
shrunk. The English, evidently, ha\
always confounded the Southern gentlenia
with'the Jamaica planter, and our previoi
system of labor with their own in the Wei
Indies, which was ruinous to both masti
and slave. And nothing seems to deligl
them more than their anticipation that tl
same results will follow from emancipate
with us as noon their own now unprofitab
and turbulent island. But I tell you, gei
tlemen, they are doomed to disappoin
nient. We do not fear such results, ai
we hope for a very different reward fi
our treatment ol' our servants. They w
not only find the Southern gentlem;
superior to their Jamaica negro-drive
but they will soon find the Southern neg
to tie in the same measure superior to ai
of the same class their own system of lab
could have produced in the West Indies.
They have always envied our prosp?r?t
and have desired our ruin. They have n
hesitated, as you see, at any time to a
complish this end, and now glory at tlx
seeming success. But, my friends, if '
are true to ourselves, they may find thei
selves .uistaken; and under our new s\
teni, do ised and directed by Southe
men, we may vet see our fields bloomi:
and our ' ires full. All this, as I said I
fore, must depend upon ourselves. 1
. member that wo have as laborers a ra
who demands our protection. Fortune h
placed them here, and it is our duty,
i well as our best policy, to take care of tho
i Such intentions, expressed plainly at tl
i time, will do more to remove the chill
indiff?rence now apparent on the surfs
th.in any laws which all the wisest Leg
1 laturej can make.
Our main difficulty arises from our i
i appreciating the full importance of t
i changed relations now existing bet wc
? ourselves and the blacks, lt seems,
? first, to be so terribly tu our disadranfl
that wo aro induced to give up altoge/ei
i while to our servants it seems so grto
i in their favor, that they are inclined (po
> peet all kinds of extravagant and hup a
i ide privileges. Thu?, everything if sa
I "stand still," and neiiher party un* t
. tied. But we must inquire into t life rt
cause of tho?o stab* of things. Tljfco
, much to bo explained, and On this uJko
. I am very glad wo should prot
f day. I hope this meeting wahrst stc|
i tive of good, ami will be tin Jjfcnment
r the right direction. The G ?vre
established the position to bo takoti by both
whites and blacks, and can L!O nothing
more in thc matter. Thc 8 ta teri will havo
full authority for their futuro regulation.
We can dopend upon tho laws for the black
man's protection, but I am satisfied that is
not'enough. Like yourselves, I have seen
free negroes all my lifo, and have always
pitied them, and so havo our servants.
These have had always the protection of
tho law, but nothing more. We cannot
allow these old servants to sink to their
level. Tue country cannot afford s > many
paupers. The lifo they have always led
around our plantations) living on scraps,
is just the samo as that of the blacks on
the islands on our coast, ami are depen?
dents upon charity. We must do some?
thing better than that, and wc can do it.
Much has been promised thc blacks from
the wonderful schools and liberal wages,
which they abuse us for having always
denied them. I am prepared to prove that
on our coast, where the Northern system
has been in operation for four years, tho
whole business is a complete failure. Tho
United States Government is getting weary
of thc heavy drafts made upon its Treasury
for the support of the freedmen, and tue
people will not long submit to it. All this
is tho consequence of their bad system,
ruinous to botti whites and blacks.
At such time as this, I cannot enter into
the details of all I would propose to insure
a total change in our management up here,
and which 1 am confident will prove entire?
ly different in its results, and that our ser?
vants will prospor equally willi ourselves,
and will never depend upon the charity of
the North, or be included in a begg'ing
letter for their blankets by any United
States officer. They can afford to pay for
their teaching out of their own earnings,
and in fact to provide themselves with most
of the comforts of life.
In this part ot the South the climate is
favorable to that king of staples, cotton; and
we can afford to pay higher wages for our
liehl labor than any when; North of us. We
should decide upon some plan, which will
not only satisfy, but will prove attractive.
We will find this belt of cotton-land gobig
across thc Southern States, from East to
West, will sorve as a resting place to those
blacks who musl, sooner or later, move
from the States North of us. They cannot
stay where they are now, and thev must
come South. We will have a plentiful
supply of labor, and these will be the emi?
grants who will lu worth the money. Let
us get ready for them, by first gaining the
confidence of those around us. I believe
if we can only get back the right to self
government, and give ajhearty farewell to
those friends of ours in blue coats, who aro
as "p'dite as we can expect after the five
years of worry and trouble we have given
them, wc have a splendid prospect before
us, and our success will refute every slan?
der which we have so patiently endured all
I confess I am somewhat afraid of tho
competition offered by the Western coun?
try. The history of emigration shows a
direct course towards the most productive
lands; and there lies our greatest danger.
Tl ie black race will form no exception to
thc case. Depend upon it, it is for our
interest to arrange our system of labor as
attractive to him as possible, and tims
induce him to remain with ns.
Pay good wages, lie kind as ever to
him. Protect him against all wrong and
injustice. Gain his confidence and grati?
tude. .Attach him not only to the white
race, but above all things attach him to
the soil; and therein consists the most
essential requisite lor our success. All is
now uncertain; and what is known on the
subject of free-black labor, would deny all
hope of success. Other countries might
afford to fail. We certainly cannot. The
demand for our products, from this vast,
increasing country alone must be met*
They are all fleeply interested in our
! success. The \>*ant of cotton affects our
whole people, "?lou sec the effects in the
prices of every arttck) yon buy? wl?'Ui4'or
the absence of cotter! are noiviwe than
double the price paid before the war. You
cannot long continue to pay such at such
i enormous rates. When kiiig cotton again
j rules, all this will conpc right.
In starting a new system like this, we
must expect to find difficulties. We must
be prepared to meet them, and, like wise
men, examine and apply the remedy as
soon as possible.
In my opinion, our greatest difficulty in
engaging the labor of the blacks and of
educating and improving them, will be
found in their unwillingness to remain
with us. There is no enmity between us;
but the separation is complete, and they
obey a powerful instinct in desiring to live
anart. Hence comes their earnest wish
aiid universal appeal for land. From
Northern Virginia to Texas the cry is still
the same. To us this may seem unreason?
able and extravagant, lint I think I can
1 explain better than our blacks themselves
j how to interpret this feeling, as they are
! hardly aware what prompts this strong
I believe it is simply their wish for &
j home Some spot where they can enjoy
the freedom which such a place can alone
afford. They wish to live to themselves.
They will.work for us, but they must have
their own society to be independent of all
supervision of "thc whites. And it will
j perhaps be found to our interest to all w
I them this innocent indulgence. This is
' easily within our reach, by allowing
I each"family to have the use of a few acres
' of our land as a part of the biro yearly of
j every male member of that family. You
will find great advantage to both parties
: by such an arrangement. To them facili
; ties will be afforded for their churches and
schools to be directed solely by themselves.
; And to us the right of instantly ejecting
j thc entire family in eases of breach of
1 contract, by which their interest in tho
; crop on their laud will bc forfeited, will
, prove the strongest check upon the laborer
I and tho most Hevere punishment for seri?
ous misconduct. This must always con?
stitute the moat iinportant clause of every
contract. He wiil have this home only on A
coudition of laboring for the proprietor of ^
his cottage and land; y 1 he will be
careful about loosing such tt^Acioua boon.
Whenever such a happy advunta
geous state of things is tiij/^oiut&lishcd^
each proprietor will ftSAmaining perma
assemblage of peojrf?d by every bond <>t
nently with him, fi feeling, and over who-.;
interest and gocful influence can always ho
tho most pownh we will have no more of the
excited, i'i/rage. Each proprietor, as the
right of 8>nias sagaciously observed, would
Presidepfoo many votes,
controls prosperity 1 believe awaits us, if
Sy.Jfil all avail ourselves of our opportu
w: irs. We havo our lands, wbicfi are
I O' it valuable, and the labor near at
nyftid. We intend to protect the weak, ami
b/bstrain all disposition to violence and in
Jijustice. Our company is formed for this
^purpose and norn- other,
j] We clearly understand our duty, and are
? pledged most, solemnly to keep the peace
> i ami set an example to al!. You will lind
, mc ever willing to lead such a cause, ami I
' have ?ufiicient confidence in ail my com?
panions to rely upon their hearty co-opera
. timi. I think enough has been said to
[ pri vent any misconception.
Should there be any within the hearing
> of my voice who aro bent apon a different
I course, I would say, my friend, you can
? I only do yourself harm; be advised by
? I others, and decide upon a change of feel
. : inga at once. Public opinion is against
1 I you; but if you still refuse, then don't slav'
i ! "with ns a moment. Go out. to the Rocky