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AddreM to ra|e f>o*p?* of tho ?nttxd
.N?MMp!?f *4h? people o flin sections, and
all tho State? and Territorien of thu Union,
to consult upon thu conditio-' and the
w?nts of o?ir oomu?o-*-?onntry, wo address.
. " ' to yon thia declaration of oar principles anti
or political purposes wo sse* to promote.
Sino? tho moe tu*? ut tb? lani Naliuual
Convention, in the year 186U. event? h?*e
-??t occurred which havo changed tho charac
tet? oar Uvierual polUics *nd given tho
?^-T*^U**fl?>States'* new p*?co among the nftV
' tiona of .the faith. Our Government has
Mased through $ho .vicissitudes ami the
n t , ..'S^te^cirtt w?fi* r<fair -?which, though
' (* '"r^SSarf esfctidnal in* its character, has ne?
vertheless decided political differences that
if. ;'*-ont t?srvary bogin?ing of tlio flo"\fe?ro
t raent bad threatened tho mut;. <>f our. UA;
tional existence, and han left its impreWr
* ?osp and Ineffaceable, noon all the inte
.<.-?. r sfests', StanthnenU and tne destiny of "tho
Bepnnrrlc. While it has . inflioted upou the
" -3'holo country ?ofere losses in life and in
property, and has i nip o std burdens which
must w?igl? "op its resources for geucra
' * 1 ~' " tiona to e&me, ft lisa dovoloped a degree of
. . - c I national courage'ta the presence of na
utfffV- >?W3#lff!*flr*t'*- a**?*0*1* lor military or-J
ganizatiou and achievement, and a devo
>?*' / Ul* Whfoh tJh?rp?rVof ibJBjdoApie to the'form
.t'tf. J* oTObwrntnent which they riavs ordained,
and to tho principles of liberty which that
Government waa designed to promote,
?ii-; vi ,>-^ ffhijakninst confira? vthe-oontid.-ncti of the
nation in tho perpetuity of its republican
-** ,i->t?3titatioT?s, and command tho respect of
. ?*.. the ?fvil?zed world. Like all great con
?- teeta which -rouse tho passions and teat tbe
endurance of Osti?ns? this war bas niven
"C ' ? ?" I oow. BQope to tho ambition of political par
J U '.Uesrirna fresh impulse to ?dans of innova
- - "tinft and reform. Amidst tho chaos of
.tit ...conflicting sentiment*?, inseparable from
? ?<, . such an era, while thc public heart is
keenly alive to all tho passion that can
sway thc public judgment aud -fleet the
ii ' . public actions; while thc wounds of war
..: , ? are still fresh and bleeding on either side,
u ? ~ and fears for the future take unjust pro
Sortions from tho memories and r?acnt
?ents of tho nast.it isa difficult Ho.fr fen
imperative duty which, 0:1 your behalf, we
who are here asseinhlcd'-iiave undertaken
For the drat timo r ftcr six long years of
' alienation and of corilliut; We have eonv? to- '
gotker from every State ?nd every section
* t- - of ear land as citizen-- ol' a common coun?
try, under that flag, the symbol agaiu of a
common glory, to consult together how
. boat to cement a.id perpetuate that Union '
which is again th" object ?>f our common
low, and thu* secure'tho "blessings of
1-'. liberty to ourselves aud c posterity.
In thc tir?L place, we .oka you tore- j
member always and- ore-, There that tho
war is ended, and the nation is again at !
- - ~ posee. The shook of contending arms no j
- . ie longer assails tee shuddering heart of tho
. : i Bepubhc. Tbe insurrection against the !
supremo authority of .bo nation bas boen ? >]
' : " suppressed, and that authority bas boon ]
TT - again acknowledged by word "and act ia <
.?.i every State, and by every citizen wi this
u ?. t its jurisdiction. Wo aro 110 longer required
L.t. j or permitted to regard or treat each other !
* . , ~ ?? eaemjL.es, Jiol only bavo tho acts of '
war beca discontinued, and the weapontfVtf :
j war laid aside, but tho stato of war no
longer exists^ and the sentiments, tho 1
?ass ions, ibo relations of war. have no 1
inger lawful or rightful place* anywhere i
,?j>l j 5 ^tbrousbotit our Broad domatn. We are j 1
again people or the Cuited States fellow- (
citizens of one country, bound by lim dutur, 4
- t - -?nd obligations of a common patriotism,. [
Ti I AJid having neither rights nor interests J
apart from a common destiny. The duties
i .'f'V S that devolve upon tts now ?re again the!1
? }?& ll dates sf peace, and n > longer ihe duties "'['t
war. . Wu have assembled here to take ! *
oouusel concerning tho interests of peace; jj
to decide bow we may most.wisely and ef- ?
- .' ii feotivery beal the wounds tho war has i
made, and porfoct and perpetuate the i
bans tit? it ha? see ure-1, and tue blcdangs I
_ - which, under a wise and benign ?rovi
? - ?? dence, have sprung up in ita fiery truck. ?
Thia is the work, not of paasion, bnt ?.fl
la cairn and sober judgment; not of resent- j '
> mont for past offences, prolonged beyond ,
the limits which justice and reason pre- ,;
acribo, but of a liberal statesmananip,
which tolerates what it cannot prevent, \
.ndbuilds its plans and its hopes fi*jj*the r?
future rather upon a oommanity of inter- j
est and ambition than upon tbstruat and *
? tue weapons of foroe. In the next place,
we call upon you to recognize, in their full I n
significance, and to accept wita all their j ?
legitimate consequences, tho political re- : *
suits of tho war just closed. In two must ? '
importantparticulars, the victory achieved
by tho National Government lins leni ^
final and decisive. First, it hag established, ?
beyond all further controversy, and by Hie ; n
highest of ail human sanctions, the abso- j J
luto supremacy of the National (iovem- 1 r
ment, us deflnod aud limited by the Cou- i
st/iiution of the United States, and the j
permanent integrity and indissolubility of t a
the Federal Union as a necessary uonsc- "
quenco. And second, it has put an end, *
hnally and forever, to the exist euee of ?*
elavory upon the soil or within th? juris- ?
diction or tho United States. Both these d
points became directly involved in the I1
contest, and controversy upon both was i a
ended absolutely and finally by the result, j
In the third place, we deem it of the ut- Hi
most importance that tin real character of i '
tho war, and thc victory bv which it was '"
closed, should be accurately understood. ?
Tho war was carried on by the Govern- 11
meut of tho United States in maintenance I r
of its own authority and in defence of ita i !j]
own existence, both of which, were me- ?
naced bj- the insurrection which it sought 1
to suppress. Tho suppression of t hat in- ! M
surreotion accomplished that result. The I f
Government of the United States main- I "
tsiued by force of arms the supreme au- ! 0
thority over all the territory, and ovo- all n
theStatos and people within its jurisdic-I c
tion, which tho Constitution confers upon | F
il. ' But it acquired thereby no new power; , "
no enlarged jurisdiction; no rights, either ! I
of territorial possession or of civil anlhori- V
ty, which it did not possosss before tho rc- j 1
hellion broke out. All the rightful power i
it can ever possess is that which is con- n
ferred upon it, cither in express terms, <>r j "
by fair and necessary application, by the ,1
Constitution of tho United States. J'
It was that power and that authority -1
whioh tho rebellion sought to overthrow, ? 8
and thc viotory of tho Federal linus was j U
eimply the defeat ofthat attcmnt. The J fi
Government of thc United Slates acted ? 1
throughout the war on the defensive, lt j ?
sought only to hold possession of what was ; J
already its own. Neither the war nor tlie . 1
victory by which it was closed changed, iu : '
anyway, the Constitution of tho United H
Statc9. Tlio war was carried on bv virtue *'
of its provisions, and under the limitations , ?
whioh they prescribo, and the result of the .
war did not either enlarge, abridge, or in ?
any way chango or affect the powers it ! y
confers upon tho Federal Government, or 8
release that Government from tho restrie- j,:
tions which it bas imposed. The Const itu- ' '
tion of tho U?itcd States is, to-day, pro- H
cisely as it was before tho war, "the ? "
?upreine law ofthe tanti, anything in tho Con- ! 0
stitntiou or laws of any Stato to the con- ! S
trary notwithstanding!" And, to-day, also, j K
precisely as before the war, "all tho pow- I ?
er? not conferred by the Constitution upon 11
the General Government, nor prohibited ' ?
by it to the States, is reserved to the wm- |1
ral States, or to the pooplo thereof." a
This position ia vindicated not onlv by '
"-,.,.. i .^q
the essential nature of otrr Government,
?ml the language- and spirit of the Consti?
tution, but by ML tho act* and the4ailgd*g?
?roMr Govcrnnittit ld all its department*
and at alt times. Trota tho outbreak of
tho rebe Ikon to its final overthrow, in every
i ntessago and proclamation of tho Execu?
tive, it wa? explicitly declared that the sole
object and purpoee-of the war was to main
tain tho authority of the Constitution and
to preserve the integrity of tho Union.
And Congress, maru 'hil" once, reiterated
tkis *-^t^fyWrWn'f'i and added the ?s
swraneo th?tTwfitMiever this object should
bo attained, tbs war should oeaso; and all
the Stake? should retain their equal rights
amt dignity unimpaired. It ia only since
tho wa* was closed that other rights have
been asserted on behalf of ono d?partaient
of thu General Government, lt has been
proclaimed by Congress that, in addition
to the po.wers .conferred upon it by the
Cou?tltHtioh, tho'Federal Government jnay
now claim over ?ho States, the territory
and tho people involved in tho insurrec?
tion, the rights of war, the right or con?
quest and of confiscation; the righi to ab?
rogate ?ll existing Governments, institu?
tions and Jaw?, and to subject the territory
conquered, and. its inhabitants, to such
laws, regulations and doprivaUons as the
legislativo departments of the Govern?
ment may see Ht to impose. ' w
TTritTcr 'thia broad and sweeping claim,
that clause of thc-Constitution which pr??
vidos that "no Stats shall, without ita con?
sent, be deprived ol its equal suffrage iu
the Senate of the United States," has been
annulled, and ton States have been re?
fused, and still are refused, representation
altogether in both branches of thc Federal
Congress; and the Congress in which only
a part of the States and of the peoplo of
tho Union aro represented has asserted the
right thus to oxelnde tho rest from repre?
sentation, and all share in mal.mg their
owu laws, or choosing their own rulers,
until tliey shall comply witli such condi?
tions ana perform such acts as this* Con
fross, thus composed, may itself prescribe,
'hat right has not only been asserted, but
it has been exorcised and is practically
enforced at tho.present time. .Nor does it
find any support iu the theory that the
States thus excluded are in rebellion
against the Government, and therefore
precluded from sharing its authority.
They aro uot thu-* in rebellion. They are
on?and all in an attitude of loyalty to?
wards the Government, and of swornalle
gisace to tb? Constitution of the United
States. lu no one of them is there the
slightest indication of resistance to titi?
authority, br the slightest protest against
its just kud binding obligation. This COn
ilitioa.of renewed loyalty has boen official?
ly recognized by solemn proclamation ol
the Executive Department; the laws of thc
United States have been extended by Con?
gress over all these States and the people
thereof; Federal courts have been re
jpeaed. and Federal taxes imponed and
levied; and, in every respect, except that
they arc denied representation in Cougrcsi
ind the electoral college, tho States once
in rebellion are now recognized as holding
the same position, as owing thu same obli?
gations, aud subject to the same duties, ai
thc other States of our common Union.
lt seems tb us, in the exercise of th?
salmest aud most candid judgment we cai
?ling to the subject, that such a claim, s<
?nforecd. involves aa fatal au overthrow o
;be-?authority of th? Constitution, mid ai
.ompiete a destruction of tho Govcrnuien
md Union, RS that which was sought lob
dfuutcel by the States and people in armei
usurrection against them both, lt cauno
;s'-ap<? observation that tba power thu
is.se.rted to exelude certain States fron
^presentation is made to rest wholly 01
ho will and discretion of the Congres
hat asserts it. It is not made to d'pom
ipon any specified conditions or circum
,tances, nor Lo be subject t<> any rubs o
Regulations Whatever. The right assorte
md exercise*! i.-> absolut?, without qualili
latioii or restaictiou-not confined to State
ii rebellion* nor to State* that have rt
Mlled ii is tb . right of auy Congress, i
ormal possession of the legislative ant hoi
ty, t- . v bide any State or States, an
my portion ibo- people thereof, at an
ha--, from representation in Congress an
n the eh et ora! college, at its own discn
km. and until they shall perform such ucl
.nd corn pl v with such conditions as it ma
Obviously rbe reasons for such exei:
lon, being wholly within tho discretion <
'oe.gress. may change as thc Congress i
elf shall change. One Congress may e:
Inde a State from all share iu the Coven
neut bu: one reasoh, and that reason B
noved, tho next Congress may exclude
3"? another. One State may be exclude
h ore- grouuS to-day, and another may 1
xchidcd the <.pp.,.-':o ground to-mo
ow. Northern ascendency may exclue
louth- rn Mate.? from ono Congress. Tl
Scemb-m-y of Western <>r iif Southern ii
crests, or of both oombine<T, may exclut
he No: tlier.i or thc Kastvrn Slates fro
Improbable as such usurpations mi
eeai, the establishment of thc priucip
ow assert d and acted upon by Congre
nil rentier thom by no means impossibi
'he character, indeed tho very existent
f Congres-, and the Union is thus ma'
upendont solely and entirely upein t!
arty and sectional e xigencies or for ben
noe-, of the hour.
Wei te-'d not slop t" show that su
ction nm only linds no warrant in t
lonsiitution, but is at war with every pri
iple e>f our Government, and with t
ery existence of free instit .i ions. It
ideed, thc identical practice which L
endered fruitions all attempts hitherto
stablish and maintain free government
Te-xico and tho States of South Ann-lien
Party necessities assert themselves
uperior to the fundamental law, which
et aside in re-ckless obedience to t heir 1
ests. Stability, whether iu tho exerc
if power, ?n t h.!- administration of Gove:
neut, or in tho enjoyment of rights,
omc-s impossible-anil thc conflicts
.arty, which-, under constitutional Cove
ncnts, are tho ?.;militions anil means
political progress, aro merged iu the c
I sut of arms, to which they directly ?
lt wa.-- against this peril, bo conspicu?
.tul so fatal to all free Governments, t
iur Constitution was intended especiallj
irov-ide. Not onlv tho stability, but "
erv existence of tho Uovornnic?t is mi
iy its provisions to elepend upon the ri
nd the fact of representation. The- c
;r< ss, upon which is conferred all the
Relative power of tho National Govt
lient, consists of t wo I ira ne-bes, the Sei:
nd Heiuso of lloprosentatires. wh
oint concurrence or assent is essential
he validity of any law. Oi" these, '
louse of Representativos," says the f
litutitui, Article 1, Section i, ''shall
?imposed of members chosen every s,
.ear by the people o? tho several Mat
Jot only i-* the right of reprosontn
hus recognized as possessed by nil
itatos, and by every State, without
friction, qualification, or condition of
ind, but tho duty of choosing re.prt so
ivf-t, i.-. imposed upon the people of c
.ml ovory state alike, without elistinct
ir tho authority to make distinct
.ming them, for any re-sson, or upon
;i ir.mhi whatever. And, in the Sena
o careful is the Constitution to secur
very State this right e>f represent at i
t is expre ssly provideel that "No i
hall, without its cont-unt, ba deprive
ts equal suffrage" ia that body, evo
n amendment of ibo Constitution it-.<
When, therefore, any Stato is excli
???HTT---I ') W& rrr
from ??eh representation, not only is a
right of tbe SUte denied, but tbe constitu?
tional integrity of the Senate ia impaired,
.ad Ute validity of tbe < Jovernment itself ie
brought in question. But Congress, at
the present moment, thus excludes from
representation in both branches of Con?
gress ten States of the Union; denyiog
i hem all share in the enactment of laws by
which they are to be governed, and all
participation in the election of the rulers
by which those laws are to be enforced. In
other words, a Congress, in which only
twenty-six States are represented, asserts
the right to govern, absolutely, and in its
own discretion, all the thirty-six States
which com poso tho Union; to mako their
laws and choose their rulers, and to ex?
clude tho other ten from all share in their
Own Government, until it BCCS fit to admit
them thereto. What is there to distinguish
the power thus asserted and exercised from
the most absolute and intolerable tyranny?
Nor do these extravagant ai d unjust
claims on the part of Congress to powers
and authority never conferred upon the
Government uy the Constitution find any
warrant in the arguments or excuses urged
in their behalf. It is alleged:
1. That these States, by tho act of rebel?
lion, and by voluntarily withdrawing their
members from Congress, forfeited their
right to representation, and that they can
only receive it again at the hands of thc
supreme legislative authority of thc Go?
vernment, on its own terms and its own
discretion. If representation in Congre Si
and participation in the Government were
simply privileges conferred and held by
favor, this statement might have the merit
of plausibility ; but repr?sentation is. under
the Constitution, not only expressly recog?
nized as a right, bet it ia imposed as a
duty, and it is essential, in both respects,
to the existence of tho Government aud tc
tho maintenance of its authority. In free
Governments, fundamental and essential
rights cannot be forfeited, except against
individuals, by duo process of law. Nen
can constitutional duties and obligation?
be discarded or laid aside. The enjoyment
of rights may bc, for a time, suspended
by the failure to claim them, and duller
may bo evaded by thc refusal to perfora
The withdrawal of their members fron
Congress by the States whicli resisted th?
General Government was among theiracU
nf insurrection-was ono of tho mean;
inti agencies by which they sought to im
pair the authority and dcteat the action o
the Government. And that Act was an
nulled and rendered void when the insur
reclion itself was suppressed. Neither thc
right of representation, nor the duty to bi
represented was in the least impaired b;
the fact of insurrection, but it may have
t>ecn that, by reason of tho insurrection
die conditions on which tho enjoyment o
that right and the performance t,f tba
iuty for tho time depended, eouldn.it bi
Thia was, ia fact, the case. An insur
<ont power, in the exercise of usurped am
inlawful authority in tho territory mule
;ts control, had prohibited that allegiaiie
:o tho Constitution and laws of thc Unitci
states which is made by that fundamenta
aw tho essential condition of representa
Aon in its Government. No man wit.hL
:bo insurgent States was allowed to talc
tho oath to support the Constitution of iii
United States, and, as a necessary const
pienco, no man could lawfully represen
.luise States in the councils of the Unior
[iut this was only an obstacle to the enjoy,
neut of tho right anti to the discharge ?
i duty, lt did not annul thc one, no
ibrog?to tho other, and it ceased to exii
xdicu the usurpation by which it wa
;reated had been overthrown, and th
states bad again resumed their allegianc
.o tho Constitution and laws of tho Unite
2. But it is asserted, in support of tb
luthority claimed by the Congress now i
possession of power, that it flows directl
'rom tho laws of war; that it is among th
?ighta which victorious war always confei
lptui the conquerors, and which the coi
merer may exercise or waive, i ti Iiis nw
liacretion. To this we reply, that the lav
ii question relate solely, so far as tl
rights they confer aro concerned, to wai
waged between alien and independent ti;
tums, and can have no place or force i
this regard iii a war waged l>y the Govert
meut to suppress au insurrection of ii? ow
people, upon its own soil, against its ai
thority. If we bad carried on success!'
.var against any foreign nation, we nugi
thereby have acquired possession aud j
-isdiction of their soil, with tho right
inforce our laws upon their people and
mposo upon them such laws and mu
>bli::ations as we might choose. But v
lad before the war complete jurisdictii
>vcr tho soil of the Southern States, bini
ld only by our own Constitution. Dur lal
vere the "only national laws in force upi
t; the Government of the United Stat
vas tho only Government through win?
hose States and their people had relatio
vit li foreign nations, and its llag was tl
inly Hag by which they were recognized
mown anywhere on the face of the cart
in all thoso respects, and in all other r
ipects involving national interest at
lght, our possession was perfect and coi
dote. It did not need tobe acquired, b
?nly to be maintained, and victorious w
igainat the rebellion could do nothil
nore than maintain it- it could only vim
:ate and re-establish thc disputed snpi
nacy of the Constitution, lt could nett li
miaree nor diminish the authority whi
hat Constitution confers upon theGovei'
neut by which it was achieved. Such
inlargeinont or abridgement of cousin
ional power can be effected only hy t
imendment of the Constitution itself, a
inch amendment can bc made only tn t
nodes which the Constitution it-, it pi
tcribes. The claim that the suppressi
d'an insurrection against the Governim
;ives additional authority and power
hat Government, especially that it <.
urges the jurisdiction of Congress, ;i
fives that body the right to exclude Sta!
rom repr?sent?t ion ni the national I'M
lils, without which the nation itself c
nive no authority and no existence,
icems to us isa* variance ahi.c with t
trinciples of thc Constitution and with t
3. Hut it is alleged that in certain p
?culara tho Constitution of the Unit
States fails to secure that absolute just
ind impartial equality which the princip
>f our Government require. That it v
ii these respects tho result of comp
mses and concessions, to which, howe
loccssary when the Constitution ?
brmcd, we aro no longer compelled
mbinit, und that now, having the pew
brough successful war, and just wurr:
'or its exercise in tho bostilo conduct
he insurgent section, tim actual Gove
nent of the United States may impose
>wn conditions and make the Constitu?
.onform, in all its provisions, to Us u
deas of equality and the rights of man
Congress, at its last session, propo:
imendmonts to the Constitution Onlaigi
n some very important particulars,
luthority of tho General Government o
:hat of the several States, and rcduci
>y indirect disfranchisement, the rej
sentative power of the- States m wu
davery formerly existed. Andu is clam
that.these amendments may be made vi
is parts of the original Constitution, wi
jut tho concurrence of the States to he Ol
seriously affected by them, i>r may be
posed upon thoso States by three-font
>f the remaining Slates as condition!
their re-sdmisaion to representation
Congress and m th? ?d?clarai college.
]" .-? ~
It ia ibo unquestionable right of tb??
people of the ublted fttaf cs to make rn ch
chango? in the Constitution ?* they, apon
due deliberation, ma/ doom expodient.
But we insist that they sholl bo made in
the modo which the Constitutum itself
points out, iu conformity with tho letter
and the spirit of that instrument, and with
the principles of self-government, and
equal rights which heat tho basia of our
republican institutions. Wo deuy tho
right of Congress to make those changes
in the fundamental law wit bout the con?
currence of three-fourths of all the States,
including especially those to be most se?
riously affected by them, or to impose
them upon States or people as conditions
of representation, or of admission to any
of the rights, duties or obligations whicL
belong, under the Constitution, to all the
States alike. And with still greater em?
phasis do we deny the right of any portion
Of tho States, excluding the rest of thc
States from any share -iu their councils,
to propose or sanction changes in th?Con?
stitution which aro to affect permanently
their political relations, ana control or
coerce the legitimate action of thc several
members of the common Union. Such an
exorcise of power is wmpry a usurpation -
ju*t as unwarrantable when exercised.by
Northern States as it would be if exercised
by Southern, and not to bo fortified or pal?
liated by anythiug in the past history
either ol those by whom it is attempted, br
of those upon wUobo rights aud liberties
it is to take effect. It finds no warrant in
the Constitution,; it is at war with the fun?
damental principles of our form of Govern?
ment. If tolerated in onolnstance, it be?
comes thc prccedeut for future invasions
of liberty and constitutional rights, de?
pendent solely upou the will of the party
I tn possession of power" and thus leads, by
I direct sequence, to the most fatal and lin
I tolerable ot all tyrannies-the tyranny ol
I shifting and irresponsible factions, lt it
against this, thu most formidable of all tin.
I dangers, which menace the stability of g
i free Government, that tho Constitution o
I the United .states was intended most care
fully to provide. We demand a strict am
! steadtast adherence t<> its provision*. Ii
this, and ?ii this alone, can we hud lasii
of puriuaneut union and ueace.
4. But it is alleged, in justification of tb<
usurpation which we condemn, thal tin
cotiuition of tile Southern States am
peopl- is not such as renders safe tbei
re-admission to a share m thc Governmen
if th?; country; that thc> are still dialoya
in sentiment and purpose, and that DCltuC
the honor, the credit, nor the Interest o
the nation would be snfe if they were re
admitted to a share in its councils. W>
might reply to this: First, that wi; have n
right for such reason!? to deny to an
portion of tiie States or poop!' rights es
presslv conferred upon tin m by'he Con
stitution of tho United Stater-. Second
that so long aa their acts are those of loy
atty, so long as they conform in all thei
publie conduct to tile requirement.- of th
Coustitution and laws, we have ?io right t
exact from them conformity ia their semi
mcnts and opinions to our ovo. Thin*
That wc have no right to distrust tho put
pose or the ability of the people of th
Union to protect and de-feud, under a
eontingeucies and by whatever means ma
he required, its honor and its welfare.
Those would, in eur judgment, be fu
and conclusivo answers to the plea thu
advanced for the i Sc'usion of these Stau
fron, the Uniou. But we say further, tb;
this plea ri.sts upon a completa niisappn
lu nsion er an unjust perversion of uxia
iug facts. We do : hesitate to afliri
that there is no section of tie. count]
where thc Constitution and law.j of tl
United States find a moro prituipt and ei
tire obedience than in those States at
among til"*'? people who were lately
nrnis against them, or where there is le
purpose or danger of any futur.- at tem
to overthrow their anti.ni itv.
It would seem t" be hoih natural at
inevitable till!. Ill States or BOCttOUS
recently uwept by the whirlwind of wa
where all the ordinary modes and meth?
of organic d industry have !>.?.?:: hroki
up, and tho bonds and influences th
guarantei social order baie been <l
stroyed, where thousands and t> ns of tho
sands of turbulent spirits haw been sn
detdy loosed from th.- discipline . f wi
and thrown, without resources of restrait
upon a disor^aniz-d and chaotic tocic-l
and where the keen s.-nse of defeat
added to tho overthrow of ambition a'
hope, scenes of violence should defy, foi
time, thc imperfect discipline of i rv, a
excite anew the loar - and forebodings
the patriotic .ind well-disposed. 1 is u
qnehtionahly true that local dist-.ti-'e.: nc
of thi- ki" i. ace impanicd by more or 1?
of violence, d-> stih oi cur, !.>.'.' they n
confined entirely to the cities ned lars
towns of thc Southern Hta-.es, where il
fcrent races and interests ari broup
most closely in contact, and where pi
sions and resentments are alwavs nu
easily fed and tanned into outbreak. A
even there they are quite ns much the fr
of untimely and hurtful political agitati
as of any hostility on thc part of tho p
pie to the authority nf the National t
But the concurrent testimony of tin
best acquainted with thc condition of :
cicty and thc state of public sediment
the South, including that of its rcpresi
tatives in this Convention, establish, s i
tact that the great muss of the Southi
people accept, with as full and sincere si
mission It s do tho people el the ot 1
States, the re-established supremacy ot :
national authority, and are j rc pated
the mort loyal spirit, and with a /
quickened alike by then inter? ? ; and tl:
prill?-, t<.-operatewithotl.il- . tates :
sections iu whatever may be necessary
defend the rights, maintain the honor i
promote the welfare of our c >mmon co
Ilistory alfords no instance where a ji
plc so powerful iu numbera, in resour.
and in publie spirit, after a war .so long
its dui ..tf itt, s i di structive in its progn
and so advt rsc i:: ,18 issue, have accep
. 1- fi ..t and itr consequences with so mi
of good faith as has marked the corni
of the p -opie lately in insurrectionagai
th?- United States! Beyond all quest,
this has been largely due to the wise gi
rosit v with which their enforced surren
wa- "accepted hy the President ol
United States and th.^ gent r.ds in lin
d?ate command nf th ir armies, and to
liberal measures winch were aftcrwf
taken to restore order, tranquility and
to the States, where all ha I f ?! 'tile ;
been overthrown. N . steps could 1
l een better caleu!t?to-l to command
n spect, win the confidence, revive the
triotism ami s? ar<- tb - permanent
affectionate ali' ?winv ?if thepeoploof
South to thu Constitution ami iaws of
Union, than t!. se which have bi en sm t:
Iv taken and ?ullastly pursued by
Prusident of the L'nit? 1 Slates.
And it that confidence and loyalty 1
been since impair ?! if the people of
Soli*1 ? aro to-day less cordial in their
giane than they wore immediately i
tho cose of tho war--ne believe it is
t >ihe changed tenu of the legislative
partm- nt of the General Govorumeni
wards them- to tho action by which
gross has endeavored to i nnplant
defeat tho President's wise and bern ti
policy of restoration; to their exult
from all particip?t iou in our common
vornment; to the withdrawal from the
rights conferred and guaranteed by
Constitution, and to tho evident purp
Congress, in the i xerciso of a usurped
unlawful authority, to reduco them
"t.111 ? ? '? ' j -
tue rank of free and eqoai members nf *
Republic of States, with rigbtj and digui
tics an impaired, to the condition of con?
quered provinces and a conquered peoplo
-in all things subordinate and subject to
the will of their conquerors -free only to
obey laws, in making which they aro not
allowed to Huaro.
Mo people bas ever yet. existed whose
loyalty and faith- such treatment, long con?
tinued, would not alienate and impair, and
the ten millions of Americans who live in
the South would be unworthy citizens of a
free country; degenera t ; sous of an heroic
ancestry, unfit ever to become guardians
of the rights and liberties bequeathed to
us by tho fathers ?nd/wanders of this lie
public, if they could accept, with ujcoin
plsining submission, the humiliation thu?
sought to be imposed upon them, itesent
raent of injustice is always and everywhere
essential to freedom; sud the spirit which
prompts the States and peuple lately iu
insurrection, but insurge?t s now ?o longer,
to protest against the imposition of unjust
and degrading conditions, makes them all
the more worthy to share in the govern?
ment of a free commonwealth, and gives
still firmer assurance of tho future power
and freedom of tho Republic.
For whatever responsibility tho Suuth
[ ern people may have incurred in resisting
I Uie authority of the National Government,
ami in taking up arms for its overthrow,
I they may he bel.! to answer as individuals
before thc judicial tribunals of the land;
, and for that conduct, aa societies and or?
ganized communities, they have already
jKiid the most fearful penalties that can
fall on offending States, in the losses, tho
, sufferings, and the humiliations of unsuc?
But whatever may bo the guilt or tho
? punishment pf lie conscious authors of
the insurrection, Candor and common jus?
tice demand the concession that the great
mass of those who became involved in it?
responsibility acted upon wh it they be?
lieved to b? th'.?r duty, ID defence of what
; they had been taught to believe theil
I rights, or under a compulsion, physical
and moral, which they were powerless tc
< Nor can it be amiss to remember that
terrible as havo been the bereavement!
and thc losses of this war, they have fuller
^elusively upon neither section, and npoi
ucitber party; that they have tallou iudeec
! with a far greater weight upon those wit!
[ whom the war began. That in the dcati
of relatives and friends, thu dispersion o
j families, the disruption of social syscemi
I and social tics; overthrow of Governments
of law, and of order: tho destruction o
i property, and of forms, and modes, an?
I means of industry; the loss of political
commercial, and moral influence, in ever;
I shape and form which great calamities' eal
i asaiinre, the States ami people which en
I gaged in tho war against the Goverrimtn
of the United States have snff-red tea-rob
mure than those who remained in alie
gian ce to tho Constitution and Lairs.
These consideration.- may not, as the;
certainly do not, justify thc action of th
people of the insurgeut States; bat no jus
or generous mind will rotase to them vcr
considerable weight in determining th
hoe of conduct which thc Government c
tho United States should pursue toward
them. They accept, if not with alacrity
? certainly without sullon resentment, tb
! defeat and overthrow they have sustafne?
They ackuowlcdgo and acquiesce in tho rc
! suit, to themselves ana the country, w-hici
! that defeat involves. They uo longer elsi?
i for any State the right to secede from th
I Union. They no longer assert for any Stat
[ an allegiance paramount to that which i
I due to thc General Government. The
! have accepted the destruction of slaver;
j abolished it by their State Constitution:
and ooncurred with the States and peon;
of tho wb.de Union in prohibiting its exis
euee forever upon the soil or within tl
jurisdiction of thc United States. Th?
indicate and evince their purpose just t
fast as may be possible ano safe to adat
their domestic laws to the changed cona
don of their society, and to secure by tl.
law and its tribunals e.jual and imparti;
justice to all classes of their inhabitant
They admit tho invalidity o? ail acts of rt
sistance to the national authority, und <
all debts incurred iu attempting ns ove.
throw. They avow their wilhnguess 1
share the burdens and discharge all tl
duties ami obligations which rest upc
them in common with other States ar
other sections of the Union, sed they r
new, through their represcntatircs in th
Convention, by all their public conduct ;
every way, and by the most sol.-am acts 1
i which Status aud societies can pledge the
I faith, their engagement to hear true fait
; and allegiance, through all time to com
I to thc Constitution ortho United State
, and to all laws that may bo made in pnrs'
j ance thereof.
Fellow-countrymen, we call noon yon,
full reliance upon your int. Uigence ac
i your patriotism, to accept with generoi
I and ungrudging confidence this full au
render on the part of those lately in am
against your authority, and to share wit
I them tho honor and renown that a wa
those who bring back peace and concord
The war just closed--with all its so ITO'
and disasters -has opened a new career <
glor\ to thc nation it has saved. It hi
swept away tho hostilities of ssnthnei
and of '.merest which were a standing m
nace t > its peace, lt lias d.'strayed tl
institution of slavery-always a cause
sectional agitation and strife -and lu
opened to our country the way to unity
interest, of principle and of action, thront
all ! mic t.? come, lt has developed in bo
sections tl military capacity and uptitn
for achievements of war, both hy s. a .ti
land, before unknown even to ourselvt
md destined to exercise hereafter, und
united cuuncils, au nnporta->t*?nthu'ii
np .a the character and dct-fiuv of t
I continent and the world. And while it h
thus revealed, disciplined and compact
our power, it bas proved to ns, beyot
! controversy <T doubt, by thc course pi
surd towards both contending sections
foreign powers, that we must be the gut
u.ans <>t our own independence, and tl:
the principles of republican free.loni
represent can find among the nations
the earth no trionds or d?tende rs but ot
I Wo call upon you. therefore, by ov<
consideration of your own dignity a
1 safety, and in the name of liberty thron?
i out tho world, to complete thc work
i restoration and peace which the Presid?
; of the United States has so well begv
i and which the policy adopted and I
principles asserted by the present Ci
.;res3 alono obstruct. The time is close
band when members of a new Congress ;
: to bo elected. If that Congress shall p
pe?nate this policy, and by excluding lo
States and people from representation
its halls, shali continue tho usurpation
winch tho legislative powers Ol tho (
vcrnment are now exercised, common p
dence compels US to anticipate augment
discontent, a sullen withdrawal norn t
duties and obligations of the Federal (
vernment; internal dissensions and a gc
ral collision of sentiments, endpretensi?
which mav renew, in a still moro tear
shape, the civil war from which we tu
We call upon yon to interposo your pc
> to prevent the recurre n co of so tran see
? ant a calamitv. We call noon yon in ev
, Congressional District of every Stat?
! secure tho election of members who, wi
? ever other difference may charade
j their political action, will ruiite in rei
? nixing tba richtet ?vary Statu of th? l i
to represent aMon in Con-.-,,, ... | wl",
wdl admit to seats in either branch.every
lovai representative from every Statt- .
allegiance to tho Government, who "^v iV
fonnd by each House, in the exercise of, ?
jHiwer conferred upon it by the Constitu?
tion, to baje been duly oftcted, returu?d
and qualified for a seat therein
When this Shall have been don, , th?
Government will havo been restored t.. ii ?
integrity. The Constitution ot the United
States aili have been re-established in it?
full supremncy, and the American binon
will have again become wh.it it was de
signed to be by thoso who formed it a
sovereign nation, composed of separate
States, each like itself, moving in a distinct
aud independent sphere, exorcising powers
defined and reserved by a common Consti?
tution, and resting upon thc asseut, thu
contidenco, and co-operation of all tho
States and all tho peoplo subject to its au?
thority. Thus ro-orgaDized and restored
to their Constitutional relations, t!.<- States
and tho Gcnural Government ctn enter iu
a fraternal spirit, with a common purpose
aud a common interest, upon whatever
reforms the security of personal rights,
tho enlargement of popular liberty, and
tho perfection of our republican i'ustitu
tiens may demand.
DECLAMATION OF PRINCIPLES.
I The National Union Convention, now as?
sembled in tho city of Philadelphia, coni
?oscd of delegates from every State and
erritory in the Union, admonished by tho
solemn lessons which for thc* last' rive
years it has pleased tho Supreme ltuler of
the Universe to give to the American
people, profoundly grateful for the return
of peace, desirous, as are a large majority
of their countrymen, in all siuceriiy, to
forgot and to forgivo the past, revering
the Constitution as it came to us tro m our
ancestors, regarding the Union in its re?
storation as more sacred than over, look?
ing with deep anxiety iuto thc future as of
instant and continuing trial, hereby is
' anea and proclaims the following declara
I tion of principles and purposes on which
I they have with perfect unanimity agreed:
j 1. Wc had with gratitude to Almighty
: God the end of the war and the ret mn of
i peace to an afflicted and beloved laud.
: 2. Thc war juat closed has maintained
1 the authority of the Constitution with all
the powers which it confers and ail the re?
strictions which it imposed upon the Gene?
ral Government, unabridged and unaltered,
and it has preserved tho Union with tho
equal rights, dignity and authority of the
States perfect and unimnaired.
3. Representation in the Congress of thc
United States and in the Electoral College
is a right recognized by the Constitution as
1 abiding in every State, and as a duty im
i posed upon ita people, fundamental in its
I nature and essential to the existence ol'our
j republican institutions, and neither Con
I gross nor the General Government has any
I authority or power to der y this rig ot to any
State or to withhold eajoyoteat, under th-.
j Constitution, from the people thereof.
4. Wo call upon thc people of the Unit; 'I
j States to elect to Congress an no tubers
i thereof none bul r"^II r ' :: '.\'.,,'L un iuu
dameutal right of representation, and who
i will receive to seats therein loyal r< ?.re
j sentatives from every st tte in allegiance
j to the United States,'subject to tho consti
i tut ional right of each house to judge of
i the elections), returns and qualifications ot
ita own members.
5. The Constitution of tho United States
j and the laws made in pursuance thereof
I are the supreme law of tho laud, anything
i in tho Constitution or laws of auv State to
i tho contrary notwithstanding." All tho
power not conferred by the Constitution
upon the General Government, nor prohi?
bited by it to thu States, arc reserved to
: the Stat os orto the people thereof; and
. among the rights thus reserved to tho
States is thc right to prescribe qualifica
j tions for thc elective franchise therein,
with which right Congress cannot interfere
No State or combiiiaiiou of States has tho
.right to withdraw from the Union, or to
j exclu do through their action in Congress
or otherwise, uny other State or states
; from tho Union. The union of these Staten
i is perpetual, and its Government is of su
J premo authority, within the restrictions
and limitations of tho Constitution.
! G. Such amendment to the Constitution
j of the United Staten may be made by tho
! people thereof as they may deem expedi
I ent, but only iu tho mode pointed out b\
j its provisions; and in proposing such
; amendments, whether by Congress >>r by a
j convention, and in ratifving the same, nil
! the States of the Union have an equal and
j indefeasible right to u voice aud a vote
7. Slavery ia abolished and forever pro
! hi bi ted, and there is neither desire nor
i purpose on the part nf the i-outbern Stat. -
, that it should ever be re-estabiishe? upon
I the soil or within tho jurisdiction of thu
> United States; and tho enfranchised slaves
j in all the States of tho Union should re
ceivo, in common with all their inhabitants,
I equal protection iu every right of person
I and or property.
! 8. While wo'regard as utterly invalid,
and never to bo assumed or made of bind?
ing force, any obligation incurred or un?
dertaken in making war against the United
States, we hold the debt of the nation to
be sacred and inviolable, and we proclaim
our purpose to maintain unimpeached tho
honor and thc faith of the republic.
9. It is thc dntj of the National Coxen,
ment to recognize the services of the l e t. -
1 ral soldiers and sailors in the contest just
closed, by meeting promptly all their just
and rightful claims for tho cervices they
1 have rendered the nation, and by extend
Ling to those of them who have fallen the
j most generous and considerate care.
I 10. In Andrew Johnson, President of ti...
? United States, who, ni his great office, has
j proved steadfast in his devotion to the
Constitution, th?; laws and interests of bia
country, unmoved by persecution and nn
swer ved by reproach, having faith unas? a I
abio in the people, and ia the prec. pta of
, tho Government, we recognize a Chief
; Magistrato worthy of the nation and equal
to tho great crisis upon wt.ich his lot is
east; and wo tender to him, in tu; dis
i charge of his high and responsible ilutii a,
' onr profound respect and assurance o' oui
1 cordial and sincere support.
?A SMALL COTTAGE, with four
rooms and necessary out-butl.bngs,
on Lumber street, ono door from
1 Rull. Possession given ou September Pi.
? Apply immediately at Mrs. CATHCART'8,
j next door._Aug SI
State South Carolina-Eichland Dist.
/?./ Jacob Bell, Ordinary of said JHslrict.
WHEREAS Adelaide McDor.ell and
Thompson Hendrix have applied to
me for letters of administration on ul) au 1
\ singular the goods and chattels, rights
and credits of Daniel McDouell, lato of thu
; District aforesaid, deceased:
These are, therefore, to cite and ndmo
: nish all and singular the kindled and cre?
ditors of the saul deceased, to bc ?nd
apocar rae at our next Ordinary's Court for
I thc- said District, to be holden st Columbia
on Monday, the third day of Septem
' b. r next, at ten o'clock a. m., to shew
cause, ii any, why tho saul administration
: should not be granted.
Given under my hand and seal of the Court,
this eighteenth day of August, m tt e
year of our Lord one thousand eigm
hundred and sixty-six, and m the mue: v
I first year of AroericM raggje
i Aug 21 tu3 Ordinary Richland j hst*, ict.