Daily Paper $8 a Year
'Let our Just Censure
Attend the True Event.'
Tri-Weekly $5 a Year
BY JULIAN A. SELBY.
COLUMBIA, S. C., TUESDAY MORNING, OCTOBER 2. 1866.
VOLUME II-NO. 16^
ITIil.ISIIKI) DAILY AM) Titi-WEEKLY.
EVKKY WEDNESDAY MORNING.
BY JULIAN A. SELBY,
STATE AND ('ITV TEINTER.
r - - *?>? -
TER MS--LS A JJ VA NC E.
Daily Paper, six months.?4 00
Tri-Woeklv, " " . 2 50
Weekly, " <.. . 1 50
ADV K I IT IS ? M KN 18
Inserted at 75 cents per square for the first
insertion, and 50 ei nts for each subsequent.
Weekly 7"> cents eacb insertion.
A lihi ral discount mad'' un /he abo oe
rates token ttdcertiseinenfs art- lust ried by
t!"- mouth ur Uear.
<tir Special notices lo cents a line.
.->. :'. Kimmi. Newberry.
Samuel Drouthitt, Greenville C. H.
. Wm. Moore, Abbeville C. H.
Julius Poppe, Anderson C. II.
Tile \?-\v Civil Win-.
Wo have, several times within the
last two mouths, felt it our duty to
warn our countrymen that we stand
on tlie declivity towards another civil
war. The proofs that our fears were
not chimerical or premature, thicken
every day. Violent language and
tierce recriminations have been fol?
lowed, as was natural, by political
riots in several cities. The public
mind has been kindled to such an iu
rlanunatory pitch, that men have
grown reckless and defiant. Tho
present state of the public mind
Forebodes infinite mischief. The
following extracts, all taken from the
New York Republican journals, of
Thursday last, show that we are not
singular in supposing that the coun?
try is iii imminent danger. These
extracts are, of course, tinged with
party feeling. They are quoted by
us merely as evidence that intelli
gent observers of all parties consider
the present state of public feeling as
critical nr.d portentous:
"The great mass of our population,
excited almost to the same degree as
w hen the rebel p;uns bombarded Fort
Sumter, will listen to no project oi
reconstruction short of the accept?
ance of the amendments to the Con
stitution.''- Evening Post
"I warn those who are now seek?
ing what, they term a conservati vt
restoration " of the Union, that are
public cannot be "ginned together bj
bayonets-that it must rest on anc
he upheld by tho affections of itt
people-that if the loyal blacks o
the South shall not be fully enfran
ehised, there will soon he. anothei
outbreak of the rebel spirit nov
smouldering there, oven more des?
perate and formidable than tba
which has cost the country such lake:
of blood and such mountains of trea
sure. Connt the 4,000,000 of blacl
ciphers, and the rebellion has to-day
what it had not in the winter of Y>()
!, a decided preponderance at tin
South: and that preponderance wil
soon bloodily manifest itself. Then
is no safety, no real peace, but ii
universal justice and impartial free
"Outside of Congress, the politico
stump speakers on both sides hav
been yet more riotous and violent
The Butlers and Brownlows nm
Hamiltons on one side, and tin
Sharkeys and Dawsons and Monroe
on the other, have done their best t<
excite the pr?judices and passions o
the people, and to destroy the hies?
ings of peace. Ono set of men ii
the Southland, another set in th
East, have used their breath unceas.
i ugly to fan the smouldering ember
of fanaticism and sectionalism one
more into a Haine. On one side w
are told that Congress is to he ford
hiv entere 1 by the Southern member
and the organization carried at th
poiut of the bayonet. On the othc
we are promised the impeachment c
-.?t* the President as soon as Congress rt
assembles." - Herald.
"The same feeling prevailed si
years ago. Few then attached in:
portance to the threats of the fin
eaters, or realized the crisis wilie
was imminent. So it is to-day. Th
explosive force of the elements wilie
are at work is under-estimated. Th
possibility of collision, of conflict, c
civil war, is not acknowledged. Tl;
causes which operate in that dire?
tion are passed over as of no im mi
diate importance, and the influence
that are most likely to bring it aboi
are persistently disregarded.'*
[ Tt .tes.
A race, horse having been recent]
killed, in South Carolina, by ligh
liing, the owner said there was Min
consolation in knowing that nothii
but a streak of lightning over cangl
UNCONSTITUTIONALITY OF THE COT?
TON TAX. -Thc following lotter from
the Hon. Reverdy Johnson, Senator
from Maryland, and perhaps tho
most omi neut constitutional lawyer
in the land, possesses more thau ordi?
nary interest at thc present juncture.
It is In reply to a letter of Hon. Chas.
I. Seo<t, of Wilcox County, Alabama,
containing these interrogatories:
"In your opinion, is the Act of
Congress imposing a three cents tux
on cotton, constitutional? And would
the Supreme Court of the United
States so decide in the event the
question was carried before it for ad?
NEW YORK, September 20, 18Gd.
DEAR SIR: Your note of the 3d is
received here. Theqnestion you have
put to me, 1 have heretofore consi?
dered. My opinion is that thc tax
of three cents, imposed by the Act of
Congress you refer to, is unconstitu?
tional, and I believe the Court will so i
decide. Very respectfully, your obe- |
We learn from the Wilcox (Cam?
den) Timi's that cotton planters of j
that County arc concerting measures
to have the question tested in the j
Supri me Court.
(icu. Butler, having discussed the !
justice of hanging Robert E. Eoe for
his share in the- Anderson ville crime, !
the Mobile Tribune tims anathema- j
"HangRobert E. Lee! It is highly
just that such a sentiment of the devil
should be uttered by so appropriate a
medium as Beast Butler. Tt~ would
have burned to a cinder, during ut?
terance, any other than Butlerian
lips, l t required cheeks of four-fold
brass to give passage, without burst?
ing asunder, to such a sentiment. A
simple thief would have failed in the ;
attempt to give it voice: a common
murderer would not have undertaken j
it; an ordinary coward would have
been ashamed of It; a moderate liar
would have broken down in the at?
tempt. It required a perfect combi?
nation of the whole-liar, coward,
thief and murderer, in the foul person
of the Massachusetts hero-to com?
plete the incarnate fiend capable of |
standing up in full assembly and i
coidlv making the. proposition to hang
Gen. Robert E. Eeo. "
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SOUTH
RETARDED nv ITS UNSETTLED CONDI?
TION. -As an instance of the manner
in which the present unsettled condi?
tion of the Southern States retards
the development of their internal re?
sources, it may be stated that several
gentleman, acting as thc agents of
French capitalists, have been for
some time in the city, for the purpose
of investing large sums in various
Virginia enterprises-among others,
the continuation of the James River
canal to the Kanawha, thus affording
an additional transportation route
from the mineral regions in West
Virginia. They are unwilling, how?
ever, to conclude negotiations until
the future status of the States lately
in rebellion shall bc positively deter?
mined;-and unless some speedy solu?
tion of the matter is attained, they
will doubtless return io Europe.
[Coi\ N"ew York Herald.
SENSIBLE.-The Huntsville Inde?
pendent, speaking of the past and fu?
ture of Southern prosperity, says,
with much good sense:
Our cotton crops, on which our
prosperity was based, may fail from
actual labor. We must have a sub?
stitute for thom, and this substitute,
manufacturing and mining, which
white men are accustomed to and are
willing to work at. And so, in order
to make up the deficiency in cotton
product, what we do produce may,
here among ourselves, be spun into
yarn or woven into fabrics--thus
making tho aggregate of income equal
to that which wc used to rely on in
the raw material.
THE HERALD ON TUE LATE ELEC?
TIONS.-Tho New York J/erald, of
Thursday, begins an editorial on the
result of the recent election's as fol?
The results of the late elections are
positively sublime. They re-affirm
the high intelligence which pervades
the Northern States, and their im?
movable purpose to re-establish the
Union on a solid foundation. - They
demonstrate, the correctnass of our
estimates of the moral significancy
and pressure of the Maine election
of September, and thc inevitable so?
lution of the vital question of recon?
We forbear comment.
At the meat Paris Exhibition there
will be a cashmere shawl worked in
arabesques of unheard of fineness.
Tfc was ten years in tho workman's
The Amherst (Mass.) ' Express
boasts of a cow owned by Judge
French, which gave an average of
forty-eight pounds of milk for seven
successive, days. The Greenfield Ga?
zette caps this with a cow owned in
that place which gave 392 pounds in
six days, or fifty pounds per day.
The Boston Cultivator hereupon steps
in and takes them all down with a
Holland cow, imported by W. W.
Chenery, of Belmont, which gave 744
pounds in ten days, or an average of
74'4'?pounds per day.
ENGLISH OPINION.-The London
correspondent of the New York Sun
writes that the people of England are
tai.ing a great deal of interest in the
party war on our side, and the policy
of the President is, as it should be,
warmly applauded. The majority of
our thinking men believe that John?
son is doing all good to his country
and cementing the Union; while tho
radical party are doing all they can
to ruin us, and would destroy thc
Union if they had the power.
Mr. Johnson is understood to be?
lieve that Iiis impeachment will be
attempted; and he has ordered bar?
racks for 30,000 troops to be erected
at Washington. Perhaps that indi?
cates the reception he intends to give
his enemies; but unless he can have
the Governers of Xew York and Penn?
sylvania on his side, his friends will
not advise forcible resistance to the
A Western editor lost his sweet?
heart, but he has all that made her
lovely. He has her curls, her
frizzle, her waterfall! He has her
spiral palpitators, her store teeth and
her calves. He has put all things in
their order-has them hung on wires
-and intends to melt a little girl
and pour her into the fixings and
have another Miranda.
Prominent among the passengers
on the train recently wrecked on the
New York Central Road, was a man
whose only injury was a coat badly
split in the back and arms. He was
wildly walking the aisle of a car, ex?
claiming: "It will cost this company
a pile to settle with me. I tell you,
it will cost $10,000 to pay me for this
Among the amusing incidents of
the Portland fire, is one where a per?
son took out of his store a package of
envelopes, and left one article worth
thirty dollars to be destroyed, and
another where a lady was seen with
a new tin pail on her arm, while her
silver ware was left to burn in the
Tho Pickens Courier says: "We
regret to learn that, on the night of
the 5th instant, Cato, a freedman,
shot and killed Joseph Williams, of
Anderson District. The occurrence
took place near Salubrity, in this
District. The freedman has been
arrested, is now in jail, and will, we
presume, be tried next week."
SALE OF PUBLIC LANDS.-During
the past month, 2G.671 acres of the
public land were disposed of at the
following designated local offices:
Humboldt, Kansas, 5,549 acres; Falls
of St. Croix, 1,042; Brownsville,
Nebraska, 11,089; Fort Des Moines,
Iowa, 4,525; Sioux City, Iowa, 4,G6?.
It is said that Emperor Napoleon
will employ his leisure hours, while
at Com'eigne, in collecting materials
for his projected history of Charle?
magne. The work will be com?
menced so soon as "The Life of
Cosar" is completed.
The French Government intends
to introdude the Prussian military
system into France, dividing the army
into the Line and the first and second
Landwehr. It is calculated that
France will then be able to call out
one and a half millions of soldiers, at
A despatch dated New Orleans,
October 10th, says: "Cotton advices
are very discouraging. The general
estimates of this year's crop now
amounts to less than 1,000,000
Much attention is being given in
Georgia to the raising of tea. Samples
of black tea of fine quality, of native
growth, have been exhibited, and it
is said the plant flourishes remarkably
well on the coast.
The Winchester (Va.) News has
been shown a stalk of corn contain?
ing twenty-six ears. Very prolifia
, HAVING opened my oftico
permanently in Columbia, I
may bo found at all hours at
_ the residenco of Mr. M. H.
Berry, (opposite the Catholic Church,) on
Assembly street. ' D. P. GREGG.
GOLDEN SLQAR-IIO? SE SYRl P !
STEAM REFINED SUGAR LOAF .SY?
RUP -an extra article.
Ort j JOHN C. SEEGERS A CO.
SWEET OPOPONAX FROM MEXICO! New, j
very rare, rich and fashionable perfume. !
Thc finest ever imported or manufactured j
in thc United States. Try it and bc con- ?
A ?EW PERFUME! Called Sweet Opoponax j
from Mexico, manufactured by E. T. Smith
& Co., New York, is making a sensation !
wherever it is known. Is very delicate, '
and its fragrance remains on the handker- j
chief for days.
_ [Philadelphia Evening Bulletin.
SWEET OPOPONAX! New Perfume from |
Mexico. Thc only fashionable Perfume !
and ladies' delight. .
SWEET OPOPONAX! The only elegant Per- ?
fume. Is found on all toilets, and never
stains the handkerchief.
SWEET OPOPONAX! In thc sweetest Ex- |
tract ever mad?. Supersedes all others, j
Try it once; will use no other.
SWEET OPOPONAX! Ladies, in their morn?
ing calls, carry joy and gladness, when
perfumed with Sweet Opoponax.
MARRIAGE ANO CELIBACY-An
Essay of Warning and Instruction for
Young Men. Also, Diseases ami Abuses
which prostrate the vital powers, with sure
means of relief. Sent free of charge in
scaled letter envelopes. Address Dr. J.
S KILLIN HOUGHTON, Howard Associa?
tion, Philadelphia, Pa. Aug 15 8mo
COLGATE'S HONEY SOAP.
This celebrated Toilet Soap, in such
universal demand, is made from the
choicest materials, ii mil?! and emol?
lient in its nature, fragrantly scented,
and extremely tu-Hrflcial in ?ts action
upon the skin. For sal?; by all Druggists
and Fancy Coeds Dealers. March 28 Iv
BATCHELOR'* II AIR OYE.
The Original and Pest in the World.
The only true and perfect MAIR DYE.
Harmless, Reliable and Instantaneous.
Produces immediately a splendid black or
natural brown, without injuring tlie hair
or skin. Remedies the iii effects nf bad
dyes. Sold by all Druggists. The genuine
is signed William A. batchelor. Abo, RE?
GENERATING EXTRACT OF MILLE
FLEURS, for Restoring and Beautifying
the Hair. CHARLES BATCHELOR.
Oct 25 ly NYw York.
To TUE DEBILITATED AND THE DKCREPID.
For general debility and exhaustion of the
powers of nature, whether occasioned hy
sickness, fast living, constitutional decay,
old age, or any other physical or mental
cause, the one thing needful and indispen?
sable is HOSTETTER'S CELEBRATED STOMACH
BITTEBS. When the lire of life seems to be
absolutely dying out in the system, and the
mind, sympathizing with the body,is re?
duced almost to a state of imbecility, this
mighty restorative seems, as it were, to
lift the sufferer out of the .-lough nf de?
spond, and recruit and reinvigorate both
the frame and the intellect. An (dd farmer
in the Valley of the Monongahela writes
thus to Dr. Hostet ter: "I can compare the
operation of your Bitters upon me to no?
thing hut the effect of a rain after a long
dry spell in the fall of Hie year. Thc rain
falling on Hie meadows starts the second
ero]) of grass, and your wholesome medi?
cine seems to have started a second crop
of life and spirits in me." And this is
truly the effect of this grateful and power?
ful preparation. Ladies of weak constitu?
tion, or whose strength has been impaired
by bickness or age, lind it a most effica?
cious and delightful tonic, and it is admi?
nistered with great success in marasmus or
wasting of the flesh, to young children. In
fact, it is a much safer and surer cordia'
for tiie nursery than anything advertised
specially for that purpose. Oct 5 +G
A NEW AND GRAND EPOCH IN MEDICINE.
Dr. Maggiel is the founder of a new modi
cal system! The quant it arians, whose vasi
internal doses enfeeble the stomach ant
paralyze tho bowels, must give precedence
to thc man who restores health and uppe
titc, wi di from one to two of his extraordi
nary Pills, and cures the most viralen
sores with a box or so of bis wonderfulan<
all-healing Salve. These two great speed
fies of the Doctor are fast superseding al
the stereotyped nostrums of tho day. Ex
traordinary cures by Maggiel's Pills anc
Salve have opened the eyes of the publie t<
the inefficiency of tho (so-called) remcdiei
of others, and upon which people havo 8(
long blindly depended. Maggiel's Pill? an
not of tho class that are swallowed by tin
dozen, and of which every box full takei
creates an absolute necessity for another
Ono or two of Maggiel's Pills suffices ti
placo the bowels in perfect order, tono tin
stomach, -jreate an appetite and render tin
spirits light and buoyant. There is n<
griping and no reaction in the form of eon
stipation. If the liver is affected, its func
tions are restored; and if tiie nervwus RVS
tem is feeble, it is invigorated. This las
quality makes tho medicines very desirabl
for tho wants of delicate females. Ulcerou
and eruptive diseases aro literalljteextiii
guished by thc disinfectant power of Mas
giel's Salve. In fact, it is here announce
that MaggieCs Bilious, Dyspeptic and Bim
rhcea Pills cure where all others fail. Whil
for burns, scalds, chilblains, cuts and a
abrasions of the skin Mangier* Salce is ii
fallible. Sold by J. Maggiel, ll Pine stree
New York, and all druggists, at 25 cent
per box. July 20 ly
ALMOST equal to Hams.
Aug ?V) JOHN C. REEGERS A CO.
'BETTER, LATE THAN NEVER.
JUST fi???iV?0 !
FT i\f\ BUSHELS WHITE and KLLOW COHN.
f JV/V/ 4,000 lb?. Baltimore* SIDES ami SHOULDERS.
Extra fine Sugar-cured HAMS. 50 Backs SALT. .>:, boxes CA.NDI Es
25 bbls Super. FLOUB. 5 bbls. SELF-RAISING FLOUR
6 kegs GOSH EX BUTTER. 10 bbl?. SUGAR. A.. assortment of line CUACKERS.
Together with a fine assortment of WINES and LIQUORS and a varied -dock of
HOUSE-KEEPING ARTICLES- all td which will be sohl ai thc LOWEST VU1KFT
PRICES FOR CASH. Call and examine for vourselves, at
S. S Tl ER I'D A X cf: 0 0.' S,
Corner of Co rv?is ?ind Assemblv streets,
Oct 5Hmo Next to thc Washington House.
H. E. NICHOLS & CO.,
General Insurance Agents, Stock and Exchange Brokers,
COLUMBIA, S- ?O
REPRESENT, among others, the following well-known FIRST-CLASS COMPANIES:
QUEEN'S INSURANCE COMPANY ot Liverpool and London- -author?
ized capital ?2,000.0(1(1, or ncariv.?1(1,000,0011
UNDERWRITERS' AGENCY. New York capital and assets over. 3,000,000
INTERNATIONAL, New York capital and assets nearlv. 2,000,000
SECURITY, New York capital and assets.. . 1,500,000
HOME, New Haven - -capital and assets. 1,500,000
MANHATTAN, New York- capital and assets. 1,100.000
NORTH AMERICAN, New York capital and assets. 760,000
HOME, Savannah. Ga. capital and assets. 500,000
SOUTHERN INSURANCE AND TRUST, Savannah-capital and assets.... 500,000
Risks taken on BUILDINGS, MERCHANDIZE, COTTON in store and on planta?
tions -Household Furniture, Hints. Leases. Mortgages and every description of pro?
perty hable to IOSH or damage by. tire, on thc LOWEST TERMS. Policies issued pay?
able in gold or enrrenev, and looses promptly paid.
?ETNA LIFE INSURANCE COMI'ANY, Hartford -capital and assets nearly $4,060,000.
This liberal and g?nerons company presents great inducements to those who feel that
life is uncertain, and who desire to make a CERTAIN provision for those near and dem.
who otherwise might suffer when thev are gone.
SELL EXCHANGE ON NEW YORK; in sums t.. suit, at the usual rates.
Internal Revenue Stamps, of all denominations, for sale.
Ollico, for the pr.-sent, corner of Washington and Assembly streets. Sept Ot?mo
-ETNA LIFE INSURANCE CO.
Assets, .lune, 18(56.$3,000,000
Income for vear ending June, 1866. ow r. 2.800,000
IQ OK P0L?C1ES issued in June, L86B. DIVIDENDS declared and paid annually.
(00') Fiftv per cent, dividend declared January I, 18(56.
TEN PAYMENT LIFE AND ALL ENDOWMENT POLICIES.
.V 0 .Y - F O /.' F F. I TA li L F. .
$20,000 will be insured -n a single Lile, where the physical condition is unexceptionable
THIS IS THE ONLY NORTHERN COMPANY THAT RENEWED ITS
SOUTHERN POLICIES AFTER THE WAR.
Thc only certain provision for vonr family Ls a policy of LIFE INSURANCE.
Do not delav to place those m ar a nd dear above the contingencies of accident or
chance. Call on ' ??. E. NICHOLS & CO., Agenta,
July 22 3mo Coi ner of Assembly and Washington streets, Columbia, S. C.
.-W#?fV Hv^?VSft?Ti ?
.^$m*?W |f E
HORACE L. EMERY. ,l [ ""'.^y.jT- ~ *&*5rWa*s'
HORACE L. EMERY & SON,
PR O I'RI K 7 '0 RS . 1 XI) MA XA < i F RS,
Hamilton Street, Corner of Union and Liberty Streets, Albany, N. Y.
H. HERBERT EU KUY.
H O T I C ?
T H 32
AS other parties are advertising themselves as having purchased the property ami
business of the iva-, rv Agricultural Works, increased their facilities, and are con?
tinuing the business, thc c'lYec! .d' which, it" not thc intention, is to divert the patronage
and business from the well known and long established EMERY'S ALBANY AGRICUL?
TURAL WORKS of this city, the proprietors of these Works, in self-defence, and to
inform their patrons that they still live, beg a careful perusal of the following card:
Tho above celebrated Works were originated and erected during th-j year? 1847, '-?8
and '40, by the present senior proprietor, who has (with short interruptions) been con?
stantly connected with them as the principal manager, and since 1865, in connection
with his junior brothers, under the style of Emery Brothers.
During che summer of 1862, he attended the World's Fair at London, with some of
his leading inventions, and remained abroad nearly two years, engaged in successfully
establishing their manufacture.
In the meantime, owing to embarrassments and losses, the firm of Emery Brothers,
consisting of Wm. B. and (1. W. Emery, made an assignment, and these entire works
and business were sold, amt purchased by other parties, and tho said linn ceased to
exist from November 1. 1862, leaving the brothers, Wm. li. and G. W., hopelessly bank?
On bis return from England, in the early part of 18(54, the present senior proprietor
negotiated for and re-purchased the entire interest, real and personal, in and to these
works and businoss, including its entire accumulation of patterns, working machinery
and its business, and continued the same, with the aid of Wm. B. and G. W., to No?
vember 1, 18(54, when ho assumed ils entire management on bia own account -Win. B.
and G. W., for a very valuable cash consideration, preferring to relinquish all antici?
pated interests and retire therefrom, and with the intention with these funds of com?
promising with their creditors.
He has since associated with him his oldestson, HORACE. HERBERT EMERY, under
the style and name at the head of this notice, and continues tho business, in all its
branches, at the old stand-than which no more complete establishment of its kind
exists in thecountry.
They have largely increased their facilities, made many new and valuable additions
and improvements to their already large assortment of machines, which their expe?
rience and observation, at home and abroad, have suggested as desirable.
Tho senior member of the firm is the pioneer of this business here, and he has been
the designer, protector and patentee of all the leading and successful machines which
have given the wida celebrity to these works; among which are the EMERY HORSE
POWERS, COTTON GINS "and CONDENSERS, Threshing . Machines, Sawing Mills,
Cern Shellers, Churning Machines, Cotton Openers, Ac., all of which t hey now offer
the public on the most liberal terms, and a continuance of their patronage is solicited.
In the articles of Cotton Gins and Condensers, they are the only parties manufactur?
ing them with the improvements which have given these (?ins tho precedence and their
world-wide reputation, notwithstanding other parties are now representing that they
have purchased the Emery Agricultural Works and are%yakmg these celebrated ma?
chines -as a glance at the facts and their machines will satisfy the most common
The property which was purchased !>y said other parties, and called the Emery Agri?
cultural Works, consisted of a recent collection or machines, tools, patterns. Ac, by
Mr. Farr, with the services of Wm. B. and G. W. Emery, and located in the village of
Bath, in an adjoining County, and in value about $5,000 to $7,000; tho tw > Emerys tak?
ing employment with tho new organization.
Wo again solicit the attention of the agricultural public and trade, and assure them
that nothing will be spared to maintain th?' well-earned reputation of our wares, which
we offer on the most liberal terms to tanners, planters and dealers. Circulars H nd
price lists sent gratis on application.
L.EMERY & VA. a Address A. R. COLTON, wi o has been
i?UQ?v*^^e-a? ... . ?t^~r . duly appointed our exclusive agent for Co
.lil rrj*,-. :vi^/S^.^^l^\^(|9Mte-'hnnbia and adjoining Districts, from whom
^l^^^^^^^^^T^ above machines can bo obtained; also.
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