Newspaper Page Text
Thnraiay Jlorning, January 30.1868
Millions and mill?n?.
Homti discussion is going on, or
was recently, betweeu curtain papers,
as to what is a billion, one asserting
that it is a tho-isaud millions, and
the other that it i? a million millions,
and both citing good authorities hi
support of their respective positions.
But when they go further, and insist
that a billion not only is, but ought
to bo, n thousand, or a million mil?
lions, it is plain that ono or the other
of them must be .w rong. In fact,
plain, unsophisticated man requires
but a limited extent of numerical
terms. It ie Only when the finances
of the State, or the calculations of
science have stretched far beyond the
limits of the tally-stick and the
abacus, that a more extended nomen?
clature becomes requisite, nnd ac?
cordingly we find few languages pos?
sessing a term obviously or apparent?
ly originnl to denote a number larger
than a thousand. Of the Western
languages, the Greek, with its "my?
riad" to denote tens of thousands, is
the only instance-the Roman no?
menclature stopped with mille. From
this, in process of time, the term
"million" was formed, to denote
thousands of thousands, and sub?
sequently "billion" was added to the
series, which it was perceived might
be indefinitely extended to "trillion,"
"quadrillion," <fco., words seldom
practically used, and by mathemati?
cians, perhaps, nevor. But hero a
difference arose-the English con?
sidering that, as a million is a thou?
sand thousands, so a billion should
be a million millions, and a trillion
a billion billions, while the French
choso to establish in nil the new
terms a thonsaud-fold progression,
making a billion a thousand millions,
a trillion a thousand billions, &c.
This certaiuly seems to bo the neatei
style, as the other makes the reading
of very large numbers extremely
cumbersome, and indeed unintelligi
bio, and accordingly wo find thal
later arithmeticians have, almost
without exception, adopted th?
French method, which makes th<
reading of large numbers ex
tremely simple nuil systematic
Indeed, what is a number? It ma]
be said that it is a certain rcputitioi
of unity or one; that ten is ten units
a hundred, a hundred units; a thou
sand, a thousand units. The thou
sand, however, is in ono sense tb
second term of a aeries-a series rep
resenting the three dimensions o
matter. Of this series, ono is tb
commencement, representing the firs
term of cubical as well as of squar
and linear dimension. Of tho las!
ten is tlie second term, and of squar
dimension, hundred is the second
Tho Greeks, progressing by th
square dimension, made myriad th
third term-tims: One, a huudreil
(or a hundred times ono,) a myriai
(or a hundred times a hundred.
And indeed, the Greeks made th
myriad their measure of large nun
bera, not sayiug a million, or a thoi
sand thousand, but a hundred inj
rinds. But taking tho cubical dimei
sion, tho first throe terms will b<
one, a thousand, (or a thousand timi
ono,) and a million, (or a thousan
timos a thousand.) This view won!
indicate a propriety in observing tl
progression by thousands through a
the subsequent terms of tho serie
Thus each period of throe figures bi
comes a syllable of tho expressio
denoting a largo number, and is rcn
liko each of tho others, its prop?
designation being added to each or
except tho last, which is uuderstoc
to bo unity-unity thus denoting bot
tho lowest place in each period, an
tho lowest poriod of the number; nm
in fact, denoting the number itsel
?V .?. 's* v r .? . ? . * i,
'<y *V?WJ?<..'(,'.>**4^"?^;- ? *?\-, -
-1?---M---j lill "*l
as being so many times unity. The
places then of figures aro three
units, ten?, hundreds, tho periods ave
indefinit?*-jn >r>r.mlw?v-*ini!5S thcu
sund8, millions, billions, trillions,
Sec., &a. A brief explanation Of this
system to a child of ordinary capacity
' will enable him readily to check off
thc longest row of figures into the
proper number of periods, and to
read them from left to right with
even greater rapidity than if words
were substituted for figures.
IMPORTANT ORDER.-Gen. Cunby,
on Monday, issued the following
order, which explains itsolf :
I. It having been represented thnt,
owing to certain informalities and
non-compliance with certain regula
tions prescribed by the laws of the
State, and by military orders, for
drawing juries in South Carolina,
such drawings have, in some cases,
been rendered irregular and iuvalid,
it is ordered :
1. That juries heretofore drawn,
or which, previous to the regular
spring terms of the Circuit Courts
now approaching, may be drawn for
a Circuit ?i Diaiiict Court, in any
Judicial District of South Carolina,
whether the provisions of General
Orders No. 32, or No. 89, or No. 100,
of the year 1867, from these Head?
quarters, were regarded in the pre?
paration of the list from which any
drawing was made or may be made,
and whether such drawing was, or
may be, at a regular term of any
court, or at an extra court, or by the
clerk of a court and the sherill of a
District in the proHouce of a magis?
trate, and whether such extra court
or drawing by tho officers of any
court was ordered by the Governor of
thu State, any Judge, Circuit Court,
or Court of Appeals, are hereby le?
galized; and the right of challenge ns
given by tho said General Orders No.
89, and tho necessary drawing ol
tales, are hereby preserved as hereto?
2. At the next spring terms of thc
Circuit and District Courts, respect
ively, and whensoever thereafter new
jury lists are to bo made for any Dis
trict, jury lists shall be prepared foi
the list of all malo citizens theron
who shall bavo paid taxes within thc
twelve months next preceding; ant
challenges shall bo allowed in con
fortuity with General Orders No. 89
3. Upon the return of the venires
the presiding judge of the cour
shall be authorized, at the empanel
ling of juries so drawn, to set asidi
any juror for personal unfitness bj
reason of intellectual or moral dis
qualifications; provided, that race
color or former condition of nervi
tnde shall not of itself boa gonn?
II. Tho Court of Common Plea
and General Sessions in South Caro
lina, aro hereby invested with cou
current jurisdiction with the Distria
Courts, ol' nil cases and matters o
which the District Courts have juris
diction under the Constitution am
laws of the State.
HT. The provisions of the Act c:
General Assembly of the State c
South Carolina, entitled "Au Act t
amend tho law in relation to tei]
ant3," approved December 19, 186(
shall bo construed to extend and ny
ply to all cases of tenancies, whethe
at will or for a term limited by th
Act of the parties, or by operation c
law, and whether such tenancies wei
created by parol or by written least
or contracts of letting, wherever rei
shall bo duo and in arrears, or who!
ever the tenant shall hold over nih
tho cessation of his right of occi
paney. Whenever application
made to a magistrate to remove
tenant lor any cause within tho ii
tent of said Act, as hereby construct
it shall be the duty of such mugi
trate, und of the sheriff or constabli
to proceed under tho Act herein ri
cited, and to charge uo greater fe<
than those therein prescribed.
IV. In no criminal caso wboi
i thcro is appeal from any other cou
to tho Court of Appeals, shall it I
necessary for the accused to appei
in person before the Court of A;
peals, but in a case of capital felon,
thc Conrt of Appeals, at its discr
tiou, with regard to expediency as I
the time and placo of sentence, mi
order a prisoner to bo brought bofo
--? <? *-.
A list of fail.ires in this city, sn,
thc New York Herald, for tho fo
weeks ending January 25, exhib?
aggregate liabilities of over $8,00(
ODO, of whic! the assets will cov
THm Reconstruction Convention.
CHABUESTON, January 28.-Tho
Convention waa called to order hy
president Mackey. Prayer by Isaac
B. W. M. Mackey made a personal
explanation and apology for his as?
sault on a newspaper reporter yester?
day. On motion, tho apology was
The majority of the Committee on
Miscellaneous Matters submitted a
report, recommending the Conven?
tion to petition Congress to con ti une
the Freedmen's Bureau until thc re?
storation of civil government, and
thtit ii bureau of educaliou be estab
likhed. The majority of the Com?
mittee dissented, as by the- time for
tho proposed discontinuance-July
1G-civil Roven nue nt will be estab?
lished. The reports were made the
special order for to-morrow, at 1.
The President road a letter of re?
signation from Johu E. Terry, a de?
legato from Colleton, which was re?
ceived na information.
A resolution was adopted, provid?
ing for the printing and distributing
on member's bibles of 250 copies of
the journal of each day's proceed?
ings of the Convention.
Til? special order, "au ordinance
to levy a special tax to defray the ex?
penses of this Convention and pre?
serve the credit of the State," was
taken up. The matter was discussed,
and was finally made the special order
for half-past 1 o'clock Wednesday.
The ordinaneo defining the pay
and mileage of members and officers
of the Convention, was next taken
T. J. Robertson said the Finance
Committee had looked over the wholo
ground, and could lind no other
means of raisiug money to pny the
expenses of the Convention, but by
endorsing tho bills receivable o? the
State. Some of the members report
that they aro now much distressed
and in need of money. According to
this ordinance, the members were to
be paid $9 per day. The present
discount on the bills receivable of the
Shite was about 20 per cent., making
the real value of the per diem of the
members $7.20 in greenbacks. Very
few members spend daily more than
one-third of thnt amount. The
balance, by carrying it home and cir?
culating it through the country,
would furnish a medium for paying
taxes which would increase their
value perhaps 15 per cent., leaving
only n discount of 5 per cent, to tho
After various amendments by
Roertbson, Whittcniore, Parker and
Moses, the ordinance, as finally
adopted, is as follows:
The pay of Member $11 per day;
Secretary 811 per day; Assistant
Sergeant-at-Arms SS; Assistant Sec?
retary $8; Engrossing Clerk S8;
Reading Clerk $7; Door Keeper $7;
Assistant Door Keeper SO; two Mes?
sengers $5 per day, each. And tho
sums mentioned aforesaid, shall bo
paid to thc members and officers in
bills receivable of tho State of South
Carolina. The mileage of members
aud officers of the Convention, shall
be twenty cents per mile to and from
the Convention by the usual mail
BROTHERLY LOVE FOU THE AFRI?
CAN,-Rev. Dr. Boynton, of the Con?
gregational Church, at Washington,
whose prayers and sermons have
been of the most radical Rtamp, has
demonstrated the extent of his bro?
therly love for the African, by refus?
ing to admit two colored men to his
church. To make the offcuco greater,
he preached a sermon to justify their
exclusion on spiritual grounds.
"Moses refused to be called the son
ofJfPharaoIl'8 daughter," ^therefore,
the races should bc kept separate in
tho church and society, he argued.
[Springfield (Masa.) Republican.
UNITED STATES SALE OF LANDS IN
THE RAKISH or ST. HELENA.-Tho
Charleston Advocate, of the 25th,
contains a notice, signed by tho
United ??ta?c? Direct Tax Commis?
sioners for South Carolina, that a
public sale will bo held at College
Square --, in tho city of Port
Royal, South Carolina, commencing
on tlie 17tli day of February, 1868,
at 12 o'clock m., of said day, for the
disposal of tho lots of laud compris?
ing thc city of Port Royal, in said
Parish, not heretofore sold.
NATO LEON AND THE PAULS PRESS.
Sovcnteeu Paris editors were summa?
rily arrested at New Year's on tho
chargo of violating tho Constitution
of tho French Empire, by publishing
unauthorized reports of Parliamen?
CASH-PAX UP.-From and after j
January 1, l??S, rue casa system wji?
be strictly .euforced. Persons who
are now Indebted for nubscriptions,
and who wish their papers continued,
will confer a favor by paying up at
once. Those who fail will have their
papers discontinued. C:ish will also j
be required for all advertisements, i
Persons forwarding advertisements
from a distance, must send a remit?
tance. Job work cash on delivery.
Messrs. Duffie & Chapmau have
received the February number of
Harper's Monthly Magazine.
UNIVERSITY LECTURE. -lu conse?
quence of the inclemency of the
weather, the lecture of Dr. LnBorde
is postponed until after the examina?
Mr. Mnllaly delivered his second
and last lecture last night, to a highly
delighted audience. He waa par?
ticularly denunciatory of the "great"
ones now in authority. Mr. M.
leaves for Augusta this morning, and
will carry with them the kind wishes
of the majority of our citizens.
PITHY.-The Augusta Constitution?
alist, speaking of the ordinauee in?
troduced bj- Hayue, of Barnwell, to
mnke a new District out of portions
of Barnwell, Edgeficld and Orange
burg, to be called the District of
"Should this ordinance ever re?
ceive the sanction of the 'Conven?
tion,' it is to be feared that the Dis?
trict of Sumner will become a cone
ASTRONOMICAL-TUE TUREE EVEN?
ING STARS.-The two beautiful even?
ing stars, Venus aud Jupiter, are
rapidly approaching each other. To?
night they will be leas than the dia?
meter of the moon apart, aud then,
although seemingly so near, the dis?
tance between will be millions of
miles. Venus is the lower, and, of
course, the brightest. The planet
Mercury is the third evening star,
but not at present to be seen, on ac?
count of its low position.
"DEMOREST'S YOUNO AMERICA."
The February number of this beauti?
ful monthly has just come to baud.
The children are jubilant over its ar?
rival, and anticipate its coming with
persistent questions, making its ad?
vent a relief and pleasure. It is quite
unique in its way-fresh and spirited
in tone, and full of illustrations.
Subscription price SI.50, including a
handsome premium. Published by
W. Jennings Demorest, 473 Broad?
way, New York.
Ui* TO THE EEUOWS IS THE TUBA*
SURY.-Tho "patriotic" body conven?
ed in Charleston, by military au?
thority, deemiug its services extra
valuable, bas declared that members
shall receive eleven dollars a day, as
compensation, and twentj* cents mile?
age. This is much ahead of the pay
that members of Congress dared to
vote themselves. Leslie, of Barn?
well, a white mau, took the money
grabbers to task-declaring that they
would hh unwilling, if tho money
came out of their own pockets, to
pay moro than 81.50 for a day's
work: he, for one, was willing to
carry out thc present joli ui ?'?.v'?.
Wright, a colored member, thought
that the pay was right. "Bottom
rail on top," with a vengeauco. Gen.
Cunby should havo a littlo mercy on
tho unfortunate tax-payers, and put
tho per diem at a reasonable rato
for there is no telling but that these
would-be Solons, but real Shylocks,
may still further increase their com?
was tho thirteenth day of the session,
and what has been accomplished,
except provision for the pay of the
SNOW.-It commenced to snow this
morning, about half-past 12 o'clock,
and ns we jro to proec.-o o'elccl: -thc
flakes are coming down thick and
SOUTHERN SOCIETY.-The attention
of persons desirous of subscribing to
a literary journal, is called to thc
ut true lions offered by the above paper,
published at No. 22G West Baltimore
street, Baltimore, Maryland. South?
ern men and women write for it;
Southern men conduct it, and it is
published iii a Southern city. It is
destined to reflect houor and credit
upon tho South. Specimen copies
will be mailed free to any address.
HUNTING SUCKERS.-One of the
employees of the Phoenix received a
j notice, a few days ago, from Clark,
Webster A: Co.," New York, inform?
ing him that his ticket, in their gift
enterprise, had drawn a magnificent
gold watch, worth $200, and request?
ing that five percent, of the amount
-vlO-bc forwarded at ouce, with
directions by what express the watch
should be sent. The receiver of the
letter immediately procured a Con?
federate ten dollar bill, and enclosed
that and a Jeff. Davis stamp in an
envelope, to the enterprising swin?
dlers. They have been cut short in
their thievish career, however, aa the
following paragraph from the Tribune
"Clark, Webster k Co.'s fraud, en?
titled 'The Merchants' and Bankers'
Grand Presentation Enterprise,' was
again before Justice Dowling on
Saturday, the complainant being Mr.
David W. DeForest, of No. 580 Stoto
street, Brooklyn. Justice Dowling
gave a policeman n warrant for the
arrest of the swindlers, and on this
warrant Henry Elias, supposed to be
the head of the concern; Jobn D.
Wilcox, John Devauy, John Benson
nnd Andrew Peters, clerks, were
taken into custody, and all the books,
papers, and hundreds of letters,
were seized. Justice Dowling held
thu prisoners for future examina?
There are others of the same sort
still in existence; and the unwary are
warned against paying any attention
to their apparently attractive billet
Some ladies of our acquaintance
say that if the "stay law" is not un?
constitutional, it is nevertheless very
damaging to the constitution.
ARGUMENT FOR SHORT SKIRTS.
They give plain girls a chance. What
nature has denied the face, she often
gives to the understanding.
THE BETTER WAY.-Don't whip the
babies. Treat God's lambs tenderly.
Compel obedience, but not with thc
rod. Do not yourselves make
shadows in the sunlight with which
God always surrounds children. Do
not let them bo lulled to sleep by the
falling of their tears, or by their
own sad sobs and sighs. Far plea?
santer is it when you go to tuck them
in at night, to find pink feet on the
pillow, dimpled knees in the air, toys
yet in embrace, and smiles on their
sweet mouths. Yourselves bear in
mind their last words: "If I should
die before I wake."
MAIL ARRANGEMENTS.-The post
office open during tho week from 8J?
a. m. to 6 p. m. On Sundays, from
\% to 2J? p. m.
The Charleston and Western mails
are open for delivery at 2 p. m.. and
close at 0 a. m.
Northern-Open for delivery at
10'.< a. m., closes at 1 p. m.
Greenville-Open for delivery at ;J
p. m., closes at 8 p. m.
NEW AnvKnTisEMEN?s.- Attent ion i* call?
ed to tho following advertisements, pub?
lished this morniug for tho first time
F. Zosterfleth-Whiskey and Bitters.
Sleeting Grand Royal Areli (Jhaptor.
During the cold weather in St.
Paul, frost gathered on tho window
panes three-quarters of an inch
thick. At the same date peach trees
wore in bloom in Florida.