Newspaper Page Text
Saturday Morning, February 8.1868.
FEED. DOUGIJAB TO HTS PEOPLE. -In
A late speech at Akron, Ohio, Fred.
. D?nalos. addreaa'nor tha onlor?d peo?
ple, told them that the Government
.emancipated the negroes as a matter
.of policy, and not from any Chris?
tian motive of right or justice, and
that they had no more reason to be
thankful to the Government for their
. freedom than had the Hebrews to
feel thankful to Pharaoh for their de?
liverance from bondage. Douglas
aaid that although it was possible
?that, naturally, the colored men were
.equal to the whites, they were not so
practically, and that they must rise
through their own exertions to a
.much higher degree of intelligence
boforo being allowed all the rights
-And privileges of the white man. He
Added, that they were now on proba?
tion, and if fifteen years hence found
?them as they now are. it would be
almost impossible for them to make
any advancement. Perhaps this ad?
vice from' an intelligent colored man
may be received by his race as the
.counsel of a friend. It is certain
that the competition against whioh
they will have to contend for the
. means of support, must increase, by
immigration, every year, whilst they
. can rely on no such addition to their
? numbers, but must make np for tho
Inequality by inoreased efficiency.
The ignorant and degraded, nf what?
ever color, must always bo subject to
superior intelligence, and it behooves
the colored people to reflect whether
-'those are their true friends who would
plunge them into politics without
.previous preparation and training, or
' those who would help to fit them, as
? far as may be accomplished, for tho
'-discharge hereafter of suoh duties as
may devolve upon them.
The tooth-treaty with the Fejoes
ia said to contain, among other pro?
visions, one that the President, on
his part, shall "agree to prevent the
rival Fejee King from levying war
Against the legitimate sovereign dur?
ing the continuance of the mortgage."
' ..The question is, whether the Presi?
dent shall be permitted to exercise
this enormous influence over those
-who may one day be our fellow-citi?
zens, and whether there is not ground
for Congress rather to intervene aud
^'reconstruct" the Fejee Islands.
Here is a bright idea-say for Mr.
Ashley. Let a bill be made ready
to "secure a Republican form of
government" to the islands, as soon
AS the islands are annexed. The
Kew York Times suggests that Con?
gress will, of course, confer on the
Fejees the right of suffrage.
THE HAM II:.-In tho report of the
XoniBiana State Fair at New Orleans,
.we find the following in regard to
this new plant:
"Quito a number of persons have
been attracted to the machine for
cleansing (or ginning) the ramie
plant-the substitute for cotton which
certain enterprising persons are en?
deavoring to introduce among South?
ern agriculturists. Apparently tho
machine does its work well, leav?
ing the long, strong, silky fibres free
-from dirt or parti?les of tho stalk.
. Many qnestions are asked, and satis?
factorily answered by the exhibitor,
who refers with pride to the growing
-ramies on the Fair Grounds, which
aro in a nourishing condition, al?
though planted but a few weeks ago.
The ramie grows from slips or cnt
?itags, and thu routs wiii last for live
years, yielding annual orops. It is
.claimed that tests already made
prove that this cnn be made a more
?profitable crop than cotton. It will,
d i bi le s, receive a thorough test
from our planters."
Mr. J. Fraser Matthowe?, a resident
of Charleston, was brutally murdered
by some negroes, in Beaufort, on tho
? ?.. . s r^H'-Vt) ? -M- . <-t>\
Oar Vint Ul Uro art.
The Charleston Nevos pnblishes an
interesting sketch of the South Caro?
lina Railroad, from which we extract
It is little more than forty years
ago that the practicability of railroad
cc;ni???>Ca*i?? rrilu the interior was
first discussed in Scuth Carolina.
Horse power was all that was con?
templated; and those who favored
the project believed that horse power
alone, upon a rail or tram-way, would
be so superior to the' ordinary road
as to be highly profitable to the com?
pany, as well as convenient to the
public. One of the earliest projectors
was Mr. Alexander Black. Ho was
ably seconded by Mr. Tristram Tup
Ser, Mr. Wm. Aiken, Gov. Bennett,
ir. B. J. Howland and Dr. Samuel
H. Dickson. These gentlemen met
with every kind of discouragement;
they persevered, nnd, ns the result of
their -labors, South Carolina may
1. The first railroad of any consi?
derable size built iu the United
2. Tbs first steam propelled cars,
running regularly with passengers
and baggage, in the world.
3. The first application of Ameri?
can improvements to locomotives and
passenger coaches, which improve?
ments have sinoe been almost uni?
Ia 1827, the charter of tho South
Carolina Canal and Railroad Com?
pany was obtained, and in February
of that year, books were opened for
additional subscriptions. The stock
was all taken, and in May, 1828, the
company was formally organized.
In June. 1829, a meeting of the
stockholders was held. It was re?
solved to commence the work at once,
aud the directors were authorized to
construct and complete forthwith a
portion of the road between Charles?
ton and Hamburg. To save them?
selves from satire and ridicule, the
directors stole quietly out to Line
street, on the night of January 9,
1830, and turned the first sod of
what is now the South Carolina Rail?
The "Best Friend," the first rail?
road engine built in the United
States, was designed by Mr. E. L.
Miller, of Charleston, and was built
in New ?ork. She was a small four
wheeled engine, with an upright
boiler, with flues close to the bottom,
and the flumes circulating around
them. Its performances on its trial
trip, in December, 1830, were regard?
ed with wonder and, perhaps, appre?
In January of the following year,
1831, the directors were formally au?
thorized to locate the road, and by
the end of the month the "Best
Friend" was running over eight miles
of track to Goose Creek. In Decem?
ber, 1832, the road was opened to
Branchville, and tho doubters and
skeptics began to fear that they had
wept and foreboded in vain.
1833 was an eventful year. In
April, the road was completed to
Midway, seventy-two miles, and a
train was run up to that point, at the
rate of twelve miles an hour. In
October, tho entire road to Hamburg
was completed and thrown open for
The road was fairly stocked with
engines and cars, but they were of a
weak and incomplete description.
The engine ''Phoenix," for instance,
was three-horse power, and was capa?
ble of hauling 6,000 pounds oi
freight. The "West Point" waa
eleven-horse power, and could haul
five cars of a capacity of 2,000 pounds
each; and the "Barnwell," a mam?
moth among the locomotives of thirty
years ago, was twenty-four-horse
power, and could hunl ten cars ol
2,000 pounds each. It is interesting
to compare these locomotives with
thoso of the preseut day, which have
a power of 300 horses, weigh from
twenty to tweaty-six tons, and can
haul with ons? twenty curs of a capa?
city of 16,000 pounds each, or an
aggregate of 320,000 pounds.
Early in 1838, ground was broken
on the Columbia branch, which wac
to connect Charleston, by the Charles?
ton and Hamburg Road, with Colum?
lu Juiy, 1842, tho Columbia branch
was completed, and the total income
of the two roads-from Charleston tc
Hamburg, and from Branchville tc
Columbia-wus for the six months,
ending June 30, 1843, $215.982.
During the year 1842, permission
was grunted the oitizens of Camden
and Kershaw Districts to construct s
branch to conneot Camden with the
South Carolina Railroad, and, in De?
cember, 1844, an Act of incorpora
I tion was grunted by tho Legislature.
VENUS ANT/JOTTTEB,-As these two
planets have attracted considerable
observation and interest recently, !
owing to the fact of their late prox?
imity, a. phenomenon never before
witnessed by our readers, the Char-1
lestsp jSsws collates a iew facts re- j
garding them. Of all the luminaries
of Heaven, the sun and moon ex?
cepted, the planet Venus is most
conspicuous. She appears like a
brilliant lamp among the leaser orbs,
and alternately anticipates tho morn?
ing dawn, and ushers in the evening
twilight. The diameter of Venus
has been computed at about 7,800
miles, and consequently its surface
contains 191,134,944 square miles,
and could contain a number of in?
habitants equal to more than 53,500,
000,000, or nearly sixty-seven times
the population of our globe. Venus
revolves in au orbit which ?B 433,
800,000 miles in circumference in the
space of 224 days and sixteen boors;
its rate of motion is, therefore, about
80,000 miles every hour, 1,830 miles
every minute, and about twenty-two
miles every second. Its distance
from the sun is 68,000,000 of miles,
and from tho earth, when nearest us,
about 27,000,000 of milee, which is
the nearest approach that any of the
heavenly bodies, except the moon,
make to the earth. Yet this distance
is very great, for a cannon ball would
require six years and three months
to move from the earth to the near?
est point in the orbit of Venns,
although it were flying every mo?
ment at tho rate of 500 miles au
hour. At its greatest distance from
us it is 163,000,000 of miles.
Jupiter, when nearest tho earth, is
the most splendid of all the nocturnal
orbs except Venus and the moon.
Its distance from tho sun is 495,000,
000 of miles, and tho circumference
of its orbit is 3,100,000,000 of miles.
Around this orbit it moves eleven
years and 315 days at the rate of
nearly 30,000 miles every hour.
When nearest the earth, it is about
400,000,000 of miles distant, and
when at its greatest distance from us
no less than 590,000,000 of miles.
This planet revolves around its axis
in the space of nine hours 55 mi?
nutes forty-nine and a half seconds.
This rotation is far more rapid than
that of any of tho other planets.
The circumference of Jupiter is
278,000 miles, and therefore its
equitorial parts will move with a
velocity of 28,000 miles an hour,
which is 3,000 miles more than the
equitorial pnrts of the earth's surfaco
move in twenty-four hours. Jupiter
is eleven times largor in circum?
ference than the earth, and moves
round the sun in 4,332'. of our
days, and round its axis in nine
hours fifty-six minutes nearly; there?
fore its year will be 10,470 days.
This planet is the largest in the
system, being 84,000 miles in diame?
ter, and consequently 1,400 times
larger than the earth. Its surface
contains nearly 25,000,000,000 square
miles, with accommodations for near?
ly 7,000,000,000 of inhabitants, which
is nearly fifty times the number of
human beings that have existed on
the earth since its creation.
Such au immense globe, moving
forward in its annual course 30,000
miles every hour, and carrying along
with it four moons, larger than ours,
to adorn its firmament, presents to
the imagination an idea at once
wonderful and sublime.
INCENDIARISM.-The gin house aud
cotton press, together with twenty
five or thirty bales of cotton, belong?
ing to Mr. J. R. Smyer, who lives
about fifteen miles below this town,
were entirely destroyed by fire on
Friday night last. Several freedmen
have been arrested and committed to
jail at this place, charged with tho
perpetration of the incendiarism.
1 Greenville Mountaineer.
ANOTHEH BARN BURNT.-About 3
o'clock on Tuesday morning last, the
barn of Mr. A. H. Boykin, on Swift
Creek, was destroyed by fire, to?
gether with 2,000 bushels of corn.
The Aro was, no doubt, tho work of
an incendiary.-Camden Journal.
CHOIJEBA TN FiiOBiABA. -Thn Sa?
vannah News, of the 3d, has inform?
ation that cholera has made its ap?
pearance at Cedar Keys, Florida, and
that several deaths from that disease
have occurred within the last few
An unromantic youth in New York
hung himself with a towel to a hat
peg, and thus pegged out of exist?
Some Georgia negroes stole a hog
and ate it. The hog had tho cholera,
and the negroes never stole more.
GASH-PAX UP.-From and after
January 1, 1868, the cash system xviii
be strictly enforced. Persons who
are now indebted for subscriptions,
and who wish their papers continued,
will confer a favor by paying up at
once. Those who fail will havo their
papers discontinued. Cash will also
be required for all advertisements.
Persons forwarding advertisements
from a distance, must send a remit?
tance. Job work oash on delivery.
VALENTINES.-Mr. McCarter lins
furnished us a package containing
various reminders-comic as well as
sentimental-of the rapid approach
of the 14th-the natal day of the
patron saint of all true lovers-from
the little four-year older to the sober,
sedate citizen of fifty-four.
GROUND HOG DAY.-Sunduy last
February 2-was tho traditional day
on which tho ground hog comes forth
from his winter quarters. If ho sees
his shadow, he goes into his hole and
remains six weeks longer, during
which time winter holds sway-"lin?
gering iu the Inp of spring," as the
poet hath it. If, however, the day
is cloudy, and ho can't see his sha?
dow, he tarries with us, and warm
weather will come early. Did any?
body see his wise hogship out on
THE QUEEN'S BOOK-Leaves from the
Journal of our Lifo in the High?
lands, from 1848 to 1861; to which is
prefixed nnd added Extracts from
tho same Journal, givingau Account
of Earlier Visits to Scotland, and
Tours in England and Ireland,
and Yachting Excursions. Edited
by Arthur Helps. 12mo, pp. 287.
Harper & Brothers.
Mr. Arthur Helps is, we believe,
Clerk of the Privy Council, and his
office brought him into that close
personal relation to the Queen which,
together with his literary reputation,
led to his becoming tho editor of the
Queen's Diary. He states, in an in?
teresting way, how the book came to
bo published. During an official
visit, her Majesty showed him ex?
tracts from her journal of life in the
Highlands, which she had it in mind
to print for private distribution. Mr.
Helps and others suggested that the
work would be not lesss interesting
to the public than to her personal
friends. The preface goes ou to say,
that it was urged that extracts from
a privately printed book would be
almost sure to find their way into the
papers in a garbled shape, and that
her subjects would be gratified "to
be allowed to know how her rare
moments of leisure were passed iu
her Highland home, when every joy
was heightened, and every care and
sorrow diminished, by the loving
companionship of the Prince Con?
sort. Upon these considerations, her
Majesty eventually consented to its
publication." All this is a plain, un?
varnished table, and gives, we doubt
not, the true history of the appear?
ance of this book. Following so
olosely as this does upon the publica?
tion of tho first volume of the Life
of the Prince Consort, it continues
tho biographical interest which that
excited, and derives a charm from
tho stripping off that mystery which
surrounds a royal personage, and
allowing us to poop behind the hedge
of divinity which is believed to en?
compass a king. Such a book can
scarcely be judged on its own merits.
lt is not above criticism, nor below
it. Wo may as well take tho book
for whut it is meaufc, confess to a be?
coming curiosity as to tho inner lifo
and rural enjoyments of a happily
wodded pair, and read this record
with a duo sonso of gratitude for the
condescension which spreads it be?
fore plebeian oyes. J. J. MoCarter,
.Esq., has favored us with a copy o?
PASSING THROUGH.-A delegation
of twelve men, from Baltimore, ia
charge of a fine steam engine, Niaga?
ra No. 4, will reach this citv to-day
about 10 o'clock, en rouie to Augusta,
to present the Columbia fire company
with the engine It ?o under the im?
mediate direction of Mr. Dunn, Fire?
man, of Baltimore, Md.
A delegation from the Bollingbrook
Fire Company will meet and escort
them through tho city to the Court
House, where they will try the
strength of the engine. ?
It is from the foundry of Messrs.
Iv^s, Pool & Hunt, Baltimore.
[Petersburg ( Va.) Express, Feb 4.
The Augusta Chronicle thinks this
is a mistake; that the eugine must be
for the Columbia (S. C.) fire com?
pany. Hope it is so.
One of the Cherokee delegation,
who passed through this city several
weeks ngo, died very suddenly, in
Washington, on the 1st inst., and
was buried on tho 3d. The Commis?
sioner of Indian A fiai rs aud the
various Indian delegations, agents
and superintendents, now in Wash?
ington, attended the funeral in a
WHAT- NEXT?-Golden hair, red
hair, auburn hair and black has re?
spectively been "the fashion" in the
past, and now comes gray bair.
Hair dyes have been pronounced
injurious, and the consequence ? is
that the numerous owners of silvery
locks have declared gray hair fashion?
able. During the past week, a noted
barber in that city has obtained as
high a sum as fifty dollars and
soveuty-flve for small bunches of
gray hair. What next? %
TlUAIS DY THE MILITARY.-The
following order was issued on Thurs?
CHARLESTON, S. C., Feb. 6, 1868.
General Orders No. 18.
I. In trials of offences nt common
law or under State statutes, and in
trials of civil actions, provost courts,
military commissions and military
tribunals, organized by virtue of
authority Tinder the Reconstruction
Acts of Congress, will bo governed
by the rules of evidence prescribed
by the law of the State in which the
case ia tried.
II. No provost court will entertain
jurisdiction of any case, nor will any
post commander refer any case for
trial by any such court, nnless it
shall appear to the satisfaction of the
post commander and shall be certi?
fied by him, either
First. That the case involves mat?
ters of difference between employer
and employed respecting rights under
provisions of military orders; or,
Second. That the proper State au?
thorities have refused or unreason?
ably failed, or are unable to take
action needful for the protection of
persons or property; or,
Third. That there is good ground
for believing, upon facts shown,
which must be preserved of record,
that impartial justice cannot be se?
cured in the State courts, by reason
of prejudioe on account of race, color
or former condition.
MAIL ARRANGEMENTS.-The post
office open during the week from 8)4
a. m. to 6 p. m. On Sundays, from
\)i to 1% p. m.
The Charleston and Western mails
aro open for delivery at 2 p. m., und
close at 9 a. m.
Northern-Opon for delivery at
10>.< a. m., closes at 1 p. m.
Greenville-Open for delivery at 3
p. m., closes at 8 p. m.
NEW ADVERTISEMENTS.-Attontion it* call?
ed to the following advortinemouts, pub?
lished this morning for tho tir*t Hmo:
R. L. Bryan- Valentines, Ao.
Jacob Levin-Auction Balo.
M. W. Bytbewood-Auction Halo.
D. 0. Peixotto A Hon-Ju?t KecHved.
John* Agsow-R?ai Estato For salo.
THE CONVENTION TAX - Goneral
Cunby has ordered assessors of taxes
to add to their assessments the tax
levied by the Convention for the
purpose of paying the per diem and
contingent oxpouses of that body.
The Treasurer of tho State is author?
ized and directed to pay the per
diem and mileage of thu delegates,
the contingent expenses, and tho
compensation of the officers, upon
tho warrant of the President in the
usual form.-Charleston News.