Newspaper Page Text
L i ii .|,IM,".m ?mi un_
THE DEMOCRATIC TICKET.
1778 ^ pp 186jr
jFbr President, & .
HORATIO SEYMOUR, OP N. Y.
GEN. E. ? BLAIR, OP MISS ll.
STATS KLEOTORAJJ TICKET.
For Stafe at Large-J. P. ThomaB,
of Richland : J. T>, Kennedy, of Ker?
shaw, -r-^-rr-.r: -rrr- -.rr
J?V?i iJotigressiunal Districi-r-R. F.
Graham, Of Marion.
Seco?id Congressional District-B\ xl.
Rutledge, of Charleston.
Third Congressional District-A. C.
Haskell, of Abbeville.
Fourtli Congressional District--E. C.
MoLure, of Cheater.
Friday Morning, September 4,1868.
THE ELECTIVE EUAN CHIS E.
To the People of South Carolina.
It -was.referred to the State Central
Executive Committee, hy the lato
Democratic Convfcfititjfn, to inquire
into the disabilities imposed; by rea?
son of the war, upon a portion of our
people, restraining them from the
exeroise of tho elective franchise in
South Carolina; ' and to publish the
conclusion attained, for the informa?
tion of the people of the State. The
committee, in the discharge of that
dnty, announce that they have ex?
amined the subject, and beg to state:
1. That no such disabilities now
exist by or under the Aots bf Con?
gress, known as the Reconstruction
Act, the State having been officially
declared to be in the Union.
2. That no such disabilities exist
ander the so-called amendment,
known as the fourteenth amendment
to the Constitution of the. United
States, the disabilities therein ex
Eressed having reforence to office
olding, and not to voting.
3. That no snob disabilities exist
by the so-called State Constitution of |
1868, under which it is claimed that
the State has been reconstructed and
restored to the Union.
The undersigned, therefore, an?
nounce that no snob disabilities exist
by force of any law, or supposed law,
or authority whatever; and they urge
their hitherto disfranchised fellow
citizens, in every part of the State,
to exeroise their right to vote at the
coming election for President and
Vice-president, of which right they
havo been so long deprived by mili?
tary power. By order of the
A?**'All of the Democratic papers
in the State, will please publish at
the hoad of their editorial column.
Agreeably to a resolution adopted
by the recent State Convention, the
following gentlemen aro appointed
by tho State Central, Executive Com?
mittee canvassers in the interest of
State at large- Gabriel Cannon
and A. P. Aldrich.
Seoond Congressional District-J.
Third Congressional District-D.
Fourth Congressional District-W.
Canvasser for First Congressional
District to be hereafter appointed.
WADE HAMPTON, Chairman.
Tho radical party in Georgia is
rapidly crumbling to pieces. Day by
day it becomes weaker and weaker.
Already threo of tho nine electors on
the Grant ticket have withdrawn
from the party, and declared for
Seymour and Blair; and it is stated
that ono of the electors for tho State
at largo, Akerman, will in a fow days
take a similar step. Seward, the only
man of influence or position, who hos
hitherto sided with the radicals in
Southern Georgia, has abandoned
tho party, and is making Democratic
speeches. Judgo Bigham, in West?
ern Georgia, has also written a loDg
letter, in which ho formally renounces
radicalism and pronounces for Sey?
mour. Judgo I. L. Harris, also,
formerly of tho Supreme Court, is
said to have announced his deter?
mination to support the Democratic
NASSAU INTELLIGENCE.-By a re
cont letter from Nassau, we learn
that domestio affairs there aro con?
siderably disturbed. It has como to
tho knowledge of the inhabitants that
tho blacks meditate tho destruction
of tho place by fire; in conse
3nonce, tho merchants and others are
oing patrol duty, to prevent such
untoward consummation. Several
fires havo oocurred of late, all attri?
butable to tho same source.
FIRST FROST.-A Sonthern weather
prophet predicts that tho first frost
of tho season will occur on the 23d of
this month. The curious may note
the statement, so as to endorso or
convict tho veteran observer.
*-?.? ----- . * .
Sevan Short Tear?.
' Let our people not be discouraged!
It Hf true,) wei bave tho power, of
tho |G?V?h&?t f off^hjsVUnffed
Stai?b sgai?|t os, aap now ?Ve h?Jvo
superadded tho force of the State
government, radicalized and negro
ized, also against us. But we would
say to oar people be of go>d cheer.
It is always darkest just boforo tho
dawn, and the blackest cioud may
have a silver lining. In seven short
years we have seen great and over
whelming changes. - We have seen,
within that time, tho authority of the
Government of the United States
completely wiped out in South Co o
lina. We have seen another govern?
ment, complete in all its parts, set
np in its stead; and,: in ita turn, we
have seen it, too, completely wiped
out, leaving not a shred behind. We
have ?oca stilt another- government
called into being-a constitution es?
tablished and a Governor, judges, a
Legislature and magistrates, elected
under it, and all the machinery of
government set in motion; but wo
have just witnessed that government
wiped ont, leaving not oven a shadow
behind. We now see still another
government, erected upon its ruins,
new electors created, a new Governor,
new judges, a novel Legislature, and
new magistrates called into being
under a new constitution, and that
government is now in full blast, lay?
ing taxes, making laws and issuing
proclamations over the heads of a
weary and impoverished people. In
tho meantime, too, wo have beon sub?
jected to the government of the
bayonet; and foreign Military Gover?
nors-heartless and arbitrary-have
been appointed over ns. In seven
short yoars wo havo seen not less
thnn four revolutions, complete, ac?
complished and confirmed, for a time,
upon the soil of South Carolina,
allowing not moro than eighteen
months duration to each succeeding
government. All this wo have
seen; all this we have endured,
and the revolution still moves on.
The wheel is still revolving, and an?
other turn will bring those who are
now under, to the top; aud will carry
those who aro now on tho top to tho
bottom. Tho present government of
the State-tho weakest of all govern?
ments-an ignorant negroized go?
vernment, must go (loton. We say go
down it must, by the weight of its
own ignorance; its own enormities;
its own corruptiou; its own futile
efforts to reverse the laws of nature
and of God. Tho crash is inevitable;
and there aro those who, in tho day
of their trouble, will call upon the
rocks and the hills to cover them
from the swift vengeance that is sure
to overtake tho wicked. Let them
play their part now, for the return?
ing tide of wisdom, jastico and mo?
deration will swoep them from exist?
ence, and bury them forever in the
dark waters of their own folly, dis?
grace and crime! Courage, courage,
then, men of Carolina, the hour of
your deliverance is at hand. Tho
institutions of your fathers cannot be
wrested from you by a horde of bar?
barians, headed by depraved adven?
turers, whoso business it is to deludo
their misguided followers, with wick?
ed lies, aud cheat them with naked
promises. A few short mouths may
tell thc tale of another swift-winged
revolution-peaceful, but no less
crushing and complete. Let tho
weak fawn and cringe ns they may
let them bow down boforo Baal if
they will. Bat wo lift up tho voice
of warning unto all, and we say unto
all, if God bc God, follow him; if
Bau], then follow him.
Emile Souve8tro, in his inimita?
ble "Philosophe sans les taits," con?
soles himself, on Now Year's Day, in
his abandonment and garret, by giv?
ing ns a curt dissertation on that
festival, and tho custom of bestow?
ing gifts on its reonrrenco.
As tho timo for tho great tusslo for
Presidential election is at hand, and
occupies tho majority of men's
minds, I feel like the above-men?
tioned Souvostro; I take no part in
the coming election, so I look on and
console myself by amusing my anxi?
ety for it3 issue by jotting down a few
items regarding elections in general.
Electioneering is an art, and a very
complicated one. While it points
its right eye at law, its loft is invari?
ably and steadfastly fixed on gain.
Ktenco, jurisprudence, caricature,
squibs, mottoes and cock-tails.
Elections sro the afor?nos of lib?
erty, cay, the expression thereof.
Where ?here is no liberty, there is
no election; and the more liberty
there i*. UJO moro interest is felt at
tho polls and in the issae of the bal?
'jot. Mttfh anxiety is now naturally
folt about the coming election. This
proves that the issue thereof is a
vital one, and that the people are in
earnest about their liborties.
We owe more than wo generally
know to antiquity. When wo soe an
aristocrat shaking hands at street
coi nura with the poor mau whom he
despised and perhaps employed iu
the most venal office only a few weeks
ago, we immediately conclude, that
said great man is seeking votes or
office. Hence, it is apparent, that
the ballot is the great leveler-tho
grand bond of liberty and republi?
Cicero himself was a master in the
field of electioneering. History tells
us that he had his nomencl?tor, who
n?*d to accompany that great politi?
cian, in order to whisper iu his ear
the names bf the voters as he met
them in the streets. Cicero defended
Murena against the charge of ambitus,
and that immortal harangue could
be, even at this dayr- addressed to
one of our. election committees, with
profit. Nay, we borrow many pf our
electioneering terms from the ; Ro?
mans. For instance, the word "can?
didate" is derived from tho Latin
word "candidatos"-><-clacL in white
because such was the color of a can?
In the Parliamentary History of
England, (vol. 1, p. 765,) we read:
"It appears, from tbe journals of tho
10th of May, that one Thomas Long,
gent., was returned from the bor?
ough of Westbury, iu the County of
Witts, who, being found to be a very
simple man and not fit to serve in
that place, was questioned how ho
came to be elected. The poor man
immediately confessed to the House
that he gave to Anthony Garland,
Mayor of the said town of Westbury,
and one Watts, of the same, ?4 for
his place in Parliament. Upon
which, an order was made, that the
said Garland and Watts should re?
pay unto the said Thomas Long the
?4 they had of him. Also, that a
fine of ?20 bo assessed, for the
Queen's uso, on the said corporation
and inhabitants of Westbury, for
their scandalous attempt."
So, even in the remote days of
Queen Elizabeth, poor Long was
adjudged incompetent to sit in the
House, because he was "a simple
man." If the same rule were to bc
applied to our House, wonder how
many would be left to form a quo?
In the curious "Nuga Antiques,"
compiled from tho Harrington pa?
pers, we find that the modern Ameri?
can custom of "liquoring" to gain
candidates has a pretty ancient pre?
cedent. John Harrington, of Bath,
is therein represented as having
dined with tho Mayor of that town
and four citizens, and having spent
vjsh. in wine. He gives us his bill,
to wit: Laid out in victuals at the
George Inn, sjs. ?d.j laid out in
drinking, vijs. iid. ; laid out in to?
bacco and drinking vessels, i??ja. 4d.
January 1.-My father gave me ?4
to bear out my expenses at Bathe,
The lately deceased Samuel Lover,
in his "Handy Andy," and Dickens,
in his "Pickwick Papers," have given
us instances of the ruses resorted
to by electioneering parties. Tho
olection at Eatauswill, as described
by tho latter, cannot have possibly
escaped the memory of our readers.
Although "kissing tho babies" lias
not yet como into our system of elec?
tioneering, sundry other cognate
means are employed. That will do
so, no doubt,Jiu due course, as it .ias
been, for a loug time, a potent ougiuo
in trans-Atlantic elections.
Tho Whartons, of Essex, were
hereditary heroes of tho polls. In
olden times, they used to carry tho
day vi el annis. In later times, they
had to chango tactics, a? power,
money and duels could not attain
their object. So, in the year 1705,
wo find ono of them thus represented
by his biographer to have acted:
"Entering a shoe-maker's shop, my
Lord asked, 1Where Dick was?' The
good woman said, 'her husband iras
gone two or three miles off, with some
shoes, but his Lordship need not fear
him-she woidd keep him light.' 'I
hnox? thed? saya my Lord, 'but I want
to sec Dick and drink a glass with him.'
The Avifo was very sorry Dick was
out of the M'ay. 'Well,' says his
Lordship, 'how do all thy children?
Molly is a brave girl, I warrant, by
this time.' 'Yes, I thank ye, my
Lord,' says tho woman. And his
Lordship continued, 'ls not Jemmy
breeched yet'/' Tho opposition party
Blunked away, to tell their friends
that Lord Wharton could not be
ousted out of the vote of that family."
Some years ago, a whole crowd of
"sand-hiflers" were "penued in" by
tho party who opposed A-s.
The "sand-billers wore kept in
abeyance to their bargain and candi?
date by copious libations of redeye.
At night, A-s, dressed like ono
of themselves, crept in among them,
drank, toasted, carona 3d, and, before
morning, won all of them over td his
party. Surely, electioneering is an
Charley O'Malley's essay on elec?
tioneering must not be considered an
anomaly, even in the campaigns of
? . y
this couutry. Nay, it had obnndant
antecedents in the fields of campaign
in tho "mother oonntry."
Bioko Delaral was one time canvas^
iag Andover. His attorney, who el
pouted his canoe, sent him tho fol?
lowing hill, ofter one of his contests:
"To being thrown ont of the win?
dow of tho George Inn, Andover? to
my leg being thereby broken; to sur?
geon's bill and loos of time and busi?
ness-all in the service of Sir Francis
Our own pistol-shooting, betting,
wheelbarrow-trundling, and other
moro or ?ess deadly-or fatigueing
methods of forwarding the issues of
elections, aro but other methods of
disputing election controversies.
Elections are , healthy, active,
thorough ventilations of men's cha?
racters: Opposition makes known
the history, qualifications and short?
comings of. candidates, and discusses
thoir capacity or incapacity to fill
office. Let abuses be alleged os
much as any one can desire in tho
method of election; at most, they
can only redound to the disfavor of
candidates, not to the office or to the
method of their election.
"AU means are fair in war," has
passed into a corresponding axiom at
the hustings, that all is fair in elec?
tioneering. Men who would eschew
an untruth as they would death, and
who would soouerdie than vi Hi fy the
character of any man, do not scruple
to traduce on the hustings, on mere
hearsay, the character of an oppo?
nent. Scarcely any Billingsgate
ribaldry is hero adjudged to be too
gross or indecent. Our every day
experience proves this. So, too, it
ever was iu tho old country; as any
ono can see by referring to Sir Jonah
Barringtou's Memoirs, A. D. 1803.
Office oan, therefore, be gained only
by passing through tho severe ordeal
of public aud unsparing criticism
It has often been a matter of as?
tonishment to me that womon have
not taken a moro activo part in our
elections. lu the days of Fox, tho
first ladies of England were tho great
canvassers of the time. They could
be seen wooing votes from door to
door with the brush in their Lats. So
now, no one can step into the streets
without seeing the miniatures of Sey?
mour and Blair on the breast of every
It may appear to somo persons
that, in olden times, tho bustiugs
stood for a far longer time than they
do at present. Thus, in 1781, the
polling lasted, in Westminster, from
April 1st until the 17th of the follow?
ing month. But, the truth is that,
now-a-dayB wo are occupied in our
elections for even a longer timo; be
causo thou electioneering and polling
went on pari passu and lasted duriug
the same period of timo, whereas wc
canvass and poll afterwards.
As to the lampoons and squibs
used in elections, they are as ancient
as political contests. Every one
knows scores of them. Ono of my
maternal aucestors was worsted by
Fox and Hood on tho strength of the
following ditty sung at the hustings
"Tho gallant Loni Hood to his country ia
His votera, liUo Chailey'a, make excellent
But who baa bei n able to taste tho small
Of Sir Cecil Wray?
Then come every free: every generous soul,
That loves a fino girl and a full llumug
Como her? in a body, and all of you poll
'Gainst Sir Cecil Wray."
In vain all the arts of thc court aro let
The electors of Westminster never will
To run down a Fox aud sot up a goose
Like Sir Cecil Wray."
Sir Cecil, no doubt, made a great
mistako in not propitiating tho sen?
sitivo stomachs of his John Bull con?
stituents. Small beer and other such
like taps are, and always wero, most
potent canvasses. This reminds mo
of Dr. Johnson's advice to his subse?
quent biographer, Boswell, when ho
wrote: "One thing I must enjoin
you, which is seldom observed in tho
conduct of elections; JT must entreat
you to bc scrupulous in the use of strong
liquors." Tho doctor's advice may
yet bo most advantageously addressed
to our canvassers, but wo doubt its
effioaoy; when men feel strongly thoy
ure apt to drink strongly.
Let us hope, in conclusion, that
now, at least, all tho friends of our
dear country may strive, with might
and main, to nchicvo tho salvation of
father-land with unanimity at tho
hustings. J. p. WRAY.
"ONE Mor.E UNFORTUNATE. "-A
strange darkey, fresh from tho rural
parts, yesterday accosted a gentleman
in King street, near Lino street:
'.Massa, please toll me whar de Pills?
bury Hotel is." "What do you want
to go there for?" "Oh, dey tole mo
to go dar an vote." "Yon aro too
late; the Mayor's election is all over."
"Lor" an I cum down all de way
from St. John's! Well, I mus see of
do poople."-Charleston Mercury.
Wm. H. C. King, the chief pro?
prietor of the New Orleans Times,
died at Pass Christian, on the 27th
ultimo, after a tedious and most pain?
ful illness, occasioned by a cancer.
Mr. King was a native of Pennsyl?
vania, born October 23d, 1824, and
had consequently reached nearly his
forty-fifth year. He .was a printer by
?profession, and settled in New Or*
eans some eighteeu years ago.
"-.- ! ? ???? ? .? . - -
THE lazaiBLtATXTRX-A HIGH QM?
TIME IN OTB BLACK: CBOOJ*.--With
thc exception of the passage by the
Senate of the famous "cliscrimina
tion'f bill, Mas i| is called, neither
Houso of the Legislature transacted
any business yesterday, of the slight?
est possible interest. The bill which
had been debated for several dajs,
was modified after a desperate strug?
gle of fonr hours, so as to conform
in substance to the civil rights bill of
the United States-tho prominent
feature being the provision prohibit?
ing any discrimination being made
botweeu persons by common carriers,
or between persons who apply to do
business nnder licence. The debate
was, if possible, angrier yesterday
than on any previous occasion. Ran?
dolph and other radical negroes of
the same kith, appealing ingeniously
to tho worst passions aud prejudices
of their race.
Cain, (negro,) familiarly k*own in
Charleston aa "Daddy," made a very
sensible and conservativo speech,
taking tho ground that people of his
color had no right to demand or ex?
pect more, in the way of legislation
from South Carolina, than was ac?
corded by the General Government,
nor to daro hopo that the prejudices
of the white men were to be blotted
ont by any Act they might pass.
South Carolinians wero not to be
mado Massachusetts men, any more
than could the Ethiopian change bis
skin, or tho cameleopard his spots.
The excitement throughout the dis?
cussion was very great, and the Se?
nate chamber wu3 densety packed all
the time, with a mingled audience of
whites and blacks. It extended also
to the House-a majority of tho
members of which left it, and conld
not be induced to return in sufficient
numbers to preserve a quorum.
Several calls were ordered, and
amongst the absentees was DeLarge,
I a colored member from Charleston.
The Sergeaut-at-Arms was instructed
to summon him, and DeLarge, who
was in the Senate chamber, attending
to some business for his committee,
sent a written excuse to tho Speaker
to that effect. This paper was lost,
and some misunderstanding occur?
ring, the House ordered theSergeant
at-Arms to arrost DeLarge. The duty
was delegated to the Assistant Ser?
geant, who went to the Senate cham?
ber, and laid violent hands on the
offending member. DeLarge refused
to be arrested, and walking outside,
so declared publicly, cursing the
Sergeaut-at-Arms. His friends then
crowded around and endeavored to
persuade him to yield, but for a long
timo to no purpose.
A general row appeared imminent,
and finally ho gave himself up at the
request of Speaker Moses, and was
paroled to appear at 5 o'clock, to
which hour the House had adjourned.
When the House re-assembled, Tom
linson offered a resolution to censure
DeLarge, which was, after three
hours' debato, and tho rc-jection of
innumerable amendments, substitut?
ed by a resolution to release him from
arrost, and appoint a Committee to
inquire into and report upon all the
facts in tho case. During tho debate
the wildest excitement prevailed, and
the lio was freely given. Members
accused each other of doing "low,
mean and contemptible things." El?
liott said ho was as good a man as
DeLarge on tho floor of the House,
and moro than a match for bim out?
side; and DeLarge, hearing that poor,
innocent, lamb-like and honest Joe
Crews, of Lnurens, had said that he
was intoxicated, walked over to his
sent and called Joseph a "d-d lying
scoundrel," loud enough to be heard
by all his neighbors. Upon this Crews
jumped over his desk, and walking
out of the hall after DeLarge, showed
a pugilistic disposition, but nothing
resulted but a tongue-lashing. Alto?
gether tho proceedings in this matter
wero as disgustingly disgraceful as it
is possible for ono to conceive, but
did full credit to tho character of the
motley crow who presume to call
themselves the Legislature of South
THANKS.-Tho managers of the
"Ladies* Industrial Association,"
gracefully acknowledge tho kindness
of Bishop P?rsico, in delivering a
lecture for the benefit of the associa?
tion. Also for the proceeds of the
leoture, which hos been handed to
j LESLIE RECEIVES AN INVITATION.
Senator Leslie, of Barnwell, received
a communication, Inst night, signed
Tay p.Committee of nRepublican Con?
vention recent ly held in that Koo linty,
requesting him i resign his seat, as
,he ijo longer represented the consti?
tuency who had elected him. Some
of the Committee signed with the
usual "his X mark." If Leslie has
not yet mode up U?B mind what to do
in the premises, we suggest to him to *
follow Sumner's advice to Stanton
DEATH OP DB. D. W. RAY.^-WC
regret to announce that this gentle?
man departed this lifo very suddenly,
at hiB residence, in the lower partpf
Richland District, on Wednesday
last. He had been confined to his
bed for a week or two, but appeared"
to have entirely recovered, and his
physician had left him; he took a
relapse, however, on the 2d, and
died before medical aid could be
snmmoned. Dr. Ray was in the
prime of life, had beeb a member of
the Legislature for several terms, and
was a prominent loaderinthe present
political canvass. His disease, we
believe, was apoplexy. 1
SOCIAL EQUALITY.-It is said that
the so-called Chief Justice Moses,
has given mortal offence by referring
to the negro man Elliott, in his late
note of explanation, as "the person
alluded to." It has created quite a
hnbbub in the negro camp. Elliott
indignantly exclaims, "the idea of
my being a person." Well, there are
two other words that might have
been used, to wit: "Personage" and
"carpet-bagger." It is very clear
that Elliott is, in no sonso, a "person?
age." He says he is not a "person."
Ergo he must consider himself a
"carpet-bagger," and we agree with
him. The Chief Justice being a
lawyer, should bo more accurate in
the use of lauguage.
The "Phoenix Weekly Letter Sheet
Prices Current and Market Report
will be issued this (Friday) afternoon.
Those desiring copies, will hand in
their orders as early us practicable.
A "LIVELY; LIFE OP GRANT."-We
have received from the publishers, 41
Ann street, New York, "The Lively
Life of U. S. H., H. U. G. and U.
H. G., the political triplets, and
somewhat known to fame as the
"Dummy Caudidato." This is a
volume of twenty-four pages, two
and a half by four inches, and is pro?
fusely and handsomely illustrated in
tho most laughable style of the ''wood
cut" art. His speeohes occupy one
page and a quarter. It is altogether
quite an excellent piece of satire.
MAIL AIUIANGEMENTB.-The post
office open during the week from 8%
a. m. to 7 p. m. On Sundays, from
.1 to 5 p. m.
The Charleston and Western mails
are open for delivery at 5 pi m., and
close at 8 !? p. m. Charleston night
mail open 8>X a. m., close 4*-? p/ m.' '
Northern-Open for delivery at
8'? a. m.; closes at 2.45 p. m.
Greenville-Open for delivery 5
p. m., closes at 8}.< p. m.
NEW ADVERTISEMENTS.-Special at
tention is called to the following ad?
vertisements, published for the first
time this morning:
W. Stieglitz-New Saloon.
John Wiley-House for Salo or Bent
Meeting Columbia Social Club.
J. P. M. Epping-Bankruptcy.
The Courier, speaking of the radi?
cal imbroglio relative to electors,
Yesterday morning at 10 o'clock,
Epping, Jenks ?fc Co., held a convo?
cation at the Club House, which
lasted for over four years. Besoln
tions were passed protesting against
the doings of Bowen's party, aud the
"illegal rulings of Holme^," and
showing up in lively colors tho sharp
and cunning tricks of the other party
in packing the Convention, and after
passing these resolutions the Conven?
tion concocted the following ticket,
constituting delegates to represent
tho District in Columbia, at the Con?
vention, on the 8th:
J. H. Jenks, Alex. Williams, Wm.
H. Taft, J. P. M. Epping, Peter
Asho, Robert Artson, F. C. Miller,
Wm. Dart, M. McLaughlin. M, F.
Becker, W. Sparks, W. E. Evans,
So, the radical party of this Dis?
trict will ho represented by two sets
of delegates, and it will be a matter
of difficulty for Sambo to toll who
are his representatives. The matter
promises to become interesting; but
we have heard of no other private
pugilistio encounters betweon tho op?