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? < xiMJLJ AN A. SELB Y'V
Jifioo.oa fiiahaEfiaoii 8treet,,near Taylor
- i MT iJook wd Job Printing or orery flee ort p
4 on promptly ftndfib^VyAttended M?? . '
i. Daaly, gl* mouths, M 00; Trt-Wookly, 9 ?C;
t aaertvd Im th? Daily a? 75 ?enta per aquaro
for t Lfa nrgt and 60. cents each subsequent ln
? artlori'. ' T.ong advertisements by the week,
? -lot b-rjt'year; a* reasonable ratog. >
FELLOW-?lTlZEH9 OF TBB SENATE AKD B O usk -
ob- Bepbeskntattvebi T congratulato you in
view of tho fact that the third, General As?
sembly of Booth Carolina, nhder her free Con?
stitution, has convened and held iU dally ses?
sions in the midst pf universal. tranquillity
and order. You entered upon the duties of
the aeasion With diSioulUea of merited gravity
confronting you, aa the law-makera of the
'Stat*: ? ITheVo difficulties I'trust and believe
you wiU in the ond surmouut, by a diligent
and faithful discharge of all the delioate and
responsible duties enjoined upon yon by the
people, with whom.we have so recently enter- J
ed into a covenant through our official oatha.
I Ift temymoet-gratifying duty to inform you,
thaYth? relations of the State to the Federal
' Union are'not only of the moat cordial charac
ter,but tho guarantees of. perpetual concord
betweon.the great seoiions of our country are
being atoadlly increased and Btrengthened by
the growing recognition of the fact that all
citizens of the United States are bound to?
gether by the tie of a common interest. The
. acts of Individual violence, which had mani?
fested themselves in the upper Counties of the
State, ainoC the summer of 1805. and whioh
wero clearly the consequence of politioal and
personal animosity, engendered among a
large portion of the people, against a claas of
our feUow-oltizen8, recently enfranchised and
vested with civic rights, have happily ceased.
The lawless and vindiotlve spirit from which
those acta, sprung embodied itself in armed
organizations, which, in the winter of 1870 I
?and the-aprlng of 1871, dominated many
Counties, and, with startling audacity, ovor
awea the local authorities with a strong
hand, and wrote their decrees in the innocent
blood of unoffending viotims, whom they ro
m?rselessly scourged and slew.
Those organizations have been dispersed
by the power of the Generai Government, aud
many of the actors therein have been pun
. iab.ec> by ita courts. That power waa exercised
for protective purposes only, againat the
deadly centralisation aymbolizod by the mid?
night horaeman who-rode aa the missionary
of hate, in a diaguiao aa fearful aa the deed
he had armed himself to execute.
Henceforth those who might entertain any
scheme for the oppression of an American
citizen on the soil of onr State, because of tho
manner in which he chooaea, aa a freeman, to
exercise hie political rightB, will be admo?
nished that, however hnmblo may be the con?
dition of that citizen, and whatever may be
hie race or color, a powerful government
stands prepared and willing to protect him in
the free and unquestioned enjoyment of all
tho rights and privileges that attach to Ame?
rican) ciUconehip, j should be wanting in
candor and justice if I failed to announce
I that, not only have the unlawful organizations
in queetion. apparently.ceased to exist, but
- the open exhibition of a aentiment of hoetili
ty to the State or Federal Government, that
made }t possible, that such organizations
Bhdehl so long continue in grievous opera
tion, seems to have also passed away. -
. Nowhere, upon.the sod of South Carolina
1 to-day does it seem to be nooeaaary that, fur
the proaervation of public order or tho pre?
sent protection of individual rights, extraor?
dinary agencies should be resorted to; the pa
oifl,p,agoqolee which the laws provide aa the
true esfa-guarda of the citizen and society
' are an in unobstructed operation throughout
our ?Jtats. Tho person of the stranger among
?B seems to be no longer environed by peril,
?and, aOweVer rode and remote his dwelling,
he aiayropoga in safety, for the law keepa
wstoh and ward over him, an invisible, silent,
? but sleepless a on tinal. ? l&ay this security ever
continue; and may tho pao?tone, whioh had
their birth in a false- political theory and grew
up amid! a sanguinary civil war.be forever
subdued by tho oonscloua and grateful recog?
nition of that boubo of brotherhood which
should spring from our common nationality
as American Citizens?- -The American should
feel hia pride quiokened and his self-respect
olovatod, aa he surveys the great and boned
cent republic of which he la happily an indi
Tidual and politioal member. In territorial
area, the United States atre'.eh from the tro?
pic bolt of a es,? and islands en the South to
' the ley ooeau op the North; while from Eaet
' to West they form the grand mediterranean
region which unites while it divides the two
great, oceans of.the world. They, embrace
within: their limits over 4,000,000 of square
miles of territory, situated near tho geogra?
phical eentre ox the earth's plane, and an
area ranch greater than that of all Europe,
and about one-twelfth of the habitable land
on our globe. They contain a population of
nearly 40,000,000. or 'about one-half of the
total number of inhabitants on the whole
vOuiinena of North Amerioa. This mighty
population surpass in the products aud utility
of their varied industries any people known
to history. Although fitted beyond all other
people t) practice- th-> arts of warthey are
aggressive only in the arts of poaoo. The
achievement s of their skilled industry are to
be seen predominant throughout the civilized
world. The traveler who at present travereea
even the groat empire of Busala will be con?
veyed in.an American car. drawu by an Ame
rleah lo6omotive, on a railroad built by Ame?
rican engineers. If be entere the great armory
of England at Enfteld, he will see the results
of American inventive goniua, in the automa?
tic maohlnery which prodnoea the arms with
whioh Great Britaiu equips her renowned sol?
diers; while at Woolwich be may look upon
that moat formidable engine of modern ord
nance, the Armstrong gun, for which tho pro
earned Inventor, whoee name it bears, re?
ceived the honor of knighthood from tho
British Government, but whioh has beon
proved by evidonce which, among military
'men.'Is said to he incontestiblo, to bo the
creation of an American inventor. Every?
where in tho tleldB of England, France and
Germany, may be seen implements of bus
bandry of American manufactnrc; while Ame?
rican enterprise and diplomacy havo nnbarred
the gates that secluded the ancient people of
tbe East from a free oommeroe with the West
ern nations, add American fabrics of every
class are now widely and rapidly exchanged
for tbe products of the Orient. While auoh
are tho magui?cent achievements of our
country in all tbe aria that contiibpte to th
advancement and elevation of mankind, tin
products of its agriculture are no leaa start?
ling in their maguitndo than those of its ma?
nufacturing skill aud resources. The statin
1108 of population embraced iu the eighth and
ninth consu* of tbe United States, (whiol
form a most interesting study,) show that at
tho annual moan rate ol increase exhibited
during tbe past two decades, tho population
uf the republic will probably exceed 100,000.
C00 at thy cloao. of,the present century or
wit bin. the, next twenty years. Yet great and
wonderful au has been our augmentation in
population, tho ratio of Increase in our agri?
cultural products, ugsd aa moans of subafat
o:ice, has nearly trebled our ratio of increase
in population. Coincident'with this excess of
production over consumption in our food sup?
ply, rto annually export ovor 121*5,000,000 in
gold v ?.lue of cotton, tho fruit of that provi
? BY J A. SBLBY. 00L1
dentlil plant which bat} its natural and invin?
cible empire upon oar soil, and which has the
clothing of man enfolded in its . snowy cham?
bers. The value of cotton exported forms
about sixty ner cent, of the oropof 1871; and
.together with other artiolea?the growth,
produce and maonfactaro of the Unitod
States?gives tho total valuo of our exporta to
foreign oountriea in that ono year the enor?
mous figure or about $540,000,090. Combined
with these immeasurable industrial resouroes,
our favorod land surpasses every other coun?
try in its mineral wealth, and especially In its
yield of tho precious meUle, supplying gold
and silver for currency and the arts at the
rate of about $75,000,000, being fully one
ttrtrd of the whole yearly treasure prod not of
the earth. TliOBo rplendid possessions and
varied resouroes, together with the enlight?
ened, population that ntilizo them, aro em?
braced within tho limits of thirty-seven
States and eleven Territories, having local
governmental organizations, constituting
this grand republic, of which it is our inesti?
mable good fortune to be citizens. This
powerful nation has no slave within its wide
dominion, its vast fabric reposes upon the
intelligent and loyal devotion of a froe peo?
ple, and Its elective rulers govern by the
guidance of the benign maxim that all "go?
vernments derive their just powers from the
coneent of the governed." This mightv fede?
ration of free States is so powerful in its re?
cognized resources tor war, that there is no
government strong enough to attack it with
Impunity; and yet it ie so just and reasonable
in the oxoroiso of that power, that thero is
none bo weak as to fear its advancing sway.
Ijet us endeavor, fellow-citizens, to make our
State a worthy and respected member of thia
mighty republic, and prove by our conduct
that we rightly value tue sacred privileges of
a citizenship which both protects and exalts.
The debt of tho nation, and the modo adopt?
ed for ita liquidation, cannot be a matter of
indilTerouco to any of our citizens, for the debt
must necessarily bo reflected in tho national
system of taxation, both direct and indirect,
and ita prompt and certain payment involve
the faith and honor of tho public. I havo re?
ceived from tho Hon. George 8. Bout well, Sec?
retary of the Treasury, a tabular "statement
of the public debt of the United States," ex?
hibiting, with great minuteness, all classes of
outstanding obligations,both interest bear?
ing and non-interest boaring, together with
the amount of United StatosTreasury notes,
out standing Decembor 1,1872. and snowing,
by monthly periods, tho reduction of tho na?
tional debt, from March 1,18G9, to that date.
I present for your Information the following
summary, derived from tho very elaborate
tables accompanying the circular of the ho?
norable tho Secretary of the Treasury:
It will bo seen from the foregoing state?
ment, that on the 1st day of Decembor, 1872,
the total debt, with tho interest accrued to
that date, Has $2,203,-754,762 IG. The present
National Administration has decreased tho
lJMBIA, S. C WEDNESDAY 1
total debt, einoo March 1,1869, to December
1, 1872. hv the etupendoas amount of $364,
895,229 69; thereby lessening the annual inte?
rest ohargo by the auto of $24,385,C68. The
annual in tort at on the debt, aa it atood on tho
flret day of laat December, was $84 529,859 28,
and tho oash in the Treasury at that timo was
f108,186.751.84 The total debt on the Slat
day of August, 1865, was $2,8t5l*907,626 56, and
the cash in tbo Treasury, at that date, was
$88,218,055.13. The total reduction of the
debt from August 81, 1805. to December 1,
1872, amounts to $582,152,844 40. Tho magni?
tude of our splendid achievement in national
nnanco during the paet eeven years mar bo,
in some measure, appreciated by reverting to
tho fact that, during the last four years of
that period, the public taxes bavo been di?
minished proportionately with tho public
debt, the reduction in tho volume of the na?
tional currency, and the bonded liabilities |
having moved parallel with tbo reductions in
taxai.vn. As a consequence, of tho wiadum
displayed in the administration of our na?
tional finances, tho credit of tho nation lias
been preserved unsullied, wkilo speculative
combinations in gold have bceu so held in
check that the United Statt s Treasury note
is fast approximating par. Tho day is appa?
rently not far distant when the Government
will resume specie payments, tbo delay in rc
?umption being, no doubt, in a great measure,
due to tho important consideration that about
$900,000,000 of our bonds, bearing coin inte?
rest, are hold in Europe, c.iicfly for specula
tivo purposes; and a sudden resumption of
specie payments would instantly bo followed
by a drain of our snecio to Europe, and thus
defeat tho prime object of such resumption.
Doubtless, tbo resumption of specie payments
will be effected in good season, and in a mode
least calculated to disturb the values depend?
ent upon ordinary relations of gold to cur?
BET-OUT Ol' TUE SECllETAUY OF STATE.
This very full and interesting document has
already been laid before your honorable
bodies, and, therefore, it is naolcss for me to
make a synopeis of tho valublo information
which it contains. I desire, however, to call
your attention to the very satisfactory man?
ner in which the late Secretary of State, has
performed those special duties of his ofHco in
connection with the sale of the Stato land.<,
and tho settlement thereon of persons whom
he seems to have selected with great caro and
rare discrimination. Should this admirable
system, which ho has begun, bo pursued by
his accomplished successor, of which I have
no doubt, tho day Is not far distant wbeu the
poor people of South Carolina will have learn?
ed to appreciate, in some degree, at least, tbo
full value of tho. "Land Commission," which
was initiated for errand and noblo purposes.
The late Secretary has beon greatly aided, ho
mentions in his report, in tbooxocutiou of his
trust as landa?ont, by the energy and untir?
ing zeal manifestod by hia two principal
assistants, Messrs. W. R. Jones and J. E.
MORNING^. JANUARY 15, 18'
Green. Tbe work of the former speaks for
itself in tbe carefully preDsred papers and
tables on file in the office of the Hocrotary of
State; and I tako pleasure in being able to
commend the services of the latter, by my
personal knowledge of the labors ho baB
performed in many Counties of tbe State,
I transmit herewith the annual report of
the Btato Superintendent of Education. Thin
report exhibits the fact tb%t the scholastin
population for tho year 1871 exceeds that of
1809 by 12,197, as Bnown by tbe following ta?
bles. The scholastic population includes only
that portion of tho inhabitants ot tbe State
between tho agoBof six and sixteen yoars of
ago, (both inclueivo:)
Scholastic population for tho j?-ar 1SG9, as
M:own by the State contna of 18G9: Males ?
whites, 49.95G; colored, 58 77G; total, 93,732
Fern-iles?whites, 41,210; colored, 5? 207; total,
97 447. Totala?whites. 82.19G; colored, 114,
?83; grand total, 197,179.
Scholastic population for the year 1871, sb
givon by the revised returns of County School
I Commissioners: Males?while, 43.311; color
od. 02 925;' total, 10G 2G9. Females?white,
40.8GO; colored, G2.217; to?al, 103.107. Totals
?white, 84,204; colored, 125,172: grand
total, 209 37G.
Tho scholastic population, it will tbua bo
seen, amounts, for the year 1871, to nearly
thirty per cent, of the total population of tho
Stato. Tho aunoxed statement conveys the'
gratifying Information that iho echool attend-,
ancc of 1872 exceeds that or 1871 bv 10,2Gu.
School attendancefor tbe year 1871.?Males
?wbiti), 1G.3G8; color od, 10.700: total. 33,074.
Females?white, 15,834: coored, 17,128; total,
32,982. Totals?white, 33,222; colored, 33,834;
grand total, G0.05G.
School attendauco for tho vcar 1872.?Males
?white 19.41?; colored 19,128; total 38,874.
Komalea? whito 18.241; colored 19,207; total
37,4i8. Totals?whito 37,087; colored 38.G35.
Grand total 7G.322. increase in school at?
Theso figures show that not more than
thirty-six per cent, of the scholastic popula?
tion of tho Stato are in attendance on tho
public schools, loaviug sixty-four per cent, of
tho children of scholastic ago, who arc either
t*ught in private institutions, or aro being
j left entirely destitute, of mental instruction. .
Those who attend private schools aro
almost exclusively white, or at least them arc
very few of the colored children who rcceivo
I their primary oducation in any other than the
free common schools, their parents, in most
instances, being too poor to afford thorn any
peculiar advantages. Assuming that fifty
percent, of the white children of scholastic
ago, who aro noc-attendante at tho public
schools, aro being educated in pi ivato estab?
lishments, wo have 23,2?S white children
whoso minds iro uncultivated, while, if wo
supposo that ten per cent, of tho colored non
attendants at the freo schools are receiving
instruction in pay institutions, wo havu the
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3. VOL. VIII?NO. 254
?tattling number of 77,883 oolored children
not under any form of educational training,
making an aggregate of 1014*1 children tn
tbia Btate who aro growing up to mannood
and womanhood in mental darkoeaa. This ia
an immense volume of igcczance in a free
Btate, and if not obeokod it presages disaster
to our free institutions. The masses con
stitnie tbe great political element in our re?
public, whioh justly rest! upon the principle
that its government? by the people and for
tbe people. As the people aro to govern, it
follows that the youth, wbo are to be the
future rultrs of the commonwealth, either
personally or through their votes aa inde?
pendent electors, Bhonld receive the neoessary
mental culture, that they may rule intelli?
gently, and, being educated in tbe knowledge
of their sacred rights and duties as chitons,
may know bow to maintain the one and to
perform tho ether.
The ignorance of the masses may be of lit?
tle consequence in a monarchical Btate, or
under an aristocratic form of government; in?
dued, it may be largely conducive to the wel?
fare of auch rulers and the stability of tbe
Government, for tho people, being ignorant of
their rights, wiil make no fffjrt to combine
for their assertion. Hence, Bir William
Berkeley, the old Colonial Governor of Virgi?
nia, was perfectly consistent when he said?in
reply to the Brltirh Lords Commissioners?
wh > questioned him as to tho condition of
that colony in 1G70:
?*I thank God th it thoro are no free achoola
or printing here, in Virginia; for learning hath
brought disobedience, and heresy, and sects
into the world, and printing hath divulged
them and libels against the boat government.
God keep us from both."
That was sound dootrine then and undor
that political system, but it would be fatal to
our present system, it reduced to practice.
With us it is eound public policy to enlighten
tho poopte, from whom all political power
must rightly omanato. The theory that mm
is entitled to self-government is advanoing
throughout tho civilized world like an irre
sistiblo wave Tbia ia due to the more gene?
ral spread of educated intelligence among the
working masses of mankind; afact which has
led a aistioguiahod politioal writer to observe
that "even bayonets think." Let the youth
ef South Carolina bo educated, that they may
stand abreast with tho foremost in this ad?
vancing march of intelligence. The common
schools should bo multiplied, and punctual,
attendance upon them should be enforced
by law. Tho immenso number of ab?
sentees from tho schools already established
renders it imperatively necessary that the
Goneral Assembly should enact a statute to en?
force the attendance at school of all children
of BcbolaBtio age, whose physical and mental
conditions *ill permit. To that end, I invite
the earnest attention of your honorable
bodies to Section 4, Ar'ticle 10, of the Btate
Constitution, wherein it is declared that "it
shall bo tho duty of tho General Assembly to
provide for the compulsory attendance, at
either public or private schools, of all chil?
dren between tbe ages of six and sixteen
years, not phvocally or mentally disabled,
i for a term equivalent to twenty-four
months at least: Provided, That no raw to
that effect shall be passed until a system of
public schools has been thoroughly and com?
pletely organized, and faoiltltaa afforded to alt
tho inhabitants ot tbe State for the free edu?
cation of their children." No sagacious
statesman will doubt tbe wisdom of this con?
stant i mal provision, or the poliuy of rigidly
enforcing it by statute. Even if compulsory
education weru not expressly authorized and
enjoinod in our organic law, the right to en?
force it would still be unquestionable, on that
principle of self-defence which pertains to
SUtea aa it does to individuals.
A State baa tbe same right to arrest the
growth of ignorance in its population aa it
has to check or suppress an incipient pesti?
lence. Indeed, ita right and duty in tbe for?
mer case address themselves more forcibly to
tho public conaoienoe and more deeply con?
cern tho common welfare than in the fatter.
The skill of the physician may stay themaroh
of the destroying peatilenoe, and the dne en?
forcement of known sanitary lawa may break
its force; but the fearful evils that spring
from the mia-directed power of a great multi?
tude controlling tbe government of a tree
State, and themselves controlled by igno?
rance and its twin-brother, crime, inflict a
disaster without remedy, and eat like a cancer
into the very fibre and vitals of society. An
exoell.-nt system of public schools, modelled
upon that of New England?the land of the
school-house?has been thoroughly organized
in this State, and tbe facilities for free educa?
tion, aa designed by the Constitution, aro now
afforded our people, and therefore the com?
pulsory attendance, at either public or private
aohools, should be enforced by law, aa ro
quired in tbe constitutional provision cit<d
The facilities for popular education should be
annually increased, and the proceeds of tbe
tax levied for that purpose should be sacredly
set apart for the liberal and nnfalling mainte?
nance of onr System of free common achoola.
In every valley and upon every bill-top, the
school-house- should be seen, sta iding as the
tine nulwark of a free State?a fortress well
designed and strongly built to arrest the
march of iguoranco and vico. I ask for this,
the fourth annual report of the State Superin?
tendent, of Education, (tho lion. J. K. Jill
son,) the careful consideration of each mem?
ber of the Goneral Assembly. I cannot suffi?
ciently commend this officer for the untiring
diligence and the rare fidelity and efficiency
with which he has discharged hie important
trust, amid the greatest embarrassments He
deserves well of every friend of the psoplo
and may be justly esteemed au educational
benefa tor to tho Btate.
THE STATE OIir-HAN ASTLU1I
( herewith transmit tho annual report of
the Hoard of Trustees of the State Orphan
Aeylnm, with the report of the principal of
the institution. It appears from these reports
i ha- (hero are 140 inmates in the asylum, of
whom there are 71 boys ant! G9 girla All the
children are colored.
Um number, at the date of the last annual
report, was 144. Sinue that report thirty
seven children have been admitted, nineteen
have been delivered to parents, and twenty
two have died. The number of deaths, It will
be porccivod, baa boon enormous, in propor?
tion to the number of children, amounting to
about sixteen per cent. This ia a etartltngly
great mortality, in view of the exceptionally
healthy year, in the city in which tho asylum
II must bn accounted for, in part, by tho
fact, noted by the board of Trustees, that the
building is damp and unhealthy, and requirea
very great repairs and improvements to fit it
for an asylum for children. In Us present
condition, it is manifestly unfit for that put
poso. The children, too, stand greatly in
need of fl inn el clothing, suit able for tho win?
ter season. Tbia is a sacred charity, and it
should bo liberally maintained and fostered
by tho State. It ia peculiarly incumbent upon
tho G.moral Assembly to provide amplomeana
for tho oomfort and edncation of these orphan
beneficial les, aa none of the mnnioipal orphan
asjluma, supported by our city corporations
or endowed by private charity, admit colored
orphans to tho enjojmont of their benefits.
The report of tho Hoard of Truateos shows
that the institution has boen greatly-embar
year coding odtober ai, 1673, bot
??normt only *S,600 has been paftfat
^*?*2ryLi??r?in^ ?o. ttripaid 'b?_
?11,600. TTjore are litoety children4
asylum of scholastic age, and now rind
alrnotion. Tb* very ekilirul- aria exoellent
Prfnclnal, Mis? y. D. Woaton,reports tbatfthey
have made rapidand comniendablo progress
in arithmetic, history and geography, and in
the analysis of English words and composi?
tion. The admirableaystem or ?'objeot teach?
ing" has been Introduced into the school, bat
on a very limited eoalo however, for want of '
thn necessary apparatus. By reason qf the "~
non-abi ity of the State to pay the appropria?
tion, the pnpils hays not even been supplied
with the required text books.' I heartily com?
mend this asylum to your generous/support,
and earnestly trust'that snoh an appropria?
tion will be mads therefor as will be rally ade?
quate to maintain'it more creditably than
heretofore. i '
STATE XOBVAL SCHOOL; "
It is my daty to call the attention of your
honorable bodies to the constitutional provi?
sion whioh requires that the General Assem?
bly shall, at its present seaaiou, provide for
tho establishment of a Htate Normal School f
The Constitution is mandatory on this sub?
ject. Section 6, Article X, deolares that,
-'within fire years after the first regular' set
sion of the General Assembly following the
adoption of this Constitution, it shall be the
duty of the General Assembly to provide for
the establishment and support of a State
Normal School, which shall be open to all per?
sons who may wish to become teachers."
The present disturbed Condition of the
finances of the State will not permit the libe?
ral endowment of such a State Norm ai School
as was, doubtless, contemplated by the tram- -
era of our Constitution.
I therefore recommend that, for its estab?
lishment and support, an Act bo passed at the
present session to take effect at the cloao of
tho next ensuing fiscal year. '?
As the Claflin University haw already been
liberally ondowed by the State, by the trans?
fer to it of the bonds in which the proceeds of '
the agricultural scrip w?re invested for th*
purpose of an agrtedltui i'l anliege,' I respect?
fully euggost that, ir practicable, an arrange?
ment be made with that institution for the
establishment of a State Normal School in
THE LUHATTO A8TLT7H. ' *:
I. herewith transmit the reports' of tho
Board of liegente and the Hnperlntondont of
the Stato Imnat io Asylum. Th e rep or t of the
Superintendent ia exceedingly voluminous,
and of startling interest.?' The statement of
the privations to whioh many of the wretched
inmates havo been unhappily subjected by
the inability of the State Treasury to pay any
portion of the ample appropriation made for
tnoir care and anpport forms a chaptor of
horrors which. In its mildest aspect, discre?
dits our humanity and civilization. I ask for
that report yonr most prompt and -careful
ooneideratibn. Tho human? treatment of the
inaxno in asylnmB provided for their benefit,
where tho resources of medioal art?derived
from Close observation directed to that noble
end?may minister to their care, in tbo midst
of beneficial, restraining and soothing in?
fluences, is a recognized standard - of the
civilization of a people. Even the Borage,
who ia ever at war with his fbllow-man, is.
awed into pity and kindly succor in the pre?
sence of the insane, as if Providence itself,
through this awful-and mysterious bereave?
ment, movea him to perform the duty of a
common humanity. I, therefore, moat-ear?
nestly recommend that an ample tax be
speedily and at once levied tor the support
of the asylum, on the most liberal baste con-N
sietent with our surroundings, and to in
crease and improve its'present accommoda?
tions, as far as is now expedient, in accord- '
ance with the recommendations of the Super?
intendent, as set forth in hte report.-Tho
proceeds of this tax, if levied, should' be: sa?
credly sequestered and faithfully applied to
the-charitable object for which it will be. de?
signed. Tho Superintendent's report abounds
with valuable and timely information, col?
lected, with rare diligenee, from the moet
authoritativo eources, for the benefit of his
charge, and the information of the General
Assembly. The number of patiente in the
asylum on the 31et of October, 1871, was 225?
consisting of 185 males and ICO females; 51
males and 39females' were eubsoqnontly ad?
mitted; making the whole number treated
during the year 888. Of these, 41 were dis?
charged as having fully recovered their" rea?
son; 7 were discharged Improved; 14 unim?
proved; 18 were returned to their homes as
imbecile, and 24 have died. Here were still
under treatment, October 31, 1873, 284. It
will be leen that abont one-eighth of the pa?
tients have been discharged, in the pa?t year,
recovered or improved. The appropriation
for tho asylum for the fisoalyear commenc?
ing November 1,1871, was ?80.000. The re?
ceipts for the same .period have been
$66,28213. Of that amount, was received
from the 8tate Treasurer, 134.807 12; from
pay patients, $9,260.90; borrowed, [from Scott
\ A Co.,) $2,000; from aale, of Comptroller's war?
rants drawn on the appropriation. 120,214.11.
The disbursements were $06 606 92; liabilities
dne and unpaid at date of Superintendent1?
report, $62,018 65.
The following statement shows on what ac?
count the present liabilities were incurred:
For suppllen, $36,205 47; salaries and wages,
$15.496 30; furniture and bedding, $2.384 21;
minor expenses, $754 88; money borrowed,
$7 000: due the Treasurer or tbe asylum,
2224 79. Total liabilities unpaid, $62 015 66.
Tho balance ef the appropriation for the
pant fiscal year remaining unpaid is $75,
043 53. Or that mm. however, $20,21411
have been anticipated by tbe aale of the
Comptroller-General's warrants, drawn upon
the appropriation, aa shown above; learing
the actual balance uf tbe appropriation
$54 829 42
The merit displayed by the Superintendent
of tbe Asylant in his efforts?providentially
successful?to maintain tbe institution dur?
ing the fearful embarrassments of the past
ten mouth*, is very commendable. On more
than one occasion, there was Imminent dan
ger of his being forced to make his choioe
etween the terrible alternatives of looking
np the nnhappy inmatee, and leaving them
to starvation, or to lay bare to this ctvivttisod
community the appalling speo aole of more
than 300 lunatics being drivon out into the
It Is proper for me to add. as a matter of '
public interest, that tbe present Superin?
tendent (Dr. J. F. Ensor) has materially
ohanged the mode of treating tho insane
formerly practiocd In onr State Asylum.
The sorrow-laden patients no longer pine in
the gloomy shadow of sombre walle that shut
oat every cheerful sight or sound. Th?y are
now environed by mneio and floweretand fur
nished with attractive games and ngbt and
interesting litoratnre, and are allowed to In?
dulge in weekly musical re-unions,, all. of
which tend to*dfvert them from that depres?
sion nf feeling whioh is said to present the '
most difficult phase in the cases of the insane.
Tho oar*ti?e treatment of insanity is a
matter that deeply conoerns the whole people
of this State, in view or the fact cited by Dr.
Ensor, and atteatod by tho highest authority,
that in every community in tho United Btates
and Fniope, having a population or 450 souls,
there ia at b aVt one person insane.
. TH K PENITENT! AIIY.
It has eo-t much more to maintain the State
Ponitentiar.. duiing the present soar than at
any former period, from the fact that tho ap
pr?prlati >n? for its support wore and are still
unpii I. *u I nearly an the necessary supplies
were compelled to bo obtained on credit at
groatly enhanced rates, because of the uncer?
tainty of sneedy payment. This extra cost is
eetimatod in the report of the directors, here?
with transmitted, at not less than ton per
cent, above the cash price* of tbe supplies
Tho penitentiary began the Local year, com