OCR Interpretation


The daily phoenix. (Columbia, S.C.) 1865-1878, January 15, 1873, Image 5

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Persistent link: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84027008/1873-01-15/ed-1/seq-5/

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iouitunj ubor?w wtrrw*
^ hoaamc Om^tyr^oltoniremt _
wlu^farBHl&dVith amorB^crtolu and convenient
market. The average rato of wages for agricultural,
laborers ia^UUs SUto, Including only adults, Is not'
more tbai^t doijsn Mr n#t&,whlch seldom, tf
?T?r,
TUa la the effect of (he inoviublp law of supply
and demand. VarV tha Industries,^.and employ ftf
woulS probably fee doubled at out-.
>* Ith a view to Oio especial encouragement of mann
? factories or cotton ond wixil In this State, I recommend
? the/ a^fedy -passage of ft . Jaw ^vMlMtbat all such
! SNWmSi 'thit m?*r be established within the
? nmltaof this Btato, on or l>*Jbr? the first day of No
? Lvimbata let*/ sbair receive from tha Treasury of the
State,* bc-nua e^rud to the State tax assessed upon
? tha n?o?8?ary hidings, land, and machinery of said
' ifiSSHKiSrlMK ?5a Sasj, tft'->ss paid annually, sad
to W continued for five years after such mantuoctur
Ing:compajfy, claiming" tha'same,'shall hovo put Its'
^?ciorr??>act?il oWratlon,? . .' .. 4
'As'a matter of equity, I recommend that the same
bonus bo allowed by law, to manufactories Of cotton
. and, woolen food*, already .established, for a like
? period, c?oltoen6lng-at the close of the present fiscal
jrw*^? ? .'?s? w .??.... ? p?? '?*'
. Kfcco?DEit,e coukt or onisuaroK.
1 hundred dollars per annum for tho salary of the Re?
corder, and nine hundred dollars for bis Clerk, and yet
I have been Informed that not more than two or three
sessions .of. tho Court have been held during the post
. Tq^b cicresGncf should be immediately cut off, and
the corporation of Charleston would .be thereby re?
lieved of-an unnecessary burden, Imposed upon It by
? law oMhe Bute. ? : "* . , > ;
??- nn rxHoa law.
.. IThe very large consumption of timber, for fencing
purposes, tbroatens speedily to exhaust tho forest
tress In many Counties of,tho State, and has crested
tha jn-aVoatroncerii among dttr leading agriculturists,
and a wide'spread desire, that the eJdsUng fence law
should bo, as soon as possible, repealed.
? As there has been, for somo time, a great difference
of opinion In our State as* to tho legal provisions
which should be established in refrard to the subject
of fencing, I deslro to give, ot, somo length, somo of
the reasons which Induce mo to recommend the aboll
oa ol our present laws, and the substitution of Others.
' Tg of a fencVMncltiding the sollt tiui:
) rails,is a tax upon.the capital and
lar, equal, it Is estimated, to at least
I of- the market valuo of our average cotton
lands. Thp money and work thus expended, won Id, if
applied to the cultivation of tho land, increase, by a
very large per contage, both tho area cultivated and
- tho production thereof.
-. SovYsBt bodies of arable land, that ore now un?
filled for want of fencing timber, and for which, on
that account, there is no salo, would then And ready
^purchasers among pur agricultural:laborers, and be
yielding plentiful harvests, thus cheapening many of
the.'necessaries of lifo, and adding to tho wealth ot the
fitste.
3d. To require tho farmer to fenco out his neigh?
bor's stock, Instead of requiring the owner of tho stock
to fence it in,is a palpable act of injiistlco. and a mon?
strous Instance of folly. In a State whoso wealth is
. agricultural, and. depends almost entirely on tillage,
.fflnf riot on pasturage. '.
y -"Wily should" I be required to"build a fence around
my farm, at a heavy cost. In order to keep my neigh?
bor's cow ontof my growing crop, when I derive no
benefit from that cow f. ,, ,
I "?* Why should his property, consisting Of a few roving
animals, bo more sacred In the eye of the law, than tho
few* acres, from which, by industrious toll, 1 derive my
dally bread* A
Is it not just and fair, tff every man should ho
required to exercise reasonable core for his own prop?
erty, "and not subject bis neighbor to any cost to pre?
vent that property becoming tho means of Injury to
any other class of property f
4th. The fences themselves nrcup v a considerable
portion of tho cleared land, thus reducing tho culti?
vated area, -
Stil.-In proportion as tho demand lor fencing
offn^Ue^vWehls ?cousfro
id] S^untry whejro there is nod
6th. Science and experience unite to provo that. In
" ions where the forests aro being exhausted, tbe
' 'n li proportionBlly lessened, ?od the lands
&d by long droughts;that not only destroy
bjQmt, from the failure of water, prove fatal
to stock of all kinds that are permitted to run at large.
I have read that this is notably the case In the prairie
belt of Texas and New Mexico ; and I have boon re
gajaw^ ?S
, a were destroyed fcvfael and other purposes, along tho
^lines ofJj?S^y eneampmenW--?
1th. Oottlo and other stock, can be fenced In more
V. ^S?^e'systoni*of fencing in st?ekV while It
' final ox pen so of establishing a- farm,
?a*e the yield per acre, by' prjsaer ring
' of tbe natural manures, /or. applica
son j ?..-> "'?'?".** it iif*t --
stores will tend to Incite among our
.attjvatlon pflmproveig grasses,and
tcr-an-impfovoment in tho'breod or stock; In
" wWc^ar?rtlmBi'uthCArollna Is far behind
Our farmers may bo better enabled to rest
*? by.cttlUvatlng.sevcxal tracts In rotation,
" fencing each, thus recuner
_ sncd1 frith total cxhanstlo n
.__ ^nnaldtdby proper feftjllters.
lA*ih- Jha fencelaw repels ,the agricultural imml
Jtfantaof the Northern State a, whoM" cultivated In?
dustry and thrifty, modes of farming, are so much
" "WSj whet* there arei^aoresof ara
_ illow for every acre there Is that Is tilled
it jrilnsble class;of laborers'shrink from
i ? country" or Slate, in which, before they
nn ftib/ttnv In a. fifty acre Held, thsy mast
la aom* efts**, more-money and labor to bujtd
ft fence, than arc required to build a house wherein to
.vtfjwii;7< ?? . ?? -:?;
' llfh. it Is not only eheaper to fence cattle In than
to fence them out, but It Is far safer for the farmer,
'- rendering his crop less liable to damage from the in?
roads of stock runnsog at large. Many vexations law
? SUlt*. and the klliing and woandln* of hundreds- or
? tofd of cattle that make breachus through tho feucce,
id thflgreat Injury of growing crops,can thus surely
; to nreyented..' , . ?^t***r r
I ' 18th.. Tho danger to lifo and property on our rall
.,'^te?^ew^fa^??at^V *?9?k running at Urge
a- k la answer to these reasoni giVe-n above, which are
by no means exhaustheof the argument in favor of
tbe abolition of tbe fence law, it is alleged, by the
s^^itoifcnccsjratei|,i-:. , ?>?- ; ; ?; ?
I That there SWUnaoy pOdr persona who .' own a
lead of cattle, and do not own a sufficient quan?
tity, of land to pasture them on, and that such small
landholders, if the fenco law is repealed, will be com?
pelled to sell their cattle for what they will bring, or
let them stsrvo; and that this alternative must surely
- oicur to tho largo number who own stock, but have
no lundatnll.
2d. That there are large tracts of land, such as our
abarrens mid wet- .bottoms, that are fit only for
ng,and that, if the fence law. Is repealed, cannot
ilued os nt present.
3d. That many small landed proprietors cannot
keep their necessary stock enctosed In pastures, for
want or localities supplied with water, and that such
must bo greatly Injured If obliged by law to maintain
close pastures.
The answer to tho first objection may bo found in
the following legitimate deduction from the princi?
ple on whfeb It seems to bo based:
Suppose that ten persons settle in n secluded purl Ion
of the State, and that nine of them .proceed to k?el
tho forests, and break tip the soil, to open farms, und
determtno to encloso and feed their necessary farm
stock, while the tenth locates In their vicinity, and
, being the Owner Of twenty hand of cows, prefers
making butter or raising beef cattle, to tilling tho
soil; and ns he owns but flvo acres of land, bo Is op?
posed to repealing the fenco law, desiring his stock
to range at will. Tho cows aro worth fiVO hundred
dollars for the lot, but tho cost of fonces on tho sup?
posed firms would ot least trshlo u? quadruple that
sum. According to tho theory of this objection, tho
two or threo thousand dollars' worth of fences must
bo built,' and that amount of the money or tho nine
fanners must bo locked up as so much dead capital,
i In, order. Uj proteot thofrolts of their industry against
destruction by their neighbor's-five hundred dollars'
worth of cattle.
Indeed, tho satno expense ?f fencing would he re
? quired If tho neighbor owned but one heap of roving
stock; and thus nine farmers would have to expend
at least a thousand dollars each to build a fence to
keepont from their crop ope twenty-flvo dollar cow.
This fslr and slmplo statement of the theory under
lying the fenco law seems to me sufficient to demon
: strato Utf.lnjeftUoSAnd Impolicy in our agricultural
? cftrotrinnlty.' t 1 - * ' ?
That the consequonces to tho small landholder, who
is obliged to euclose his stock, will not bo as injurious
as is asscrtod in that objection, is cvldoncod by tho
fact, that this very class of cattle-owners are, I have
boon.(old, notably prosperous on the sea coast Islands
In onr State, which rogioos, though of groat extent,
and containing an abundance of winter pasturage for
outlying stock, have been for many yesrsexompt from
the* operations of the fence laws, and now contain bnt
few enclosed farma. |
The second objection can be met by having a sum
of the wet Dotbws end" bine barrens
pastw^lb*/proprietor* charging as!
lidsU fencing be dispensed with. . ; ,.i
i thus dwelt ?t length upon the reasons which
pcrste in, favor of the abolition of our f?ne?
^^?UiiW?^?!? .M> ?^e pasture
?f the whole 'argument'SgnliMt one present
u->ro 4% tMt all flurmeri ar? oom
g mvSS?hnlSTmm tojmn t?etr
on land -which th?)rdo Bot own, l~ s",: |,
.add that, provender for stock would bo
eatly Increased1 la product,'and conlcqucnuy. oheep
ted, by th'eNgre?Ur*ierea that Will surely be cultiva?
ted, shoold
I have tl
tboald aperste I
laws,?first?because I believe that such abolition
would be tho first step taken by South Carolin? In tha
adoption of a progressive system of agriculture, In
which wo are signally behind theage;?and second?
because It; has aitfetoibre buna tho pvpular, boii
neons, doc tri no in thl? Statu, teat our present fenco
law Is adapted to tho protection of the poor farmer or
cattlo-owner against the landed proprietor or wealthy
farmer. So far is this doctrine from being founded on
fact, or even dedactblo. by reasonable Inference, that'
in many otlUr States whero the '-no-Tenon law" la of
force, th ii small and. poor farm era are the wry olnea
who most loudly protest against any change in their
laws on this subject.
In this connection I ask your consideration of the
following extract from tbo presentment of tho Grand
Jury of rairfleld County, at tho December Term of
the Court, which baa been for wanted to mo by tho
Clerk of Iba Court of the aatd County.
It will bo seen thereby, that the Qrnnd Jury unani?
mously recommend tho repeal of the fonco law in that
County:
Tho'Grand.Jury unanimously present to the hon?
orable Court, that tho existing fonco laws, of forco In
this State, nre an evil and an encumbrance to tbo
county. ? Whatever utility these laws may have sub?
served In a former period of our country, It is certain
tbatnow they'constitute a'system unnecessary, un?
just, and burthensome to all, and especially to the
poor and humble tHiera of the sol), and are unknown
to the most enlightened agricultural countries of the
world. By statistics eollectodfrom tbo report of tho
agricultural department for 1871, it appears that tho
valuo of lcnclug in this Stato sums up twenty -on u
millions, one hundred and thirty-six thousand, eight
hundred and nlnoty-aix dollars. Tho valuo of cattle
In this State sums up two millions, four hundred nnd
one thousand, two hundred and fifty-two dollars. Ap?
portioning tbo former value pro rata to this county,
Wo have a valuo of fencing in this county, amounting
to six hundred and forty thousand dollars; whilo tho
total value of rattle fenced in by this system of fenc?
ing in this county, is one hundred and nino thousand,
nine hundred and ilvo dollars, disclosing tho astound?
ing fact mat we employ alx dollars' worth of fencing
to restrain ono dollar's worth of cattle. In reference
to tho relative effect of the repeal of these laws upon
tbo rich and the poor men of the county, the Grand
I Jury qnotea from eald report: "There Is also Ine?
quality in the tax which fencing bears upon the fann?
ers, tbo rate of which increases with the decrease of
tbo area. For example, a farmer enclosing a section
of land of six hundred and forty acres with a chenp
fence, costing but one dollar per rod, pays twelve hun?
dred aud eighty dollars for as many rodB of land, or
two dollars per aero; another, with a quarter section
ot one hundred and sixty acres, pays six hundred and
forty dollars, or four dollars per acre; whllo a third,
who is only ablo to bold forty acres, must pay three
hundred nnd twenty dollars, or eight dollars per
acre?the poor man, in this case, being burdened w ith
nu extra mortgage uf six dollars per acre, which bis
richer neighbor Is not compelled to pay."
An act repealing tbo'fbnee lawa may be properly
passed, designating the counties, or parts of counties,
to which it shall apply. A 'I objections that are at all
reasonable, it appears to nie, may bo fully met by
providing that employers contracting with agricultu?
ral laborers shall bo required to furnish pasturage for
not exceeding three bead of cattle fur each ono of the
laborers employed. Persons may also be authorized
to enclose pastures, and to charge not exceeding ?me
dollar per annum fur each head of cattle pastured nnd
attended to thereon; tho owner of such posture to bo
held responsible for any damage done, or any loss to
tho owner of such cattle, by their escaping from the
enclosed pasture through any fault or negligence of
the proprietor thereof.
And ft should be further provided that the letting
down, or tbo attempt to let down, any pasture fence,
with a view to allow any cattle to escape front such
pasture, shall bo declared a misdemeanor,and punish?
able with fine and imprisonment.
Municipal corporations should also be required to
keep a public pasture enclosed within n mlloor two
of the corporation limits, for the convenience of resi?
dents iu tho corporation, who may be charged a
reasonable ahm for the requisite care and pasturage
of their cattle. ?
THE STATE MILITIA.
I recommend that the present militia law be left
untouched. This law provides for the organization of
the militia nnder auch rules and regulations as may
be prescribed by tho Commandcr-in-Chlof and tho
Adjutant and Inspector General. This duty will be
performed with caution and discretion, and upon con?
sultation with the Goneral Officers of tho National
Guard of the State.
Tho Statutes of tho several States In relation to tbo
militia, contemplates, aa does tho Act of Congress on
this subject, that Ute organization of tho Stato militia
shall be assimilated- to that of tho United States
Army. This plan has boon followed in tho brigading
of tbo several rcglmonta already organized, and will
I be adhered to In the future.
The limited number of arms in tho possession of
the Stale will not permit us to arm tho whole of tho
National Guard at present, nor is it either necessary
or expedient that all the militia should bo.equipped
for war la a time of pence. It Is belie, veil thai the
reglmehta already armed, and now most of them
thoroughly drilled, will furnish almost a sufficient
force, with tho unarmed reserve- organization, to moot
any contingency that may occur.
Should an emergency arise, requiring n larger
force, arms can bo issued from the State armory for
j any additional regiments that may bo needod.
r . protect: orr ror. niSRCT DCSTSorrxo Dibdb.
Tho farmers of the whole country ore directing
their attention, and earnest efforts to the suppression
of the noxious insects that annually invade and de?
stroy a great part of the cotton, groin and fmit crops.
Tho injury and loss to Ute agricultural producta of the
United States by tho depredations of thoseinsects that
feed upon vcgetabio life, aro estimated, by blah au?
thority, to be, ordinarily, not less than fifty millions
of dollars per annum.
! In the 8 La to of Ohio alone, in the year 1807, tho
wheat crop, which bad generally averaged thirty
j bushels to the acre, waa chiefly from insect dovasta
1 ons, reduced to an average of four bushels per acre.
It has been definitely ascertained that the surest,
' and tho only available means for checking and ulti?
mately preventing this vast destruction of the fruits
of the husbandman's toll Is to protect the Insect-feed?
ing birds from being destroyed by the sportsman, and
to encourage their increase by penal laws prohibiting
the killing of any such birds nt any sooaoa of tho
year, and punishing every known violation of the law
by fine and imprisonment.
j Taught by sevens experience, nearly all of our sUtcr
j States have enacted, and rigidly enforce, laws for the
protection of Insectlverous birds. In Ohio, tho pen?
alty la from two to ten dollars for killing or attempt?
ing to injure, at any season of tho year, any sparrow,
robbln, blue-bird tnsrtln, thrush, mocking bint, swal?
low, meadow-lark, finch, or other Insect-feeding bird ;
and tho same penalty Is Incurred, in each case, for
disturbing tho nest of any ono of such birds. Simi?
lar statutes have been enacted by the Legislatures of
Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, und sixteen
other Slates of this Union.
These laws have been found necessary to restore
I and preserve that cuiilllbrlnm established by an all
wise Providence In the mysterious and kindly econ?
omy of nature, by which tho interests of man un?
protected and advanced, through the Incessant wars
which the lower orders of creation wage upon each
other. The birds, thus destroying tho insects, snve
tho plants which tho fast multiplying insects would
otherwise consume. Tho occasional interference by
man with Ibis oqiilpofsc in the wide spread destruc?
tion of birds, either for wanton sport or to supply tho
demands of a luxurious nppotlte, has inoro than onco
brought disaster to extensive regions of country
throngh the ravages made by Insects npon the grow?
ing and the harvested grain. > ' ' ,
In the year 1 S6|, the French Government,et the In?
stance of tbo Minister of Agriculture, appointed a
commission, composed of experienced naturalists, to
Investigate and report upon this subject The result
of their investigations, conducted with careful and
ml nute research. Waa 'to the effect that tho'rapid di?
minution in the harvjtaf of of France, which had been
apparent for several years then past, was due, solely,'
to the onr.aioral accumulation bf insects, consequent
upon the svstematle destruction of the small birds.
They found,.for instance, that a certain prolific inaeot.
which is very;destructive to"grain and fruit?, laid,
20,000 eggs net .year, bat that a"single sparrVw cat
200,000 or sncb eggs afcunallyV-While a BsraTtowdo
voure<l about f*0 or tho grnjn and fruit destroying
in?eets tlieiuselvaa-Bvary day.
It can readily be shown, by the statistics I havo ex?
amined, that the increased multiplication of insects,
attributable directly to the extermination of birds,
causes a destruction of tho products of industry, re
prcsen Ing annually, throughout tho world, the labor
of several millions of men,
In Sweden, for example, a small flying Insect Is said
to destroy, annually, one-tenth or the grain In that
kingdom. In Devonshire County, England, tho tnr
nlp beetlo has caused, in ono season, a loss of g5<)0,
000 in tins yield of turnips, and, lit Norfolk County,
tho entire prod neu ?t thousands of fertile acrea has
been consumed by tho black caterpillar of the sow
fly. In tho Harts forests, In Germany, 1,000,000 val?
uable timber trees were killed In a few years by1 n
small Insect known as tho barkhoiIng beetle. Tho
lucnst tribe of Insect* nre universally, and with Justice
TT
je, and days oll
J set apart Iii
? subdolpg]
theao pests Is to respect rholsrder of nature, and pre?
serve the small birds u mqotand CjmeoaKtl
clone csmstat tho advance ortfio ilrtadod. aj
hose Ikr-reach Is*? columnC Ml
aato out cotton fields, and blight
Itiless march' tbo hopes snd.prospects of thtpfanter.
Yet there la a commonly reootvod opinion thTough
qtcbr auonlry generally,-In which ail of us are apt
[whose ft*-reaehl^. colnmnt Yihreslstible b> msoj
waato oa*r cotton fields, and blight, in their
pitiless i
oflt-oUr euunlry generally, in which all of ns are apt
to share unless wo examine the subject for ourselves,
that the chief robbers of cur fields are the birds them?
selves. 1 This, on betag:t n vea tigs, wd, to rta oat to be a
-uvu error, and proves that birds, like man. are often
bst grievously slandered. Tho reports or tho United
States Oooimtesion'T of Agriculture for the ? years
186T-'W, cite, with accuracy, most positive proofs thst
tho birds, nut even excepting tho crow and tho black
bird, arc the truo guardians of our grain and cotton
fields, and arc, by all the laws of honor, entitled to a
reciprocal guardianship from us.- Says M r. J. B,
I)odgp, of tho Department of Agriculture Sor 1604:
I ** *The laborer ts worthy of hlshlro' Is a maxlujthat the
I farmer should respect, and no laborers work so cheaply
as the birds. They provido thomselvcs mainly from
nature's own domain, yet claim the right to bo fed
from man's In payment for services honestly rendered.
? ? * ? ? ?
'Thcro aro many birds with bad reputations, in
popular esteem, that aro deserving of consideration
Instead of execration. Among thorn is the crow. Ho
is well worthy of defence Hear him for his cause I
Ho is shy and suspicious, but frequents field and
meadow exhuming worms and larva (young insects)
with Instinctive facility. His food Is maiuly animal
?not vegetable?and ho will cat but little corn at a
time, however abundant. Ho will follow the plow for
the largo whits grub, tbo larvm of tho May beetle.
Ho is an industrious destroyer of tho young of thu
cock-chaffer, as arc, also, thn crow, black bird and the
meadow-lark. CVwcs huve> been, proscribed by State
Ltgialnturea, and iuteots hate increased in proper
tlon an the eorviu (crotc) family hare been extermi?
nated, tho insects proving unendurable pests, wbilo
the bird is acenstomed to take a modornto toll Trout
the grata so woll protected. Tho eccentric but shrewd
John Randolph would not allow a crow to be shot on
his farm. Stato legislation, for the protection of |
crows,has, in some Instances, followed this ill advised
persecution. Tho black bird?so much abused?Is
veracious In the consumption of grubs obtained from I
tho newly-plowed Holds by u dexterous practice of ]
boring."
Without further multiplying the evidences drawn
from costly experience, of tho vuluo of birds as sup?
pressors of noxious insects, thereby adding to our
agricultural wealth, and cheapening to tho consumer
tho cost of many of the necessaries of life produced
by tillage, I earnestly recommend tho passage of an
Act providing for thu punishment, by u moderate
lino and Imprisonment, of any person who shall
wantonly kill or Injure any insectivorous bird at any
season of thu year.
bXlauiks or jfixir.s.
I recommend that the salaries of the Supreme
Court und Circuit Court Judges of the btatc be pro?
portionately increased, respectively.
They are tho hardest worked und poorest paid offi?
cers In any department of tho State tiovernmeitt;
and, while I am constantly admonished of tho neces?
sity of economy in the administration of thu govern?
ment, I deem It an net of Minplo justice and sound
policy on tho part of every Statu to appropriate for
the salaries of high judicial officer.* such amounts as
arc consistent both w.th the dignity ofthelr positions
mid tho necessities thereby imposed on them,
junv law.
linder existing laws providing for the preparation
of the jury list.-i, no Court of Common Herts or Gen?
eral Sessions can he legally hefU in the month of .luu
uary, although It is provided by statute that In sev?
eral counties therein named thereshall beheld terms
of said Courts, beginning on the first Monday In Jan?
uary. Section 8, Chapter HI, uf tho General Statutes
provides that tho Jury lists ?hall Iiu prepared once In
every year, during tne month of January, and Sec
t ion" 17 of thu same Chapter declares that "the time
for drawing Jurors shall not bu less than seven nor
moro than fifteen days before the day when the jurors
nre required to attend." It Is obvious that if thu
Jury lists aro to be prepared In January, and "the
Jurors to bo drawn not less than seven days before tho
day on which they aro required to attend," there can
be no term held which requires the attendance of tho
jurors on the first Monday in January. 1 recom?
mend that the luw providing for tho preparation of
jury lists be so amended, nt your present session, ns
to provide that thu Hoard of Jury Commissioners
shall prepare Jury lists uud draw the Jurors when?
ever It snail do uecessary, for tho holding of any reg?
ular or special term of thu Court of General Sessions
or Common I'leas, In their respective counties. j
AGItier [.TtT. VI. MRU LAWS.
A celebrated writer upon governmental science
made thu remark, foundud upon wldo observation,
that "tho true art of government consists in govern?
ing ns little as possible."
This is no doubt true, and was designed to enforce
the correct principle that legislative enactments should
not unnecessarily trammel individual enterprise or In?
dependence In ttic ordinary business rotations of thu
citizen.
The State, however, while it may not properly die
tats in this particular, can, as a matter of public pol?
icy, wisely foster that system of private contracts
that will, in the judgment of tho Legislator, tend to
advance thu greatest good of the largest number of
tho people. In this view, nud in thu common inter?
est of the agricultural laborer and the land owner, I
crrnestly recommend a speedy change in our existing
agricultural lien laws.
We aro now working chiefly on the share system In
the raising of crops. This ts known as the Italian
plan of "cropping," and it lias kept tho agricultural
laborers of Italy poor for tbo past three centuries,
and has greatly aided in making that country thu
evmhol of a retrograde civilization.
This modo of working 1 nils breeds discontent
among both employers nud laborers, tends to frauds
upon both, and multiplies litigation, while under it
the lnboier receives but little, if any, surplus from his
labor.
Wo should foster the Knglish or "tenantry" sys?
tem, which consists in thu owner of tho land rent?
ing his land, annually, or for a lunger period, ut
a stipulated yearly rental. At present, this mani?
festly go (Ml system Is not encouraged among us,
as we have no statute making tho rent for the land n
lien upon any part of the tenant's crop. Thus land?
holders aro afforded n good reason on which, in most
instances, they refuse to rent their land to those who
have nothing out their lubor to depend upon.
Tho lien Taw only secures those who advance sup?
plies to carry on and make the crop, and these ad
1 vancoa may* cover tho entire product of tho land.
This too should be corrected. 1 ho laborer or tenant
and his family should be guarded against his own im?
providence by statutory enactment, limiting the pro?
portion of tho crop that tbo lion for furjn supplies
sbull cover.
I, therefore, trust that, before the close of your
present session, a lien law will bo passed providing
that the chargu for thu rental of the land, pursuant to
the terms of tho lease, shall constitute a preferred
Hen upon tho crops raised thereon, during the conttn- I
uuiiuc of such lease: Prortdett, That the lien fur the
yearly rent shall not cover more than one-fourth of
the annual crops.
The Hen for supplies sdvanccd to carry on the farm
should be restricted to one-half of thu entile crop on
which such advances are made.
ABVLUM KOR TUR OKA r, m MU ASP 1U.1ND.
I forward herewith the twenty-fourth annual report
of thu superintendent of the above named Institution.
The number of deaf, dumb and blind Inmates at
the ditto of tho superintendent's report, December
10, 1S72, was forty-two. Tho number admitted dur?
ing the fiscal year ending October 81, was forty
one.
The report furnishes tho welcome Intelligence that
the pupils have made coininemhiblu progress in their
very extended course of studies, and that no death
lias occurred among tbem during the past year.
Thu Institution is well design. .1 in all Its parts to
effect its humane object, It is located tit Cedar
Springs, a healthy point, surrounded by agreeable
scenery, In the vicinity of Spartanburg Court House.
It was founded through the philanthropy of abenr
volont citizen of the State In January, 1840. The
department for tho blind, however, was not estab?
lished until April, 1863. In 1867 the institution was
transferred to tho State, and additional buildings were
orected.
The linn. J. K. Jlllson, Superintendent of Kdtic.v
tion, and Secretary of the Hoard of Commissioners,
unites with tho Superintendent of this Asylum In
asking'an appropriation of fifteen thonsand dollar's for
the present fiscal yuar. 1 cordially concur in this
recommendation. That amount, at least, is required
to meet the existing needs of the Institution. Its
prlmo object Is to enable Its Inmates and pupils to
Lccpmo self-supporting by furnishing them intellec?
tual training, and thus assist tho victims oi an awful
natural calamity to acquire skill in the mechanical
arts.
To effect that object requires n costly class of text
books, Specially adapted to the Instruction of those
who can neither spMk nor hear, and to those who nre
totally deprived of Sight. This class of text book Is
Very crpebilvo, a Btblo for tho blind costing from
twenty, up to forty-eight dollars. Musical instru?
ments and peculiar school apparatus are also neces?
sary, and workshops are requisite, in which the leading
trades may bo taught.
It Is n noble, charity, and should be liberally main?
tained.
The subjects of this mysterious and fearful visita?
tion of Providence will always continue to boar a
eertdn proportion In number'to tho population of
she Slate. Tont proportion appears to bu regulated
by a law uf nature in all civil ucd countries, and cur,
by a close observation, be accurately determined.
The white-rare, it has been iusc< rtalm-d, is fur. more
liable to deafness, dumUfecssand blindness than It the
black?the average being one deaf mule' tfl about six
thousand In the colored rneo. wlurons there is one lb
abbat oyery two thousand In tho white. The avorogt
Ol Wo Wind arnoag the tWo races In this Bttteli
shewn by tho Untted ?Uies oe=*us ?f 18*0,'and 1889,
to pa, in tbo wblto, one In one thousand seven hun?
dred kad ifxty m?\ wblle amdng the "cblored inhabi?
tants the proportion of blind Is one In three thousand
three honored and flAy-throb. Tho number ?f blind:
ta^eilfato In 1800 waa.171. ' -,b'A
"?.?The first attempt recorded In history to Instruct tho
deal and dumb was made In Spain about the year
1500, with marked success by Pedro Ponce?a Bone
dlcttne Monk, who succeeded in educating several
deaf >mni*s amc-mf th? nobility.
This boaaUfa 1 and beneficent art was greatly im?
proved and made more easy and efficient by tho good
?Abbs" do lines who established 'a school for deaf
mutes in Paria, France, where he taught them with
surprising skill and success about the rear 1766.
Teachers trained by htm founded schools throughout
Europe.
The system of teaching the deaf and dumb
by a manual alphabet, making eigne with tho
hands expressive of letters, was first Introduced Into
the United States in 181? by the justly celebrated man
Thomas Gallaudct. who founded the famous "Ameri?
can Asylum for tno Deaf nnd Dumb " at Hartford,
Connecticut, In tho year 1817?tho first institution of
tho kind established in America,
All tho New Euglapd States send their beneficiaries
of tbla class to the present Asylum, at Hartford. New
Jersey sends hers to Now York and Philadelphia, and
Maryland and Delaware send theirs to Philadelphia,
or to the National Asylum at Washington, which has
been munificently endowed by Congress, nnd Is under
the supervision of tho President and Congress.
Sooth Carolina is fortunate and honored in having
her own ample institution for training the dc.it, and
tho dumb, and tho blind. It Is provided with an able,
diligent and faithful corns of ollicers, and it should
never be permitted by the State to languish for wont
of proper maintenance.
r LOW AO ii ACT.
We reunite a statute by which can be furnished a
prompt anil specific remedy to persons whoso lands
may bo Injured by the overflow or water courses con?
sequent upon the erection uf mill dams across the
Bjnne, and the want of proper care In tin- owners of
such dams.
It should regulato also the uso of the water uf such
streams on which adjacent milt*, propelled by water,
may have been erected. Many States have already
passed laws specially in regard to ibis subject.
Tho Statute ol ltliode Island would seem to be the
most suitable for us, and I recommend that Us lead?
ing provisions, if not the wholo of It, bo adopted by
tho General Assembly und enacted into law for this
State.
The statute to which I refer Is to be found in Title
0, Chanter bS, of tho "Kevlscd Statutes of Uhrwlc
Island.' This volume Is In my hands, and will be
furnished for the use of any Committee of your hon?
orable bodies that tuny desire it.
The provision in tho Uth Section, making the
judgment for damages run against the body of the
defendant, should of course be striken out, as It would
bu viulative uf our Constitution.
STATE KINANCKS.
My sense of duty to your honorable bodies, and
to those whom yon" represent, will not allow mo to
make any recommendations in regard to the debt of
the Plate until I have amply fortified myself, by the
judgment nnd approval of those whose efforts have
been directed, for n long time past, to the discovery
of a path of safety for the Slate from oiilof the labyrinth
of danger in which she is involved. I nm unwilling
to enter upon this grave and momentous subject until
I can see iny way clearly to the end.
Haste to utter nil opinion never proves Its wisdom.
Let us ask a patient waiting on the part of tho people,
and a temporary pacification of all their hopes ui,d
rears.
conclusion.
The present administration has entered upon tho
duties assigned it under the organic law and Statutes
of the State, with a bankrupt Treasury, and u shattered
State credit. Its advent has been'heralded by loud
asseverations on the part or political opponents that
It would doom th<" Commonwealth to still deeper
financial disaster, and enlarge the burdens of the
people.
These forecastlmrs of coming evils t" the State, al?
though impelled originally by individual or party prej?
udice, also expressed the honest fears und sincere con?
victions of many good and estimable citizens. Happily
those who urged them with malevolence were as
devoid of tho prescience of the prophet us they are
of his charity.
The Athenians built a column, nnd Inscribed upon
it tho words "To Time, who vindicates."
It is for us to determine the irreversible decree of
history as to whether our accusers have justly charged
us. If we faithfully perform our duties lo the Slate,
we can, in tills matter, safely repose our vindication
upon the public judgment and the public conscience,
which oventnally are rarely, if ever, wrong.
The passions that were heated In the fierce crucible
of political antagonism arc now rapidly cooling, und
men are temperately viewing tho situation as It Is.
I ask only for tills administration that It shall he
Judged by Its work, and that its work shall be meas ?
ured by the real difficulties that environ it.
Those difficulties arc not Insurmountable. The ele?
ments or material prosperity are being everywhere
combined and developed in the State". It Is lor us to
take care that no net or the State administration shall
check this progressive movement. Our trust?which
wo hidd solely for tho benefit of the people?can be
best discharged by enacting such legislation us will
give additional Impulse toall the useful industries and
beneficial enterprises already in motion, and by a faith?
ful and economical application of the public revenues
to the objects defined by law.
To this great end, fellow-citlzciis of the Senate nnd
House, my efforts, and those of the State ollicers who
surround me, will not be wanting, nnd 1 am fully per?
suaded that yours will not be denied.
1 trust that your counsels for the common good of
the whole people uf the state will be constantly en?
lightened nnd fortified by the wisdom of the Omnl
nonent Ruler of tho Universe, and that, whatever may
bo the adverse, judgment of men, each legislator will
deserve and receive tie approving sanction of his own
conscience in nil his public actions.
F. J. MOSES, Jb.,
Governor of South Carolina.
Thinking of You
I thought that ruy heart had grown oold,
And to loving had sighed Ua adieu;
But in n pi to of myself and of fate,
11 m oftentimes thinking af yon.
The language of passion is sweet,
And it lalle on tho soul like the dew;
But I know it but lure* to deceive?
Then why am 1 thinking of jou?
Could I fly from this wilderness world
To a heart that wats loving and true;
? Could I live all my lifo by your side,
I would live and die thinking of you.
But I know when a season had passed,
You would fly to a love that was now;
Ami I, in my sorrow forutkeo.
should ever bf thinking of you.
The chaplet alouo love ehould weave
la of amaranth, fadeless and blue; .
But yours la of rosoe that wither,
And tho roses are mingled with ruo.
I have suffered too deeply already,
My brow with mich wreath toeudue;
Lay It low at the leet t?f another,
iur I witl have done thinking of you.
MEDICAL
ON MAUHI.xOE?Uap| y relief for young
men frou* Uih iffucU of (.uotsaud ab inc.*
in early life. Manhood restored. Impedi?
menta to mariUge removed. New method
of treatment. Now mid retnark>ible ronio
dies. Books and circulars Hint free, in
sealed envelopes. Addnt.? HOWAUI) ASSO?
CIATION, No. 2 South Ninth street. Phila?
delphia. Pa ?an institution hnving a high
reputation for honorable conduct and profes?
sional kill Dec 10 3ino_
Stork's Restaurant.
Oysters and Othtr BefreFbments.
THE undersigned hegt? to inform
hia friends tliat his SALOON and
HK8TAU11ANT is in full operation,
and ho i? nropared to supply Ml. a 1.is at all
hours OYSTKIIGIf in and out of the shell,
From Norfolk, Chariot en' ai.d Indian Key,
when the wi ulln r pet mil*. Imported and
ih.meatic SliOAllS. lUltiuiorcLAGEll BEEK,
Me- A. STOUK.
On 2?
() Y 8 i' E R S 1
Stewed, Fried, rnrl on the Shell.
HAVING ill trie out til r ?ngeinonts
f?r the iHr ii ??'hhoii wh am i-re
nurcd to tltii.ieh OUI llhlii's und
pah on* with OYS'lK) .fcl, in all -i\h>- We
h"pe that polite itlMitii.ti io our Ii i- i dt> may
give satisfaction to nil who mayfavor its with
their patronag*. We -hull endeavor to please
the eye an well an taut.-, ri-meuib'-rii-g that
"cleanliness is a virtue "
N..v 1 3mo P. I). KONEMAN.
i-i- 60 HEAD of fine KENTUCKY
MULESj which-w?rbe told at reason*
A LL indented to, the under/signed and
XX their predecessors, by note, acoonnt or
otherwise, will please eettlo up before the
1st der of February next, or our claims will
be placed In the hands -of an Attorney for
collection. -- HOPE & OYLES.
' Jan 7 . '. ? i , ? ;......
To Bant, <
A STORE, on Main street. Apply to
SEIBELS & EZELL, ,
Jan 7 . . . Boat Estate Agent?.
Jost Received. ? ?
A l\f\ OABEB OA. NN ED GOODS,
<-?\t\J 100 boxes CANDY,
60 boxes SOAP, ,
2W barrela FLOUR, . .
100 barrels Whiskey,
100 dozen Axes,
200 dozen Pocket-Knives,
100 dozor> - airs Traoe Ohaina,
100 doze., Joor and Pad-Locks,
100 bundles Ties,
100 bales Bagging.
For sale to-day, at New York prices an 1 oar
riage, having been purchased mainly before
the late inflated prices.
Jan 6 L?RICK A LOW RANGE.
50
Non-Explosive Oil,
JUST received and for sale, at G. DIERCKS'.
The premium non-expioeive MINERAL
SPERM OIL. Also, burners suitable for the
nee of tbia Oil. Wholesale and retail.
Nov 13_
Cider.
ANOTHER lot of that finn CIDEB, so ad*
mired by connoisseurs, just opened.
_Jsn9_A. STORK.
Notice.
ALL NOTES dne and open aooonnta for
1872 mast be cloned up. We trust this
notice is all onr frienda will want to make
them "come up."
Jan 5_ L?RICK k LOWRANCE.
Choice Wines.
BASKETS HEIDSICK CHAMPAGNE,
10 canes Sparkling Catawba,
10 cases "Vix Bare."
10 caees "Kelloy's" Island Wine.
10 caaetj "Rod Seal,"
3 caskj "Harmony Shorry,"
2 casks "Amontilado Sherry,"
2 caskR "Rcaere Madeira."
For ealo bv HOPE & GYLES.
Jan 9 _ _
Seed Potatoes.
pf f\ BARRELS EARLY ROSE and EARLY
*J\J GOODRICH, in fine order, and for aale
by_HOPE A GYLES.
.CARRIAGES
AND
BUGGIES!
CALL at the Factory East of the
Post Office and examine quality,
workmanship and prices beforo pur?
chasing auction goods. Wo cannot
bo undersold in good vehicles.
M. J. OALNAN, Agent.
JOHN AGNEW, Proprietor.
Jan 11_. _
Coal! Coal!! Coal!!!
ao1? TONS of that famous poetical Ac
^Oi turacito COAL is nowo?eredfor aale.
English ton given, 2,240 pounds. Terms easy.
Apply to R. A. KEENAN,
Dec 24 lrno*_Coal and Wood Dealer.
Millinery.
MBS. O. E. BEED has been
awarded tho highoatpremiums,
, for 1871 and 1872, for tho BEST
; MILLINERY, coneistiug of
Ladies' and Children's BON?
NETS, HATS and CAPS, Ladies'
Underware, Hair, and Fanoy
Art idea of every description,
which will be sold at reduced
prices. The public in general
are invited to caU and see fcr themselves be?
fore purohaeinir oleewhere._ Deo 7
Oysters.
f-\ MY OYSTER SALOON is open
^tiitfir for tbo ecuon- Hy friends arein
wflO^ vited to give me a call. Ovstera
served in all styloa. G. DIEBCKS.
Oct18_
SULZBAOHERS
NEW OPENING!
THE MOST MAGNIFICENT STOCK OF
J EWE LEY SO XJTU OF TEE
POTOMAC.
HAVING moved from my old
stand to Wearn'a new Art Build?
ing, and opened the largest
aid finest atock of WATCHES,
?^-.--?^ i 'OLOCK8. JEWELRY, DIA?
MONDS, Solid and Plated Ware, Cutlery, and
fancy articles generally, over displayed in
this city, I ask my many customers and
friends ana the public to call and examine for
thomselvea.
I have the latest taabiona in JEWELRY and
PLATED WABE, of the most artistic and
boautiful styles. All my goods aro from first
cIsbs manufacturers only. Tonne, net cash.
Repairing and Engraving a specialty. All
work guaranteed.
Oct 11 ISAAC 8ULZBACHEB.
FALL AND WINTER
CLOTHING
HATS. CAPS
AND
GENTS' PLitNlSUlNG GOODS!!!
e uro receiving and will coutinuo to re?
ceive through the season tho best
W
Ready-made Clothing
That cannot bo anrpasBttl, if equaled, by any
Custom-made. Wo have the very latest
fashions in Meltons, Diagonals, Cheviot
Boavers, Tricots, Black Dress Fro ok, Blaok
Doo Pants, French and American Dress
Yosts, Cloth, Silk and Silk Velvet.
a ependid line of Men's, Youths' and Boys'
UNDEll-OLOTHING.WliileandPancyShirta,
Cheviot and Negligee Half Hoee, Under-wear,
Cardigan Jackets, Neck Wear, Suspenders,
Silk and Linen Handkeichiefd, shawls, Car?
pets and Traveling Bags.
SILK HATS?PALL STYLE.
?3* Wo have marked our Goodefor net cash.
EINARD & WILEY.
Out 1
Carriages.
a large stock or top and
open BUGGIES. R00KAWAY8,
cabriolettb. pile TONS, and a late style
of Euglish Dt g Cart, for aalu at very reason?
able prices, at ihr. Repository, cornor Lady
and Assembly streets.
Nov 17 W. K. GREENFIELD.
t*t:i sum
? Kl a voy;. :.t.j..z.%tit%l <ulJ l?vto?ttj&&
A BE dally receivingaddition;, to tn'elr ?1?.
?aV Bjanfrataekol ? ,a tqbtevfi . .... Tfl-.-.>?
?v K<iw ?' i' -\is brli a iL
:"-"in* . ??? ?' ;*f-*? ?? ? ?.
GEMS' FIMISB1M GOODS.
SI"
An entirely new line of
MEW'S,BOYS' AND CHlXDEEB'& *
t i tuvj ^- * ? i i ,ii> ?
tit Y?3
HAT8^
? t I tt ? ? "1 ?'*??]>' '-"liii
Juat received. s*H'T
In out Custom Department we are exhibit ?
ing tbo ohoiceat patterns of foreign and do
meatio
CASSIHEBES AND VESTINGS.
? Give us a calb
E. & W. C. SWAFXTBLD.
Deo 19 _-- ?
?EORjSALE.
A. BARE CHANGE
fob a m
HDD III IfTHIT.
B
EINO deaitons of changing my business,
I offer for Bale the entire stock of tho
Exchange House,
consisting of
BRANDIES. WINES,
WHISKIES, GINS, . .
RUM, ALE, CIGARS, etc.,
And all the fixtures necessary to carry on a
FIRST CLASS BAR and RESTAURANT. , :
Tim bouse is conveniently located, and ar?
ranged for private or transient Boarders, and
now enjoys a fair patronage. It contains
ten FURNISHED ROOMS, beeidea two DIN?
ING ROOMS, front and back, BAB ROOM
and KITCHEN. Attached to the establish?
ment is a fine Cock-Pit, Stables for Horses,
etc. For farther particulars, apply to or
addreas P. HAMILTON JOINER,
Deo la Colombia, 8. O.
pOORS,
BLINDS,
WOOD MOULDINGS, STAIR RAILS,
NEWELS AND ALL KINDS OF
FANCY GLASS.
LARGE STOCK. LOWEST RATES.I
ORDER WORK SOLICITED.
Send for estimate and price Hat.
KKOGH dt THORHE.
254 and 266 canal arnicsT,
DO ly mrw to ax cut. 1
CENTRAL NATIONAL BANS
OF COL UUBIA, B.C,
Present Capital, 8150,000.
AUTHORISED CAPITAL., $?c0,<h5o.
t ?? ?
CERTIFICATES OF DEPOSIT, bearing in?
terest at the rate of seven per cent, per
annum, will be issued. ..... .
NOTES, Bills of Kxohange and other ?vi
denoes of debt discounted, and money loaned
on collaterals: , . > m ,
Stocka, Bonds,Gold, Silver bougbt and sold.
Drafts on all the prominent cities in. the
United Statea bought and eold._. ?
Directors?J. Eli Gregg. John B. Palmer, F.
W. MoMaster, B. D. 8enn, of B. D. 8enn A
Son; G. W. Bearden, of Copeland A Bearden;
B. L. Bryan, of Bryan A McOarter: w. O.
Swaffield.of B. A W. C. Bwaffield; John 0?
Seegera, W. B. Stanley.
otticebs.
President?John B. Palmer
Oashier?A. G. Brooizer.
Assistant Cashier?O. N.O.Butt. Sept 38
WHEELEE & WILSON'S
Sewing Machines.
HIGHBsVT PREMIUM
I
O
By Committee of Practical Machinists.
THE atmplicity, durability, eaao of manage?
ment and great range of work of this
Machine has made iL the universal favorite,
and leading family Sowing Machine for more
than twenty years, and hence it is sO experi?
ment to buy one.
For aalo on monthly instalments, aeoonrb
door bolow PuffiNix ?filce?^!^!^^^.,!^
Feh 27 Agent for .Parsley A Tromp.
New Publications.
NEW JUVENILE BOOKS. London edi?
tions, illustrated.
New standard works for llbrarh a.
New Novels, in cheap bindlnp.
Also, a fresh atoek of WRITING DESKS,
Portfolios, Gold Pens, Pen-Keivee, Pocket
Books, Thotograph Albums of all hi zee, Fancy
Braoketa arid Book SholveB, Mid a general
varioty of Letter. Note and Cap Papers, En?
velopes and Fancy stationery, for aale by
Wov5_B. I,. BRYAN.
Mince Meat.
JUST received, a lot of choice liTNCR
HEAT. GEO. 8YMMERB.

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