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EDWABD D. HOWARD,
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& SBwklq arailq Soumal, Dtaofri) to rwbara, irnltnre. literature, (Etamtion, laral fnfHligtnrr, anh tie Jbms nf ijp Uaq.
OWE DOLLAR AND FUTT CENT
rza ABiroit, is advaxcx.
VOL. 39, NO. 2 4.
FEBRUARY 7, 1 8 55.
WHOLE NO .2002.
THE CONQUEROR'S GRAVE.
BY WILLIAM CULLEN BRYANT.
Within this lowly jrsve a Conqueror lies,
' And yet the monument proclaims it not.
Not the deeper'! tun hath chisel srrou; ht
. The emblems of a fame that never dies
Itj and amaranth, in c-raeefnl sheaf,
. TiruMd srilh the UoreUs fair imperial leaf.
, A simple name alone,
t To the (Treat world unknown.
Is rraTCn here; and wild flowers, risinjt round,
. Meek meadow-sweet, and violets of the ground,
. iean lovingly against the humble stone.
' Here, la the quiet earth, they laid apart
i Mo man of iron mould and bloody hands.
Who sought to wreak upon the cowering lands
The passions that consumed his restiess heart;
Bat ojje of tender spirit and delicate frame,
' gentlest, in Beta and mind.
Of gentlest wssuankind.
Timidly shrinking from the breath or blame;
One in whose eyes the smile of kindness made
, - Its haunt, like flowers by sunny brooks in May ;
' Yet at the thought of others' pain, a shade
" Of sweeter sadness chased the smile away.
"" Wor deem that when the hand which moulders her
Was raisediu menaeeealms were chilled wit fear.
And armies mustered at the sign, as when
Clouds raise clouds before the rainy East
Gray captains leading bauds of veteran men
; And fiery youths, to he the vultures' feast.
Not thus were waged the mighty wars that gave
The victory to her who Alls this grave;
Alone her task was wrought,
A Inn. the hattle fought:
Through that long strife her constant hope was staid
. On Uod alone, nor mo&ca tor wuh
8h met the hosts of Sorrow with a look
That altered not beneath the frown they wore;
And soon the lowering brood were tamed and took.
Meekly, her gentle rule, and frowned no more,
' Bar soft hand put aside the assault of wrath.
And calssly broke in twain
- The fiery shaft of pain;
'And rent the nets of passion from her path.
By that victorious hand despair was slain;
With love the vanquished hate, and overcame
Kvil with good, in her Great Master's name.
Her glory Is not or this shadowy state.
Glory that with the fleeting season dies;
But when she entered at the sapphire gate.
What joy was radiant in celestial eyes !
How heaven's bright depths with sounding welcome
And flowers cf heaven by shining hands were flung I
And lie who, long before.
Pain, scorn, and sorrow bore;
The Mighty Sufferer, with aspect sweet,
Bmiled orythe timid stranger from his seat;
He who. r&tnrninr riorums from the grave.
Dragged Death, disarmed, in chains, a crouching slave
See, as I linger here, the sun groan low;
Cool airs are murmuring that the night Is near.
Oh gentle sleeper, from thy grave I go.
Consoled though sad, in hope and yet in fear,
- Brief is the time, I know,
' The warfare scarce begun;
Tot all may win toe triumphs thou hast won.
Still flows the fount whose waters strengthen thee :
The victor's names are yet too few to fill
Heaven's mighty roll; the glorious armory
That ministered to the is open still.
BY WILLIAM CULLEN BRYANT. [Putnam's Magazine. ]
THE GROOMSMAN TO HIS MISTRESS.
FY J. W. PARSONS.
Every wedding, says the proverb, .
Makes another, soon or late ;
Fever yet was any marriage
Fntered in the book of Fate,
Bat the names were also written
... Or the patient pair that wait. "
Blessings then upon the morning
When my friend, with fondest look.
By the solemn rites permission,
To himself his mistres took,
. And the Destinies recorded
- . Other two within their book.
While the priest fulfilld his office,
bull the ground the lovers eyed.
And the parents and .the kinsmen
Aimed their glances at the bride.
Bat the groomsmen eyed the virgins
Who were waiting at their side. - ;
Three there were that stood beside her;
One was dark and one was fair.
But nor fair nor dark the other.
Save her Arab eyes and hair;
Neither dark nor fair I call her.
Yet she was the fairest there.
While her groomsman 4hall I own it?
Yes, to thee, and only thee
Gazed upon this dark-eyed maiden
Who was the fairest of the three,
, Thus he thought "How blest the bridal
Wheie the bride were such as she !"
' Then I mused npon the adage,
. Till my wisdom was perplexed, -
And I wondered, as the churchman
Dwelt upon his holy text.
Which of all who heard his lesson
Should require the service next.
Whose will be the next occasion
For the flowers, the feast, the wlnef
. Thine perchance, my dearest lady.
Or, who knows? it may be mine:
What if t were forgive the fancy
What if "t were both mine and thine ?
FY J. W. PARSONS. Choice Miscellany.
A BOHEMIAN LEGEND.
Once upon a time there was a maiden
named Swanhilda, who was the only
child of a proud father, and he was dead.
Her mother had died at her birth, and
6he lived, therefore, alone in her castle.
To this lady many suitors came, all of
whom she scornfully and repeatedly re
jectcd. Her delight w as in manly sports;
she was perpetually thundering through
the forest on a great Barbary courser,
spear in hand, in search of game. Nev
ertheless she was very beautiful ; and
her many suitors driven to distraction, at
last met together and agreed to summon
her to yield herself to one of them, or
else submit to be besieged by them all ;
for they would combine and march
against her castle. She sent back their
message with scornful words, and went
In the night a little ball of light came
up out of her bedroom floor, and jumped
about with a slight crackling noise that
awakened and worried her.
"Be quiet !" she cried out at it.
"What fool's trick is this ? I want to go
sleep." The lifcle ball instantly van
isned; but directly afterwards, the boards j
the floor were broken through, and a
table rose into the room covered with
wine and dainty food. Then Swanhilda
felt alarmed. But the fear gave way to
curiosity when she saw sitting round the
table the figures of all her suitors, eating
and drinking merrily. One lady was
sitting with 'them who had nothing to
eat, and that was the image of herself.
Little servant took each of the young
knights as many plates of food as he had
received rejections at her hands ; and,
whenever a knight was served in this
way, there was laid before the image of
herself an empty sack, so that as many
'sacks (the Obcrlansilzers say baskets,)
she had given she received back for
her supper. I believe that an old cus-
torn of asking a lady's hand by making
her a present in a bag (sack) or basket,
and taking it as an acceptance of the lm
plied offer if slie kept whatever contained
the present, and a rejection if she sent
the sack or basket back, gave rise to our
vulgar English eiprebsien, give the
sack, and the corresponding German
expression, give the basket. Swanhilda
saw her image gradually burried behind
piles of her own . baskets, while the
knights ate or drank, and the good wine
and rich viands came up through the
floor at an amaring pace, disappearing
again from the table in a way that was
quite tupernatural. Swanhilda, being
very angry, was about to scold, when
she found to her dismay her voice was
There was a whispering and giggling
at the bedside. To see what that meant,
Swanhilda moved aside the silken cur
tains -and peeped over on two little crea
tures in blue and green clothing, with
l!ow hats, who laughed and talked to
gether. She could just hear what they
said. She picked up from their discourse
that she was being punished by the
fairies generally for having turned her
girlhood into manhood ; but particularly
for one act that had brought herroyster-
ing acts painfully under the notice of the
fairy queen. On a certain festival occa
sion, a grand fairy assembly had been
held, a monster orchestra was establish
ed in the wood, the queen with her whole
court was present, and the entire fairy
orld was there collected, crowding
every flower with so much eagerness
that the more adventurous had even
climbed to the top of the highest fox
gloves to look down on the imposing
spectacle. In the midst of the music
the ground shook, and there was heard
distant thunder ; . directly afterwards
the Amaon on her great Barbary horse
dashed through the bushes. . One hoof
came down into the middle of the orches
tra, crushing, - overthrowing, breaking
heads and arms and legs, so that the fes
tival field looked afterwards as ghastly
as a field of battle. The queen vowed
that she would tame Swanhilda. Al
ready the fairies were at work, eating
her out of house and home. Swanhilda,
hearing all this, turned round in the bed
with a great thump. " Did you feel
that ?" said one of the little creatures.
' Was not that an earthquake." The
other was the cellarer who went occa
sionally to and fro to fetch up wine.
No," he replied, that beast of a girl
must be awake and kicking about in her
bed with anger." "But then," said the
other one, I think she would get up
and scold at us roundly." " No," said
cellarer, "our queen has taken thought
of that. If she awoke she was to be
tongue-tied, and to lie awake till cock
crow looking at us." "Fine amusement
that would be," grumbled Swanhilda to
hsrself. "I was right," said the cellar
er laughing tremendously, "the beast is
awake." "Pretty manneas," thought
Swanhilda. "lama beast, am I ! Oh
wish 1 could speak."
"Ah my young lady," said the cellar
er, answering her thoughts, " it is well
for our ears that you cannot. You see,"
he added to his friend, " the immense
destruction of property she has occasion
ed is not to be made good to us, the
queen says until this creature has mar
ried one of her rejected suitors, and
made handsome presents to all the oth
ers. Before she can do that 6he must
catch fish for her living.
A little before cockcrow the feasting
ended, and the table being broken up
the fairies disappeared. Then she got
up and went to her wash-stand. There
was no water in the basin ; and falling
at once into a great rage, she called her
maid. "How is this ?" she said to her
"No water 1" The maid was sure that
she had put water, but she went for
more. Presently she returned, looking
much frightened. "There is no water,"
she said, "in the tub, none in the pump,
none in the cistern." Swanhilda thought
directly of the fairies, and said, "Never
mind. Get me my breakfast. I will
take a sausage, and two breasts of Pom
eranian goose." . " Oh Miss," the ser
vant answered, "there's no sausage, and
no goose, and no food of any kind, and
every cask in the cellar is empty, and
the cask are rotten, and the furniture's
gone out of the house, and the cattle out
of the stalls, and your Barbary courser's
gone, and the hay is all mould in the
manger, and the litter's rotton, and all
the fruit gone off the trees and the trees
are dead, and the grass and every bit of
the country round is withered up only
look out of the window, miss and the
servents have all gone, and oh if you
please, miss, I am going." Swanhilda
went out and found that all was true ;
the fairies had really consumed all her
substance. "I won't be forced into mar
rying," she said, "and I won't fish. I
don't care. I know what I'll do. I'll
starve myself." She kept to this resolu
tion for three days but then starvation
become so uncomfortable, that she wen.
out look for food.
Eveything was dry and barren, but
there was the castle lake ; and when she
came to that it was a surprise to see how
full of fish it was, and how they leaped
and swam together at the surface. There
was a fishing-rod close by her, with a
hook at the end of the line, and a worm
already fixed upon it. She dipped it
into the lake, and a fish bit instantly.
She threw the line down and was carry
ing home the fish for dinner, when it be
gan suddenly to smell so detestably that
she was forced to throw it away.
'Ha ha," chuckled the little cellarer,
who was lounging upon a moss rose close
by, and drinking the maddest draughts
out of a small cup borrowed from heath
blossom. " We know how to tame you.
Swanhilda picked up the fishing-rod,
and struck at the impertinent elf with all
hermight. "Infamousimp 1" she cried.
She knocked the rose to pieces, but the
fairy had leaped off and fixed himself
upon her nose. "You have a remarka
ble soft nose, you vixen," he observed.
Now fish ! Do, my dear Swanhilda,
tak the rod, and while you are fishing I
will play you the most cheering music."
Swanhilda dashed at him with her fin
gers, but he bit them, it was of no use
to be obstinate ; she was obliged to fish ,
and while she fished -he sat astride upon
her nose, and, beating time upon it with
his heels, playing half a dozen instru
ments, and sang a song at the same time.
In his song he bade her to put the fish
she caught into a basket that lay at her
feet wreathed about with flowers. It
was soon full, and then she was forced
to carry it to market.
But if she was to go down to town and
sell fish before all the world, she deter
mined that she would at least disguise
herself. So she went first into the castle
to look for some common clothes. But
the cupboards and presses were all emp
ty. No garments were left her but the
one she wore, the grand velvet riding
habit in which she had been used to go
hunting. She was obliged, therefore,
to set out in that, and was promised a
hot sop for supper upon her return. The
farries made her labor light for her. She
sold her fish ; and, when she came home
found a little water ruuniug from the
spring, a fire alight in the court-yard,
and a piece of bread beside it. She made
some water hot, crumbled the bread into
it, ate her hot sop and fell asleep.
Next morning she awoke vary thirsty,
but there was no water. The little cel
lerer was at her elbow to remind her
that she must go fishing and marketing
before she breakfasted. She fell at once
into a great rage. "I wish, she thought
to herself, "I wish you were where the
pepper grows." At once she felt the
elf upon her nose, where he began to
punish her with a thick bristle, beating
her cheeks and tickling her nostrils so
that she half killed herself with sneez
ing. "Wait a bit, madam," he cned. "I'll
teach you politeness. Where the pep
per grow, indeed ! I'll pepper you."
Swanhilda fished and went to market,
where two of her rejected suiiors saw
her, and came up at once, to bye some
of her fish and to mock her. So the
year and the next year passed ; the sui
tors came one after ano.her, jeering at
Swanhilda. She took every day to mar
ket a basket full of the finest fish, and in
exchange carried home every day, so
much money, that she was after all a lit
tle comforted. But she was compelled
to put the money by, and live on the
spare diet that the cellerer provided.
And while she was thus humbled, Swan
hilda saw that among all the old suitors
who mocked at her in her day of dis
grace there came one who approached
her always as of old, with blushing rev
erence, and honored her as much as ever,
though she was reduced to the condition
of a fish-wife. Her heart then softened,
and she understood the worth of love.
Therefore, at the end of three years, she
consented to marry this young knight
The produce of her marketing, in which
the faiiies had always helped to success,
amounted by that time to a vast sum, so
that she had no difficulty in obeying the
the rest of the directions of the little cel
erer, who had beenmade her major-domo
by the fairy queen. To every one of
her old suitors, rude as they had lately
been, in recognition of her own former
rudeness, she sent fair words and costly
gifts. Blushing with maidenly humility
and modesty, she was led to the alter by
the suitor who had lived her with a true
devotion, and to friendly fairies who at
tended at her wedding she made herlask
promise, which she kept faithfully. It
was never to ride any more Barbary
horsrs, but to amble ou a palfrey as a
gentle lady should.
The genius who Oles newspapers, late
ly broke l is instrument operating on a
hard shell " organ.
CONFLICT OF NORTHERN AND
SOUTHERN THEORIES OF
MAN AND SOCIETY.
BY HENRY WARD BEECHER.
The questions which have provoked
discussion among us for fifty years past
have not been questions of fundamental
principles, but of the application of prin
ciples already ascertained. Our debates
have been between one way of doing a
thing and another way of doing it be
tween living well and living better; and so
through, it has been a question between
good and better. We hate discussed
Policies not Principles. In Europe on
the other hand, life-questions have ag
itated men. The questions of human
rights, of the true foundations of Gov
ernment, are to-day, in Europe, where
they were with our fathers in 1630.
In this respect there is a moral dignity,
and even grandeur, in the struggles, se
cretly or openly going on in Italy, Aus
tria, Germany, and Erance, which nev
er can belong to the mere questions of
mode and manner which occupy us
boundary questions, banks, tariffs, in
ternal improvements, currency ; all very
necessary but seoondary topics. They
touch nothing deeper than the pocket.
In this respect there would be a marked
contrast between the subjects which oc
cupy us, and the grander life-themes
that dignify European thought, were it
not for one subject Slavery. That is
the on'LT question in our day and in our
community, full of vital struggles turning
upon Jundamental principles. "
If Slavery were a plantation question,
concerning only the master and the slave
disconnected from us, and isolated
then, though we should regret it, and
apply moral forces for its ultimate reme
dy, yet, it would be, (as are questions of
the same kind in India or South Amer
ica,) remote, constituting a single ele
ment in that globe of darkness of which
this world is the core, and which Chris
tianity is yet to shine through and change
to light. But it is not a plantation-question.
It is a national question. The
disputes implied by the violent relations
between the owneY and the chattel may
only morally touch us. But the dis
putes between the masters and the Gov
ernment, and between the Government,
impregnated with Slavery, and the North
ern citizen, these touch us sharply, and
if not wisely met, will yet scourge us
The S mthern League of States, have
been held together by the cohesive pow
er of Common Wrong. Their industry,
their policy, their whole interior vital
economy, have been at variance with
the apparent principles of their own
Slate Governments, and with the Na
tional Institutions under which they exist.
They have stood upon a narrow basis,
always shaking under them, without
general wealth, without diversified in
dustry. And yet, since the year of 1800,
they have steadily prevailed against Rep
resentative New-England and the North.
The South, the truest representation of
Absolutism under republican forms, is
mightier in our National Councils and
Policy to-day than New-England, the
mother and representative of true re
publicanism and the whole free North.
And now it has come to pass that, in
the good providence of God, another op
portunity has been presented to the whole
North to reassert her place and her
influence, and to 'fill the institutions of
our country with their original and prop
er blood. I do not desire that she should
arise and put on her beautiful garments,
because she is my mother and your moth
er ; not because her hills were the first
my childhood saw, that has never since
beheld any half so dear ; nor from any
sordid ambition, that she should be great
in this world's greatness ; nor from any
profane wish to abstract from the right
ful place and influence of any State, or
any sectiou of our whole country. But
I think that Goo sent New-England to
these shores as his own messenger of
mercy to days and ages, that have yet
far to come ere they are born ! She
has not yet told this Continent all that
is in her heart. She has sat down like
Bunyan's Pilgrim, and slept in the bow
er by the way, and where she slept she
has left her roll God grant that she
hath not lost it there while she slumbered!
By all the love that I bear to the cause
of God, and the glory of his Church, by
the yearnings which I have for the wel
fare of the human kind, by all the pro
phetic expectations which 1 have of the
destiny of this'lanJ, God's Almoner of
Liberty to the World, I desire to see Old
Representative New England, and the
affiliated North, rouse up and do their
Is it my exeited ear that hears an airy
phantasm whispering? or do I hear a
solemn voice crying out, " Arist! Shine!
thy light is come, and the glory of the Lord
is arisen upon thee ''
I am aware that the subject of Slavery
has been regarded, by many, as sectional;
and the agitation of it in the North need
less and injurious to our peace and the
country's welfare. Whatever may have
been the evils the agitation has only come
through men, not from them. It is of
God. It is the undcrheaving of Provi
dence. Mariners might as well blame
you for the swing and toss of their craft
when tides troop in or march out of your
harbor, as us, for heaving to that tiJe
which God swells under us. Tides in
the ocean and in human affairs are from
celestial bodies and celestial beings. The
conflict which is going on springs from
causes as deep as the foundations of our
institutions. It will go on to a crisis ;
its settlement will be an era in the world's
history, either of advance or of decline.
I wish to call your patient attention
to the real nature of this contest. It is,
The conflict between Northern
theories and southern theories of
Man and of Societt.
There have been, from the esrliest pe
riod of the world, two different, and op
pugnent, doctrines of man his place,
rights, duties and relations. And the
theory of man is always the starting
point of all other theories, systems, and
Governments which divide the world.
Outside of a Divine and Authoritative
Revelation, men have had but one way
of estimating the value of man. He
was to them simply a creature of time,
and to be judged in (he scientific method
by his phenomena. The Greeks and the
Romans had no better way. They did
not know his origin, his nature, or his
destiny, to bring these into account, in
estimating man. Accordingly they could
o no better than to study him in his de
velopments and rank him by the power
which he manifested. Now, if a bota
nist should describe a biennial plant,
whose root and stem belong to one sea
son, whose blossom and fruit belong to
another, as if that were the whole of it
tf'hich the first year produced, he would
commit the same mistake which the
heathen idea of man commits in meas
uring and estimating a being whose true
life comes hereafier, by the develop
ments which he makes in only this world.
From this earthly side of man springs
the most important practical results. For,
the doctrine of man, simply as he is in
this life, logically deduces Absolutism and
If the power of producing effects is the
criterion of value, the few will always
be the most valuable, and the mass, rel
atively, subordinate, and the weak and
lowest will be left helplessly worthless.
And the mass of all the myriads that
do live, are of no more account than
working animals ; and there is, on such
a theory, no reason a priori, why tbey
should not Decontrolled by superior mem
and made to do that for which they are
the best fitted Work and Drudgery!
Only a long experiment could teach a
doctrine contrary to the logical presump
tion arising from weakness. There could
be no doctrine of human rights. It would
be simply a doctrine of human forces.
Right would be a word as much out of
place as among birds and beasts. Au
thority would go with productive great
ness, as gravity goes with mass in matter.
The whole chance of Right and the whole
theory of Liberty, springs from that part
of mnn that lies beyond this life.
As a material creature, man ranks
among physical foroes. Rights come j
from his spiritual nature. The body is
of the earth, and returns to earth, and is
judged by earthly measures. The soul
is of Gsd, and returns to God, and is
judged by Diviue estimates. And this is
the reason why a free, unoltructed Bible
always works towards human rights. It
is the only basis on which the poor, the
ignorant, the weak, the laboring masses
can entrench against oppression.
What then is that theory of man which
Christianity gives forth?
It regards man not as a perfect thing,
put into life to blossom and die, as a per
fect flower doth. Man is a seed, anil
birth is planting. He is in life for cul
tivation, not exhibition; he is here chiefly
to be acted on, not to be characteristically
an agent. For, though man is also an
actor, he is yet more a recipient. Though
he produces effects, he receives a thou
sand fold more than he produces. And
he is to be estimated by his capacity of
receiving, not of doing. He ha3 his least
value in what he can do ; it all lies in
what he is capable of having done to him.
The eye, the ear, the tongue, the nerve
of touch, are all simple receivers. The
understanding, the affections, the moral
sentiments, all, are, primarily and char
acteristically, recipients of influence; and
only secondarily agents. Now, how dif
ferent is the value of ore, dead in its si
lent waiting-places from the wrought
blade, the all but living engine, and the
carved and curious utensil !
Of how little value is a ship standing
hclple88on the stocks but half-bui!t, and
yet building to one who has no knowl
edge of the ocean, or of what that help
less hulk will become the moment she
slides into her element, and rises and
falls upon the flood with joyous greeting!
The value of an acorn is not what it
is, but what it shall be when nature has
brooded it, and brought it up, and a hun
dred years have sung through its branches
and left their'strength there !
He, then, that judges man by what
he can do, judges him in the seed. We
must see him through some lenses we
must prefigure his immortality. While,
then, his industrial value in life must
depend on what he can do, we have here
the beginning of a moral value which
bears no relation to the power, but to his
This view assumes distinctness and in
tensity, when we add to it the relation
ship which subsists between man and his
This relationship begins in the fact
that we are created in the divine image ;
that we are connected with- God, there
fore not by Government alone, but by na
ture. This initial truth is made radiant with
meaning, by the teaching of Christianity
that every human being is dear to God ;
a teaching which stands upon that plat,
form, built high above all human deeds
and histories, the advent incarnation, pas
sion, and death of Christ as a Savior of
The race is a brotherhood ; God is the
Father, Love is the law of this great hu
man common wealth, and love knows no
servitude. It is that which gilds with
Liberty whatever it touches.
One more element to human liberty is
contributed by Christianity, in the solemn
development of man's accountability to
God, by which condition hereafter springs
from pure character here.
However heavy that saying is, every
one of us shall give an account of him
self before God in it is the life of the
You oannot present man as a subject
of Divine government, held responsible
for results, compared with which the
most momentous earthly deeds are insig
nificant, plied with influences accumu
lating from eternity, and by powers which,
though they begin on earth in a cradle,
gentle as a mother's voice singing lullaby,
go on upward, taking everything as they
go, till they reach the whole power of
God ; and working out results that out
last time and the sun, and revolve forever
in flaming circuits of disaster, or in sa
cred circles of celestial bliss ; you can
not present man as the center and subject
of such an august and eternal drama,
without giving him somethi ng of the gran
deur which resides in God himself, and
in the spheres of immortality !
Who shall triflo with such a creature,
full bound upon such an errand through
life, and swelling forth to such a destiny?
Clear the place where he stands ! give
him room and help, but no hinderance as
he equips for eternity ! loosen the bonds
of man, for God girds him take ofl
all impediments, for it is his life and
death struggle for immortality !
That this effect of accountability to
God was felt by the inspired writers,
cannot be doubtful to any who weigh such
language as this :
"So then every one of us shall give
account of himself to God. Let us not
therefore judge one another any more,
but judge this rather, that no man put a
stumbling block, or occasion to fall in
his brother way."
By making man important in the sight
of God, he becomes sacred to his fellow.
The more grand and far-reaching are the
divine claims, the greater is our concep
tion of the scope and worth of being.
Human rights become respected in the
ratio in which human responsibility is
felt. Whatever objections men may
hold to Puritanism their theory since
the days of St. Augustine has constantly
produced tendencies to liberty and a prev
alent belief in the natural rights of man
and on account of that very feature
which to many, has been so offensive its
rigorous doctrineof human accountability.
Here, then, is the idea of man which
Christianity gives in contrast with the
inferior and degrading heathen notions of
man. He is a being but begun on earth
a seed only plantel here for its first
growth. He is connected with God, not
as all matter is, by proceeding from crea
tive power, but by partaking of the di
vine nature, by the declared personal
affection of God, witnessed and sealed
by tho presence and sufferings of the
world's Redeemer. He is a being upon
whom is rolled the responsibility of char
acter and eterml d stiny ! Of such a
creature it were as foolish to t;ikj an f sti-
i... ..t.. 1. ic ..,1.1 arhnt lie r-nnilo
IIUlv., I"" . I
in this life, us it woJd ba to estimate by
an eagle's ef, what the old ea-ilees is
worth, with wings outspread far above
the very thunder, or coming rWn upon
its quarry as the thunder comes ! It is
the Future that gives value to the Present.
It is Immortality only that reaches down
a measure wherewith to gauge a man. If
a heathen measures, the strong are strong,
and the weak are weak : the rich, the fa
vored, must rule", and their shadow must
dwarf all others. If a Christian meas
ures, he hears a voice saying : " There is
neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither
bond or free, there is neither male nor
female; for ye are all one in Christ
Jesus." " Whosoever shall do the will
of my Father, which is in heaven, the
same is my mother, and sister, and
These are the things that give value
It is not to be said that there is no dif
ference between men ; that one is not
more powerful than another ; that one is
not richer in genius than another ; that
one is not more valuable to society than
another; that education, refinement, skill,
experience gives no precedence over their
negatives. But God takes up the least
of all human creatures, and declares,
" Inasmuch as ye have done it unto the
least of these, ye have done it unto me."
In a household, a babe is vastly less than
the grown-up children. But who dare
touch it, as if it were as worthless as it is
So God pleads his own relationship to
the meanest human creation, as his pro
tection from wrong; as the evidence of
his rights, as the reason of his dignity !
There is something of God in the mean
est creature. He is sacred from injury !
In these truths we find the reason why
Christianity always takes hold so low
down inhuman life. Things that have
got their root, need little from the gar
dener; but seeds, and tender sprouts,
and difficult plants, require and get nur
A Christianity that takes care of the
rich, the strong, the governing class, and
neglects the poor, and ignorant, and un
refined, is the antetype of Christ.
It is in this direction only, that the
declaration of man's equality Is" tf uel
No heathen nation could say that " all
men are born free and equal " for in
mere earthly respects it is false. But it
is a truth that stands only and firmly in
those "rand relations which man sustains
o Gioto eternity and to future dignity
all are equally subjects of these. Man
is ungrown. All his fruit is green. If
he must stand by what he is, h jw surely
must he be given over to weakness, to
abuse to oppressions. The weak are a
natural prey to the strong, and superiority
is a charter for tyranny.
But if ho be an heir, waiting for an in
heritance of God, eternal iu the heavens,
woe be to him that dare lay a finger on
him because he is a minor !
I dwell the longer upon this view be
cause it carries the world's heart in it
We must deepen our thinkings of man,
and bore for the springs of liberty far be.
low thedrainings of surface strata, down
deep, Artesian, till we strike something
that shall be beyond winter or summer,
frost or drouth.
I do not believe that there is a doctrine
of individual rights nor of civil liberty
that can stand outside of Christianity.
Thev are to be seen revealed in nature,
but there is none to interpret them with
authority. Ciirist is the World's Eman
cipator, fjr he hath declared that men
belong to Him ; and an oppressor thus
becomes a felon, a robber, and a wronger
of God in the person of every poor and
wretched victim !
A Christianity that tells man what his
origin is of God ; his destiny, to God
again ; his errand on earth, to grow to
ward goodness, and make the most of
himself- thisChristianity is rank rebellion
in despotisms, and insurrection on plan-
tations. It cannot be preacnea mere.
These two radical theories of man
man, a physical creature to be judged by
effects produced in Time ; or man a spir
itual creature, t be judged by the devel
opment to which he is destined, are at the
roit of all the antagonisms between the
spirit of northern institutions and s iuthern
institutions : northern policy and southern
policy. In the Noith, it is the public
sentiment of the people, that all men are
born free and equal ; that every man has
an inalienable right to life, liberty and
the pursuit of happiness, forfeited only by
crime. The North believe that personal
and political liberty are not only the
rights of man, but their necessity, that man
cannot thrive nor develop, with the true
proportions of manhood, without liberty.
is the Northern sentiment that a man
must be prepared for liberty, and that the
act of birth is that preparation ; that no
creature lives which is the better for op.
pression, and who will not be the better
Tor freedom, which is the natural air an-
pointed for the soul's breathing. The
North disdains every pretense that men
are injured by sudden liberty. A fam
ished mnn may injure himself by over
feeding ; but that is an argument mt
against food, but against famine. It is
the northern sentiment, and justly deduc
ed from the Christian theory of man, tha
society should redeem all its own children
from ignorance, should secure their"
growth, equip them for citizenship, and
make all the influences of society inure
to the benefit of the mass of men. The1
southern sentiment ia the reverse of this
It holds that all men are not born free and
equal; that men have not an inalienable
right to life, liberty and the pursuit of
happiness ; and that men are not in their
very constitution fitted for liberty, and
benefitted by it. They hold that liberty
is an attribute of power ; that it is a bios-
som, which belongs to races, and not to
mankind; that a part were born to rule,'
and a part were ordained to serve ; that'
liberty is dangerous to many; that servi
tude, the most rigorous, is a blessing; that
it accords with the creative intent of God
end with his revealed institution; that a:
nation cannot be homogeneous, and should
not aim at it; that there is a law and
scale of gradation, on which the top it
privilege and authority, the bottom labor
and obedience. These art the radical the
ories of the respective sections of the land.
Men often are profoundly ignorant of the
principles which control their policy, as a
ship ia unconscious of the rudder that
steers her. Many are founl, both North,
and South, whose conduct over-rules their
theory, and who are better or worse than
their belief. There are Southern men
who are more generous than their theory,
and there are Northern men who are
grossly untrue to the northern theory,
which with their lips they profess. .There
are southern men with noithern con
sciences, and there are northern men with
southern consciences. But, in the main,
these respective theories reign and regu
late public proceed ure. There is not a.
so poor in the North, or so ignorant,
or so useless, as not to be regarded as ,a"
Man by religion, bycivil law, 'and By
public opinion. Selfishness and pride,
avarice and cunning, anger or lust may
prey upon the heedlessness or helplessness
of many. Society may be full of evils
But all these things are not sequences of
northern doctrines, but violations of them.
If sharks injgreat cities consume the too
credulous emigrants, if usurers, like
moths cut the fahric of life with invisible
teeth, if landlords sack their tenements
and pinch the tenant all these results
are aganst the spirit of our law, against
puNic feeling, and they that do such
things must flink and burrow. They are
vermin that run in the walls, and peep
from hiding-holes, and we set traps for
them as we do for rats or weazels. But
in the South, the subordination of man
to man, in his earnings, his skill, his time
and labor in his person,' his affections.
his very children is a part of the theory
of society.drawn out into explicit statutory
law, coincident with public opinion, and
executed without secrecy. A net spread
for those guilty of such wrongs against
man wolud catch States, and Legisla
tures, citizens, Courts, and Constitutions!
Iq the North the most useless pauper
that burdens the Alms House the most
uncombed foreigner that delves in the
ditch the most abject creature that begs
a morsel from door to door is yet a man ;
and that not in theory only, but in the
public sentiment, a sacredness of rights
which no man, except by stealtlycan vi
olate with impunity. There is no other
law for the Governor of New-York or of
Massachusetts, than for the beggar in your
streets. That which protects the dwel
ling and the property of the rich mas,
belongs just as much to the hovel of the
beggar. God sends but one sun, and it
is the same light that kindles against the
roof of the mansion, that dawns upon the
thatch of the hut. The same air comes
to each, the same showers, the same sea
sons, summer and winter. And as . is
Nature, so in the North is law, and the
distributive benefits of society. They
bathe society from top to bottom ! The
rich, the learned, the refined; the strong,
may know how to make a better use of
the air, but they have no more air of priv
ilege to breathe, than the poorest wretch.
In the South, exactly the reverse is
true, not by stealth, not by neglect of a
recognized principle, but as the result of
men's ideas, and by organized arrange
ments. Touch a hireling's wages in the
North, and the Law stands to defend
him and beat you down ! Take the la
borer's wages in the South, and the Law
stands ready to defend you, and beat
Beat a man in the North for a private
wrong done, and the law will strike you.
But in the South, it is the right of the
white, unquestioned and unquestionable
to beat every third person in the commu
nity. Let the proudest mill owner break but
the skin of the poorest operative in Lowell
or Lawrence, and both law and public
sentiment, alike, would gr?sp and pun
ish him ! '