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YOL. 39, NO. J7.
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Xiteratarr, duration, local
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MARCH 7, 1 855.
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DOXXA2 AXS PTTTT CSXTS
linM, I ABTAKS. -
WHOLE NO.'! 005.V' ''
BY JOHN IRWIN.
. Ib wester wild, and Cm- away.
Ami4 tbe war is ( pratrw Haven,
' Whet Mature in her beet array
Invitee jrou to her roaj bower :
Go there, jeong friend, and find a dobm
Whet Memuxj efH-iaa mm. fruta her birth ;
Above yew head, the uirc done
BeneaUi your feet, the Terdant eartii.
Go there and find congenial food.
To satisfy your ardent mind.
In that fcroavd k&nd of aatplitade.
Where Nature revels on cod fined :
Go there asd cull the ehoiceet flowers.
And weare a garla-nd for yoor brow ;
jWrneaftber that youth's joyous hoars
. Can co e hot once, and that is now.
There rirers broad and deep are foond.
And sprint; of water pore nnd good.
Which how and fertilise the ground
Of that unbroken solitude.
There wudnhuiog prairies vast
Are robed in beauty's richest bloom.
And forests their dark shadows cast
A bread and brown as evening gloom.
. There sansic,too, is heard aloud.
Within those solitaty halls
The deep-toned thunder in the cloud
And rush nod rott of water-falls.
. Yet softer notes than these are there.
From singing birds on hill and plain;
' There ssounte the lark high in the air.
And chants aloft his melting strain.
Yet other strains are heard than these.
Within the forest far nnd near.
When it is shaken by the breeze.
Which like enchauUne&t chain the ear.
A chord is struck high over head
Which vibrates through the solemn gloom
Like wandering notes of minstrels dead.
Or socs tone spirit from the tomb.
Ascend an eminence and gain
A goodly prospect of the scene
Bach valley rich, each distant plain.
And river deep that rolls between;
Then trace the glassy stream afar.
The sun-bright rays that from it glance.
Or in its bosom every star
That nightly studs the bine erpsnse.
Imbibe tbe spirit of the
Its purity unsoiled by art.
Its skies of bine, its earth of green.
Fit models for a spotless heart,
rursue the right, the pose, tbe good.
To nnd thy Mod thy greatest care;
The city, then, or solitude.
.- WiU be alike if Uc is there.
Drink deeply at pure Nature's springs.
With native truth enrich your soul;
Then to your vivid thoughts give wings.
And let imprisioned numbers rolL
In living lines thoeesoenes rehearse
Let vital warmth each word inflame;
Thus give the world immortal verse.
And give yourself heneeforth to fame
THE THIRD POOR TRAVELER.
Dickens' Christmas Story, "The Seven Poor
You trait my story, next ? Ah, well !
Such marvels as you two have told
You must not think that I can tell ;
For I am only twelve years old.
Ere long, I hope, I shall have been
On my first voyage, and wonders seen.
Some princess I may help to free
From pirates on a far-off sea ;
Or on some desert isle be left,
Of friend and shipmates all bereft.
For the first time I venture forth
From the blue mountains of the north.
My kinsman kept the lodge that stood
Guarding the entrance near the wood,
By the stone gateway gray and old,
With quaint devices carved about, .
And broken shields ; while dragons bold
Glared on the common world without ;
And the long trembling ivy spray
Half hid the centuries' decay.
In solitude and silence grand
The castle towered above the land ;
The castle of the Earl, whose name
(Wrapped in old bloody legends) came -Down
through tbe times when Truth and
Bent down to armed Pride and Might.
He owned the country far and near ;
And, for some weeks in every year,
(When the brown leaves were falling fast
And the long, lingering autumn passed,)
He would come djwn to hunt the deer,
With hound and horse in splendid pride.
The story lasts the live-long year,
The peasant's winter evening fills,
When his is gone and they abide
In the lone quiet of their hills.
I longed, loo, for the happy night,
When all with torches flaring bright
The crowding villagers would stand,
A patient, eager, waiting band,
Until the signal ran like flame, . 7
" They come V and, slackening speed,
. - they came.
Outriders first, in pomp and state,
Pranced on their horses thro' the gate;
Then the four steeds, as black as night,
All decked with trappings blue and white,
Drew through the crowd that opened wide,
Tbe Earl and Countess side by side.
The stern, grave Earl, with formal smile,
And glistening eye., and stately pride, .
Could ne'er thy childish eyes beguile
From the fair presence by his s'de,
The lady's soft, sad glance, her eyes,
(Like siars that shone in summer skies,)
Her pure while face, so calmly bent,
With gentle greetings round her sent ;
Her look, that always seemed to gaze
Where the blue past had closed again
Over some happy shipwrecked days,
With all their freight of love and pain.
She did not even seem to see
The little lord upon her knee,
And yet he was like angel fair,
With iwy cheeks and golden hair,
That fell on shoulders white as snow.
But the blue eyes that shone below
His clustering rings of auburn curl,
Were not his mother's but the Earl's.
I feared the Earl, so cold and grim,
I never dared be seen by him.
When thro' our gates he used to ride,
My kinsman, Walter, bade me hide ;
He said be was so stern.
So, when the hunt came past our way,
I always hastened to obey.
Until I heard the bugles play
The Botes my very heart strings stir
Whene'er 1 speak or think of her
Tbe whole wide world could never see
A noble lady such as she,
So full of angel charily
Strange things of her our neighbor's told,
la the long winter evenings cold,
Around the fire. Tbey would draw near
And speak, half whispering, as in fear;
As if they thought the Eai could hear
Their treason 'gainst his name.
They thought the story that his pride
Had stooped to wed a low born bride,
A stain upon his fame.
Some said 'twas false ; there could not be
Such blot on his nobilily;
But others vowed that they had heard
The actual story word for word
From one who well his lady knew,
And had declared the story true.
In a fair village, little known,
She dwelt so runs the tale alone.
A widowed bride, vet oh ! so bright.
Shone through her mist of grief, her
They said it was the loveliest sight,
She with her baby in her arms.
The Earl, one summer morning, rode
By the sea-shore where she abode,
Again she came the vision sweet
Drew him reluctant to her feet
Fierce must the struggle in his heart
Have been between his love and pride,
Until he chose that wondrous part,
To ask her to become his bride.
Yet ere his noble name she bore,
He made her vow that nevermore
She would behold her child again,
But hide his name and hers from men.
The trembling promise duly spoken,
All links of tbe low pan were broken,
And she arose to take her stand
Amid the nobles of the land.
Then all would wonder could it be
That one so lowly bora as she,
Raised to such height of bliss, should seem
Still living in some weary dream T
lis true she bore with calmest grace
The honors of her lofty place,
Yet never smiled, in peace or joy,
Not even to greet ber princely boy.
She heard, with face of white despair,
The cannon thundering through tbe air,
that he had given the Earl an heir.
Nay even more, (they whispered low,
As if thev scarce durst fancy so.)
That, through her lofty wedded life,
No word, no tone, betrayed the wife.
Her look seemed ever in the past ;
Never to him it grew more sweet ;
self-same weary glance she cast
the greyhound at her feet,
upen him who bade her claim
The crowning honor of his name.
gossip, if old Walter heard.
checked it with a scornful word:
never durst snch tales repeat :
He was too serious and discreet
speak of what his lord must do.
Besides, he loved my lady too :
And many a time, I recollect,
They were together in the wood ;
He, with an air of grave respect,
And earnest look, uncovered stood.
And though his speech I never heard,
(Save now and then a louder word,)
saw he spake as none but one
She loved and trusted durst have done;
For oft I watched them in the shade
That the close forest branches made.
Till slanting golden sunbeams came
And smote the fir-tress into flame,
radiant glory round her lit.
Then down her white robes seemnd to flit.
Gilding the brown leaves on the ground,
And all the feathery ferns around.
While by some gloomy pine she leant
And he in earnest talk would stand,
saw the tear-drops, as she bent,
Fall on the flowers in her hand.
Strange as it seemed and seems to be,
That one so sad, so cold as she.
Could love a little child like me ;
Yet so it was, I never heard
Such tender words as she would say,
murmurs, sweeter than a word,
Would breath upon me as 1 lay.
While I, in smiling joy, would rest.
For hours, my head upon her breast.
Our neighbors said that none could see
me the common childish charms,
(So grave and still I used to be,)
And she held me in her arms, yet
a fond clasp, so close, so tight,
often dre?.med of it at night.
She bade me tell her all no other.
My childish thoughts e'er cared to know ;
For I I never knew my mother :
was an orphan long ago.
And I could all my fancies pour,
That gentle loving face before.
She liked to hear me tell her all ;
How that day I had climbed the tree,
make the largest fir-cones fall ;
And how one day I hoped to be
sailor on the deep blue sea
She loved to hear it all !
Then wondrous things she used to tell,
the strange dreams that she had known.
used to love to hear them well ;
only for her sw eet low tone,
Sometimes so sad, although I knew
That such things never could be true.
One day she told md such a tale
made tne grow all cold and pale.
The fearful thing she told !
a poor woman nud and wild
Who coined the life blood of her child,
Who, tempted by a fiend, had sold
The heart out of her breast for gold.
But, when she saw me frightened seem,
She smiled, and said u was a dream.
How kind, how fair she was : how good
cannot tell yon. If 1 could ihought
You, too, would love her. Tbo mere
her great love for me has brought
Tears iu my eyes : though far away,
seemed as it were yesterday.
And jut as when I look on hi"h
Through the blue silence of the sky,
Fresh stars shine out, and more and more.
Where 1 could see so few before.
the more steadily I gaze
Upon those far-off misty days, f start
Fresh words, fresh tones, fresh memories?
Before my eyes and in my heart,
can remember how one day
(Talking in silly childish way)
said how happy I should be
I were like her son as fair,
With just such bright blue eyes as he,
And such long locks of golden hair.
dark smile on her pale face broke,
And in strange solemn words she spoke
"My own, my darlin; one no, no !
I love you far, far better so,
I wou'd not change the look you bear,
Or one wave of your dark brow hair.
The mere glance of your sunny eyes,
Deep in my deepest soul I prize
Above that baby fair !
Not one ir all the Earl's proud line
In beauty ever matched with thine.
And 'lis by thy dark locks thou art
Bound even faster round my heart,
And made more wholly mine !"
And then she paused, and weeping said,
"You are like one who now is dead
VVho sleeps in a far distant grave.
0 may God grant that you may be
As noble and as good as he,
As gentle and as brave !"
Then in my childish way I cried,
"The one you tell me of who died,
Was he as noble as the Earl ?
1 see her red lip scornful curl,
I feel her hold my hand again
So tightly that I shrank with pain
I seem to hear her say :
"He whom I tell you of who died,
He was 0 noble and so gay,
So generous and so brave,
1 hat the proud ban by his dear side
VVould look a craven slave."
She paused ; then, with a quivering sigh,
She laid her hand upon my brow :
"Live like him, darling, and so die.
Remember that he tells you now,
True peace, real honor, and content,
In cheerful pious toil abide ;
For gold and splendour are but sent
To curse our vanity and pride." .
One day some childish fever pain
Burnt in my veins and fired my brain.
Moaning, 1 tamed from side to side :
And, sobbing in my bed, I cried.
Till night in calm and darkness crept
Around me, and at last I slept.
When suddenly I woke to see
The Lady bending over me.
The drops of cold November rain
Were falling from her long, damp hair ;
Her anxious eyes were dim with pain :
Yet she looked wondrous fair.
Arrayed for seme great feast she came,
With stones that shoneandburntlike flam
Wound round her neck, like some bright
And set like stars within ber hair,
They sparkled so, they seemed to make
A glory everywhere.
I felt her tears upon my face,
Her kisses on my eyes ;
And a strange thought I could not trace
I felt within my heart arise ;
And, half in feverish pain, I said :
" O, if my mother were not dead !"
And v alter bade me sleep ; but she
Said, "Is it not the same to thee
That I watch by thy bed?"
answered her, "1 love you too :
But it can never be the 6am e ;
She was no Countess like to you,
Nor wore such sparkling stones of flame."
0 the wild look of fear and dread i
The cry she gave of bitter woe !
often wonder what I said
To make her moan and shudder so.
Through the Ion? night she tended me
With such sweet care and charity.
tint 1 shall weary you to tell
All that 1 know and love so well ;
Yet one night more stands out alone
With a sad sweetness all its own.
The wind blew loud that dreary night,
Its wailing voice I well remember ;
The stars shone out so large and bright
Upon the frosiy fir-boughs white :
that dreary night of cold December.
saw old Walter silent stand.
Watching the soft last flakes of snow
With looks I could not understand
Of strange perplexity and woe.
At last he turned anJ took my hand.
And said the Countess just had sent
To bid us come ; for she would fain
See me once more, before she went
Away, never to come again.
We came in silence through the wood
(Our footfall was the only sound,)
To where the great white castle stood.
With daikntss sha lowing it around.
Breathless, we trod with cautious care
Up the great echoing marble stair ;
Trembling, by Walter's hand I held.
Scared by the splendours I beheld :
Now thinking, should the Earl appear !
Now looking up with giddy fear
To the dim vaulted roof that spread
Its gloomy arches overhead.
Long corridors we softly past,
(My heart was beating loud and fast)
And reached the Lady's room at last.
A strange faint odor seemed to weigh
Upon the dim and darkened air.
One shaded lamp, with softened ray.
Scarce showed the gloomy splendour
The dull red brands were burning low ;
And yet a fitful gleam of light,
Would now and then with sudden glow.
Start forth, then sink again in night. -I
gazed around, yet half in fear,
Till Walter told me to draw near.
And in the strange and flickering light,
Towards the Lilly's bed I crept,
AH folded round with snowy white,
She lay (one would have said she slept,)
So still the look of that white face.
It seemed as it were carved in stone.
paused before I dared to place,
Within her cold white hand my own.
Bat, with a smile of sweet surprise,
She turned to me her dreamy eyes ;
And slowly as if life were pain,
She drew me in her arms to lie :
She strove to speak, but strove in vain :
Each brea h was like a long-drawn sigh,
The throbs that seemed to shake her
The trembling clasp, so loose, rnd weak.
At last grew calmer, and at rest ;
And then she strove once more to speak:
"My Goo, I thank thee, that my pain
OX day by day and year by year.
Has not been suffered all in vain.
And I may die while he is near.
will not fear but that Thy grace
Has swept away my sin and woe.
And sent t'tis little angel face,
In my last hour to tell roe so."
(And here her voice grew faint and low)
"My child where'er thv life mav ro.
know tint thxro art brave aad tnto;'
Will pierce the highest heavens through.
And even there my soul shall be
More joyful for this thought of thee."
She folded her white hands, and stayed,
An com and silently she lay :
I knelt beside the bed, and prayed
The prayer she used to make me say.
I said it many times, and then
She did not more, but seemed to be
In a deep sleep, nor stirred again.
No sound stirred in the silent room,
Or broke the dim and solemn eloom.
Save when the brands that burnt so low
With noisj fitful gleam of light.
Would spread around a sudden glow,
Then sink in silence and in night.
How long I stood, I do not know :
At last poor Walter came, and said
(So.s idiy) that we now must eo.
And whispered, she we loved was dead.
tie bade me kiss her face once more,
Then I d me sobbing to the door.
I scarcely knew what dying meant.
Yet a strange grief before unknown,
Weighmi on my spirit as we went
And left her lying all alone.
We went to the far North once more.
To seek the well-remembered home.
Where my poor kinsman dwelt before.
Whence now he was too old to roam;
And there six happy years we past,
Happy and peaceful till the last :
When poor old Walter died, and he
Bles cd me and said I now might be
A sailor on the deep blue sea.
And to I go ; and j et in spite
Of all ti e joys I long to know ;
Though I look onward with delight.
With something of regret I go,
And yuung or old, on land or sea,
One guiding memory I shall take
Of what she prayed that I might be,
And what I will be for her sake !
[For the Chronicle.]
WHITE SERMONS ON A BLACK SUBJECT.
BY A LAYMEN
The raall &nd tbe rreat are there: mud the lerrmnt
u tree irom ni Bitter, job, 3, IS.
These words were uttered by that
great and good man, Job, who feared
God and eschewed evil ; who always
" spoke the thing that was right" con
cernintr God and his purposes. In his
deep affliction, as he looked abroad over
a dreary world, he saw clearly that there
is no l efuge from tome forms of suffering
but in the grave. In this survey, he no
ticed particularly the slave, whose only
liberator is Death. In the grave the ser
vant is free from his master no where
else. Well may he "dij for it more than
for hid treasures, and be glad when he
can find the grave ; for there, and fliere
only, can he be free.
We see then, my brethren, that the
perpetuity of slavery is clearly asserted
in the Bible that the purpose of God is,
that the slave shall never, without the
consent of his master, cease to be a slave
till ho ceases to breath that his servitude
shall terminate only in the grave.
My object in this discourse will be,
first, to consider, briefly,the daring impi
ety of those who seek the abolition of sla
very wiio would rescue the negro from
that estate of bondage which God has said
shall end only with his life : and second
ly, to spoak of some of the precious bless
ings which God, through the instrument,
ality of slave-merchants and American
planters, is bestowing upon benighted
It is written, "Woe to him that striveth
with his Maker." It is, I believe, the
opinion of some slave-holders that this is
mistranslation ; that the text should
read, " Woe to him that striveth with his
master:" my own opinion, however, is
that the translation is correct. If God,
by th : mouth of Noah, has said, "Cursed
be Canaan," who shall presume to revoke
that curse ? If he has said, M A servant
of servants shall he be," who except his
master, shall dare to set him at liberty?
.ilas, for the deep depravity of man!
How many are, even now, striving with
their Maker, and laboring to revoke the
the Divine decree by abolishing slavery!
They labor, of coursp, in vain. " Their
hands cannot perform their enterprise."
They intend evil against God ; but "they
have imagined a mischievous device
which they are unable to perform."
"His hand shall find out all his enemies;
his right hand shall find out them that
hate him ; he shall make them as a fiery
oven in the time of his anger: the Lord
shall swallow them up in his wrath, and
the fiie shall devour them." On this
point 1 need not dwell. It must be obvi.
ous to every one that none but desperately
wicked men would ever dare to strive
with their Maker thus.
But secondly, I wculd speak of some
of tl.e precious blessings bestowed upon
Africa, through the instrumentality of
slave-merchants and American planters.
It is well known that wars are frequent
bet e 'ii different trib.i of natives along
the const ; and that the remnaute of a
vanquished tribe, made prisoners, instead
of Ix.'ing killed, as ihey would be were it
not fur the 'slave-trade, are saved alive, and
sold to slave-merchants in exchange for
rum, brandy, weapons of war, and other
necessaries and comforts of life. What
a vaxt number of live s, then, are annually
saved by means of the slave-trade ! Af
rica, instead of seeing hrr sin slaugh
tered r.i her ilf sts tl en transporltd to
a free and enlightened country, where
they will be civilized and chrUiionized ;
and some of them perhaps will return to
bless their mother-country with the glo
rious light of the Gospel. But the most
important blessings to Africa flow from
the" piety and benenceooe of American
planters. How often do we witness in
them the most wonderful displays of dis
interested benevolence ! When some of
the hands on a plantation, through age
and infirmity, have become unable to la
bor, and are no longer saleable, how often
do we see such generously liberated, and
sent as missionaries to Africa! Ho
cheering to the heart of the truly pious to
see a whole ship-load of sable missiona
ries, destined for Africa ; having been
ordained to the work of the ministry, not
by tbe " laying on of hands," but by the
1 tying on of the lash ; retaining fresh in
their memories (as well as upon their
backs) the oft-repeated lessons of mercy
taught them by the overseer ; and thus
abundantly qualified to teach their bar
barous fellow-countrymen the mysteries
of that Christianity which has subdued
their own ferocious passions, taught them
obedience to their masteis, and kept them
in meek submission to the wholesome dis
cipline of an American plantation !
What precious blessings are thus be
stowed upon benighted Africa, eternity
must tell. You will not expect me to at
tempt a description of them.
BY A LAYMEN Educational.
[For the Chronicle.]
PUNCTUALITY AT SCHOOL.
school. Not two days in a week, or three
months in a year, but steadily. We
speak now of those children who are
old enough to attend school, and too
young to be of material service in the
6hop or on the farm at home. This is
the economical course. The large boy
or girl is ashamed to pursue the merest
elementary studies with those half their
size and age, and besides that if their
education is to reach a certain point and
then close, it is better that that point
should be reached before their labor is
valuable at home. It will require all
the period of childhood and some of
youth in these days to give a scholar a
respectable amount of scholastic learn
ing ; and thus much every intelligent
parent is desirous of securing to his
Irregular attendance is pernicious in
its influence upon the scholar. He forms
habits of irregularity, fails to become
interested in 6tudy, becomes discouraged
and fitful in his unsuccessful attempts to
compete with his classmates, who are reg
ular; proves a constant incubus upon
the progress of his class, a sense of which
brings shame to himself, without a full
appreciation of the cause of his failure.
It is not nnfrequently the case that a set
tled disrelish for school and even study
may be traced to a few days of irregu
lar attendance in the outset.
This irregularity is pernicious in its
influence on the school. A lesson learned
by the class, and recited with appropri
ate explanations from the teacher, is a
link lost out of the chain of study, knowl
edge, and interest by tho absent scholar.
The same explanation mtut be given at
the next recitation W the benefit of the
one scholar absent at tne list, and thus
the time and energy of ;he class are both
absorbed by one delinquent member.
One of the most crying evils in all our
public school arrangements is irregular
ity in attendance ami tardiness at school
One leave of absence from parents,
makes the way for three days of play
ing truant, and half a dozen tardy morn
ings. Absences are sometimes unavoid
able, but generally they are to gratify
the whims of children, and granted by
the parent to avoid being ttoulled with
repeatedly saying no. Parents, do not
complain of your children not liking a
school when they are absent one day in
a week, tardy three mornings, and nev
er see you in the school room. There
is every teason imaginable for them to
dislike a place in which they are under
lings of necessity arising from their ii
regularity, and where you seem to have
no interest but to keep them housed and
tortured without your personal visitation.
WESTERN RESERVE COLLEGE
At a session of the Trustees of this
College, held at Hudson, on the 1 5th, it
was debated whether the difficulties
which have been so long embarassing tho
usefulness, and blighting the prosperity
of that institution should Le submitted
to arbitration the majority wculd not
consent; the minority then proposeJ that
the resignation of all the trustees should
be placed in the hands of the referees, to
be bestowed of as they see fit ; the ma
jority wished to postpone a decision, and
it accordingly stands postponed until
March. The Cleveland Herald in no
ticing the above facts says :
"What must candid, fair men think of
this matter ? Of course, that the ma
jority fear investigation. But if they are
right, why fear an arbitration? Let
any common-sense man furnish his own
answer. Can it be that the majority are
determined to "rule or ruin?" If they'
reject the offer of mediation it will be
ruin, for blight is fast destroying the
efficacy of the College and eating out iu
substance. We have refrained from en
tering upon this matter, because one of
our friends at Hudson considered nr
former remarks as an attack upon the
prosperity of that pleasant village. But
now is the last chance tor tnat college,
and the generous donors to its funds have
too much at stake to warrant silence.
It ean be made the pride of Northern
Ohio, it is fast becoming an eye-sore, a
blot upon this intelligent Reserve, and
unless this last chance is improved the
Western Reserve College will soon stand
a disgraceful ruin.
WESTERN RESERVE COLLEGE For the Farmer.
FOWL MEADOW GRASS.
We have several times spoken of the
estimation in which Fowl grass is held in
New England. When we were a farmer
boy, we had upon the estate a piece of
swale in this grass, which turned out
more than donble to the acre what was
cat from the bait nee of a good meadow.
The spire is never coarse, however rank
the crop, and is subject to no waste.
This grass was growing wild in Madawas-
ka, before the place was settled by the
Arcadian French. It was said to have
been introduced into the lands about
Barnstable, by water fowls depositing
the seed, from which circumstance it was
called fend meadow grass. The following
just remarks we find in a report by C. E.
Potter, of Manchester, in the last volume
of the Translations of the N. IL State
Fowl Meadow grass, (Poa Xervata,)
is amostexcellentgrassfohay making.and
and as such is deseiving of greater atten
tion from the farmer. It is a luxuriant
sweet, stocky grass, delighting iu rich
damp soil. In appearance it is much
like Kedtop, but is more luxuriant and
stocky. It is placed down by botanists as
a perennial; but in this we think are mis
taken, and that Fowl meadow is a bien
nial. This accounts for the fact that
Fowl meadow is so easily " killed out."
Being of luxuriant growth, it is cnt before
much of it goes to seed, and thus it does
not perpetuate itself, and too often runs
out. The true policy is to let it " sow
itself." This it will do if left to itself-
Having become ripe, the seeds scatter
out, and come op in tbe fall, ripening
the follloing year, thus increasing the
number of sUlks, and spreading itself
over the adjacent soil.
If cut before it is ripe, this chance of
self propagation is destroyed. Now there
is no grass that can be left to ripen with
so little disadvantage to its hay making
properties. After the heads of Fowl
Meadow have ripened ani the seeds
have fallen out, it will be found that the
lower portions of the stalk are green,
lively and juicy, promising all the good
qualities for hay making. This is a pe
culiarity in the fowl meadow grass posses
sed by no other grass. The fact is to be
accounted for by the nature of the grass.
It is juicy, and grows very thick and com
pact, so that the sun rarely reaches the
lower part of the stalks to dry them up.
This is the most profitable grass to grow
in " runs" and meadows, where the soil is
rich and damp. It delights in the deltas
at the mouthsof brooks, where it is en riched
by every spray or flash of water, or on
lands irrigated by spring and full freshets.
In such position, it wili produce as much
hay as can well be made upon the ground,
the swaths show;ng as much solid and val
nable matter as many of the ordinary win
rows upland in the coun try. Its sweet
ness and heart commend it to stock in gen
eral, and we hope that it will be generally
introduced among our farmers. The seed
is readily to be bought at the scud stores,
and those who do not grow it now will do
well to commence its cultivation upon all
lands suited to its nature. Ou lands ap
propriate to its eulturc, there can be no
more profitable grass for hay making.
How to That Tbees Received whew
THE GaOCHD IS FROZE.X, OK DURING FREEZ
ING Weather. We occasionlly hpar of
people being quite at a loss to know what
to do with trees received in a cold li.ne, or
when the ground is frozen. Tbe w ay is,
either deposit the packages ir. a cellar as
they are received, or open them and set
the roo's in earth until the weather chan
ges: or a trench my be mide in the open
ground, even if thesurfaco must l.e Irv
ken with a pitk-x, and the tres laid in
until tliey can be planted. They may re
main iu thi state quite safe all winter.
Every setson we receive packages of
trees from Europe in mid winter, and we
find no difficulty in ukiuj; rare of '.Item
a this way. HSrCLz.! irh!.
FOWL MEADOW GRASS. OHIO AND GEORGIA.
Extract from the Speech of Lewis D.
Campbell, delivered in House of Representatives,
Dec. 14th, 1854.
On this point, of ret and slave labor, 1
quote Georgia sentiments, (p. 1136,) as'
she uttered them in 1774, when her rev
olutionary men appealed to the God of
battles to aid them. By th aide of them
I present the sentiments of the gentleman,
Mr. Stefbxns, as uttered here this
morning: r '"'
Georgia on Slavery in 1774.
a general phiUnthropky foe iu
mankind, of whatever climate, language,
or complexion, we hereby declare our dis
approbation and abhorrence of the unnat'
ural practice of slavery in America, (how
ever the uncultivated state of our country
or other epecioue arguments may plead for
it,) a practice founded in injustice and cru
elty, and highly dangerout to our liberties,
as well as lives, debating part of our fel
low.; features below men, and corrupting
the virtue and morale of the rest, and ia
laying the basis of that liberty we con
tend, (and which we pray the Almighty
to continue to the latest posterity,) upon
a very wrong foundation. We therefore
resolve at all timet, to uu our utmost en
deavort for the manumission of our slaves
in this colony, upon the most safeand equi
table footing for the master and them
selves." ,- ; ,
Georgia on Slavery in 1854.
"I believe, too, that the system of gov
ernment, as adopted by the South, defin
ing the stilus or relation of these two ra
ces, is the best for' both of them ; and I
am prepared to argue that question with
the gentleman, here or anywhere.
Could Howard, the philanthropist, who
has left an undying fame, for his deeds of
humanity, have taken the same number of
Africans from their native country and
raised them from their barbarous condi
tion to that of the slaves of tbe South, he
would have added .much to that stature
of immortality which, in his day, he erect
ed to himself. It would have greatly ad
ded to that reputation, which now saoeti
ties his memory in the hearts and affec
tions of mankind."
Upon the subject of physical develop
ment, let me say that the gentleman in
showing the agricultural products of my
State, has probably selected a particular
year when tbe drouth has swept over it,
destroying ihe products of our labor.
If tbe gentleman wishes to institute a
fair comparison between the two States,
let him take any five or ten years and
exhibit the aggregate results, and there -will
be more justice in it.
Mr. STEPHENS, of Georgia. I did
not "pick out" any particular year, ei
ther for Ohio or Georgia. " I said that I
took the census returns for 1850 for both
States. The gentleman knows that I op
posed the collection of such statistics in
the census. I have never thought snch
returns very accurate, but they were
taken through against my vote, and I re
ferred to them as I found them so re
turned and published. I did not "pick
oat" any particular year.
Mr. CAMPBELL. I have no time
now to examine the correctness of the
gentleman's statistics; but I will pre-,
pare and publish with my remarks a full
statement of the facts.
I make reference to the annexed tables,
which are taken from the census. See '
Appendix. On minute examination of
the gentleman's statistics, I find he adopts
a most singular system of getting up the
comparative value of agricultural pro
ducts. It reminds me of England's eld
system of the 'sliding scale," in levy
ing duties on corn. The census gives
the number of bushels of wheat, corn, .
bc, and the quantity of agricultural
products, but it does not furnish the mar-'
ket value. The gentleman fixes the price
himself, and does not give Ohio the bta
iot equality, and besides, he puts those
articles, in the product of which Ohio
exeels, at very low figures. In exposi
tion of his system, 1 will instance tne
important items to Ohio of wheat, corn,
and oats, three of her greatest staples :
He credit! Oeorfi tut wheel at 91 M per bubal.
Obi " W
Georgia with Cora it SO
Oeorfia with W at 37 X "
These beinsr among Ohio's chief pro
ducts, the gentleman arranges his "slid
ing scale, makes up a particular aggre
gate, and then boastingly presents the
result. Why, sir, he slides the price up
in Georgia, and then slides it down in
Ohio 1 I ought, perhaps, to thank him
for not sliding so far on this scale as to
show that my State, under her system of
free labor, is making beggars ol ner cit
izens, and that they would make a more
"grandstep"in "physical development,"
to convert a portion of her freemen into
Again, the gentleman throws "hay
entirely out of his estimate an impor
tant agricultural product in Ohio on the
ground that no return is made in the
census for Georgia "fodder! He omits
to state that no return of fodder is made
for Ohio, and Indian corn being her
great staple, it must follow that her crop
of lodder is vastly greater man mat 01
Georgia. But, "fodder or no fodder,"
I must bring the gentleman's arguments
up to tho "rack" of a jojt test. He
forces me to do so.
In the tables I pres. nt, I adopt equal
ity in the value, and take the quan'ity of
agricultural products as returned by the
census. In fixing the prices for items of
Ohio produce, I have rated them consid
erably below lha market value at New
Yo k ; while for the staples of Georgia
and the South, such as cotton, sugar,
tobacco, rice, dec , 1 give him the bene
fit of the highest average prices of that
ciy. I have taken the current prices of
the present time, too. because thej are
more easily ascertained, and tie com
parison will be more satisfactory to tit
rates of the country than the rates of
ISoO; and, besides, the public ia more
concerned U know the relative adva ; v :
tagesef free and slave labor ew-thas -. j
then. t .' 1 1', ' r ' . .-; - - "t -h.-.
,t Upon this qnitable basis- of ealcnla .-.
Uon, the result shows (see table) that, la
agriculture, " '
Sear iwani ...y.-.., tMW.W k
; OWBhtafaejmll). ......$tiOJ4l. ,
. Again, the gentleman kept mt tha--!--value
of live stock, which most be eon-
aidered as prod arts of the farmer; and '.
planter,' Oar fat hogs and cattle, thaC
formerly weie slaughtered and swat from
Ohio in barrels, aad are now sent by vat i t
railroads alive, by thousands and tens of
thousands, to Baltimore, Philadelphia,
New York, and Boston market. an4 v'
driven on foot to Georgia aad the South.
By the census the value of live-stoek
la Oaorf l .
. QMe aa4 ... . jiMJUltm-
Which added to the other excess, putt ,
Ohio, young as she is, ahead of Georgia,
her elder sister, annually, near one hu :'J
dred million of doL'art. '. -: -'- -'
I said that in th year ia wh;eh th
census waa token, there was a fail ore la- -Ohio
crops. I find that I waa correct; ,
for the report of our State auditor show '
that fact. The next year our wheat '3
crop was doubled to 18,769,139 buaheltW
instead of a returned by th enan- I
14,487,351 bushels. But I need not pur
sue agricultural products further, sine ..
I show, by fair figures, that Ohio labor, .t
with half a crop, so far exceeds Georgia.' -
We have another elan of industry iv
this country besides agriculture, which; c-s
statesmen should footer, and. took ,
to manufactures aad the mechanic arts,' .
The gentleman seems to have forgottea -them
in bis speech. As he ha setup 1
the labor of his slaves in Georgia gainst
that of the free working men of Ohv
he cannot complain if I "carry th )
into Africa!" A short table front th
census will show np our two State ia
these branches of indastrj. :'- v'-
otto.. .ass-SHas tasnsn vmnmsas
OeorfU... S,S,b3 3.4IMJM7 78Stt
0Uaheada235t,atf SSlGS SttaVM UJ
The gentleman will observe that ia
manufacture we have Cm times a much n
capital aa Georgia, as Ln times as muck
raw material, and mak a much greater ,
percent, profit. j .
"But he his omitted another eviden '
of "physical development" internal '
improvement. I submit a table from th
census: - .a ;t
poaue mnrmm . , ,
Mitoa JUilnwia, auiea Bailread la Total
- CuaJe. laeMmtiea. Moatraetiaa. Rith-ea. .
OWe-...Sl SJS7 1TS ,
Oeermia-.. . . e4 . , 44 . ; - ,',
ObieaaeadtttS ' 1,B3 XJS - - XMS j
Ohi has, therefore, about three timers
th amount of running railroads aa Geor-
gia, and only about thirty -three timet th .
miles of canal ! '
There ia another sort of development'
to be considered that of mind. Having
takea th gentleman over two. thousand;
miles of railroads, along oar caaals,,
through our fertile fields and busy work
shops, I now invite him to our school
and colleges, churches, libraries, and
printing offices, where we develop facul-s
Ues which took less to tne consequence
of Time than to. the realities of Eter
nity. They furnish the best and truest
exponents of public intelligence and
virtue. . .. -. - j
Ho. f Ye. f Tola. Ib
CaUeza. tafleae libra.
a. of Tola, la
Ohie ahead... 13
Ha. of aablta
Obieheaaia,41 331.448 .
Ha. of - Aeeamf
eharcbea. ajoaatiaa. - Vahta. aaiaa.
OMa -..-3.93a 1,734 S-T3,aM
Saargia 16S 4U7 MSSS . 7V
..S.074 830,087 4J83,74 S7,
Ha. at aawapapara Ha. ef
aad enaiaata. . crrrmttiev
These statistics of intelligence show
that Ohio has twice as many colleges a
Georgia, with one hundred and fifty four
thousand mors vol mes in her libraries
that she has tenfold the number of schools,
with three hundred and fifty-one thousand
more pupils attending them! that ah
haa two thousand more churches, with
accommodations ia them for nearly- a
million more people, and which . are
worth tour millions and a nail more dol
lars than those of Georgia that w
have five time the number of regular
periodicals, fec, and circulate twenty'
six million more newspapers ! With sneV
aa exhibit, I present my native btat to
the eye of the world. If she suffers by
th comparison which the rentlemaa ha
instituted, I only ask it to be borne ist
mtnd that Georgia u an old Slats, always
having enjoyed the institution of slavery,
which the gentleman haa so eloquently
described as the true system of hv il
eal development," whilst Ohio is a young
State, peopled with those who do their
wn work, and from which that insula
tion has always been excluded.
Before I leave the gentleman's statis
tics, I mast redeem a promise. I Mid X
would show the comparative number of
adult free persons who caaaot read or
write. I find Ohio has only on to twea
S- -nine, while Georgia has oaf to twelve!
ere, for the first time, th eeosas put
"Georgia ahead!" There I leave her,
with sentiments of affectionate regard.
and go forward to other branches ot th
Sox a on was tellinz Sim Hyde boat
the lonirlevttv of the mud tertf. "YcT
said Sam, I knW all about that, for aaea
1 found a venerable oiU KUiow m my
meadow; who was so old be could acarc
1 wiVo-la his t:iL aa 1 oa bia back ca!V4
H tolerably pUi". considering all rhinjf.
has wort farvtr-se, A .r A ,
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