Newspaper Page Text
It published ever j Thursday morning, in he
immediately ovei .the Post Office, Miin
- Street, Eaton, Ohio, t the following rateei
1 60 per annum, in advance. ' -i .
. $2 00, if not paid within the year, ind
f 2 SO after the year ha expired.
' liTTbcit rsteswill i rigidly enforced, .jgj
'" No paper discontinued until all arrearage
ate piid.unlesiat the option of the publisher
tyAII communications addressed tothe Ed
tor must be sent free of postage to insureat
D"No communication inserted, unless ae
. companied by responsible name.
American Arfist'1 Union.
' pIIE American Artists' Union, would riicct
I fully auuoutiee to the eitirens of the United
States and the Ciuadas, that fur the pui-iose of
cum tuiiu(5 tnnia lur me uiiu nn iiiruiiuuut
, the emintrr, ind with a view of enabling every
family to become possessed of a gallery of En
By the First Artists of the Age.
' Ther hare determined, in order to create an ex-
. tenure sale for their engnu i:ii-s, and thus not
' only (five employment to a lure uuniber of artisU
and otbors, but inspire among our countrymen a
taste for work or art, to preactit to the purchas
er of their engravings when 25u,nQO of which
are sold, ;
' 250,000 GIFTS.- of the Actual Ccst of
' it $150,000. '
. Each pnrehator of a One Dollar Engraving,
therefore, rceeires not only an Engraving ricb
' ly worth the money, but also a ticket which euti-
tie hint toon of the Gift when they are dis
tributed. For Five Dollars a highly finished Engraving,
"beautifully painted in Oil, and five Gift Tickets,
"Will be sent; or ( ive liminrs. worth ot splendid f.n
, graving can be aeleiiffld. from the Cata!ogue,aud
' Sent by return mail or express.
A copy of the Catalogue, together with a spec! -
men of one of the Engravings, can bo- even at the
office of this naner.
For each Dollar sent bp Eftgravin actually
' worth that. aum. nnd a Gift Ticket, will linmedi
.1 telybfrwardcH'. '
: The Committee beliurlatr that the success of
thlseiroat National (Judertickin will bo mnteri
'ally promoted by tlio evcrpy and oUrrju iso of iu
,,' telligent and persevering Agenti, have revived
' ""to treat with euoh lb (If; most liberal terms.
. Any perou rinbing to become an Af'cut, by
sending (pout paid,) ft, wiii receive Lv nturu of
1 Mail, a One lmltar r.ugravin?, a "(J.fi Tick.-t,"
Froipectns, a Catalogue and all other uecessa
. rv information.
On the tinal completion of the sale, the Gifts
' will be placed lu tli I annsol a Comnmiee of tie
' nurchascrs to be ditri'juicd, doe n lice nl'whnYh
. will be given throug'.K'iit the United .States au
' the Canudaa. ' ' '
LIST OF GIFTS.
100 Marble bustaof Washingtouat C100 flO.nOO
. Io0 " ' "av . ldM l'.M'UO
' Ion ', ' " Webster loo h)Al )
' 100 " ' ' ' Calhoun 100 lu.Odu
60 elegant Oil Paintihg-i, in splen.
did gilt fraiiH!,size3xl ft.encli 100 5,000
100 elegant Oil l'ainlins, 2x1 ft.
. each, CO 6,000
, 600 steel plate Engravings, bril
liantly colored in oil. rich gilt
'" ' fiamcs, 21x1)0 in. each. 10 8,000
10,0u0 elegant steel plate Engra
vuigs, colored- in oil, of the
' Washington Jlotruueiit, 2jxt2(t
!.:. In. each, 4 40,009
,, tTiO00 steel plate engravings,rroi-.
' ' loo different plates now in los
' session of and owned hy tlio
i .'. Artists' Union, of the market
value of from o eta to ft each, 41,000
I first-class Dwvll.ii'i. lu 31st st.,
N. y.eity, ' $18,000
N.V.citV,eaoh25100ft. deep 1,000 22,000
100 Villa SIW, Tonuining each
- 10,(HK M ft. in the suuurbsof
; . N. y.eity, and commanding ,
magnillcjnt riew of the Hud
son River aad Long Island
Round. at 800
JO perpetual ioana of cauli, without
! interest or scsuritvofsocach '
60 do. d. do. . loO
100 do. do. do. 60
' 850 do. do. do. 20
1 9.nnn do. do. do. ' 6
Reference in regard to tne Jteai r.swie, r.
Vishciibb t Co.. Real Estate liroker. New York.
Ordir, postpaiu.j with money enclosed, to
. ddie.Hed, J. W. IIOI.HUOOKE, Sec.
. 605 ISroadway. N. Y.
t?"The Engravings in the Catalogue erenow
- ready for delivery. ! Nor. 1, 1354.
Xov is the Time! Subscribe for 1855!
A Monthly Periodical of Literature, Art end
PETERSON'S LaJic' National Magazine
For 1855, will contain nine hundred pages
original double column Heading matter,, about
. thirty Steel Plates, aad nearly three huudied 11
lmfrations engraved on wood.
Its Thrilllnj Original Btoriei
Are' from the best authors, and written ex-prca-dy
for it. Every volume contains one
more of Mrs. Ann 8. Stephens' copy riL'ht Novels,
the celebrated nutlioj of "Fashion ond Famine."
The I'wtisaod the public prononueo it the most
readabla of the iluiruiiucs. It is strictly moral,
and eminently American, as its name implies.
Its Superb Mezzo tints and othet Steel Engra
.1. . vingi "
' Are the beat nubllshad anywhere: are executed
for it by tlio first Artists; and, at tlio end
tacn year, are alone worm me suoscripuou.
'IU Colored Fashion Plates
Aro the only reliable onus published in Amer
ica, and are marjnilicently colored plates.
Paris, London, Philadelphia and New York
Fashions, are described at length, each mouth.
Ita department for ... :. ''.:;. ;. '.:
NKW RECEIPTS, CROCHET WOKK.
Embroidery, Setting, Horticulture, and female
Equentriauism, are always well-filled, profusely
' lliusiraiea, nno ncn wiiu me laies. uovviiicb-
It ia the best Ladies Magazine in the world
.'Try it for one year lb -,
,' TERMS-ALWAT3 IN ADtAKCE
' On copy, one yeor, ', ' $2,00
Three copies for one year ' 6,00
Five copies, for one. year : .... 7.50
Eight copies, for one year . . , . 10.00
'' Sixteen copies, fur one vear '" 20,00
-v.,.. " ,. i vHZMOua -ton CLUBS J
-o' iTo every person getting up a club, fmr "Gift
Book of Art for 1855," with 60 xtecl engravings.
"' will ho o-iven. or a volumo of Ihe magazine
''2185." For club of'sixtoed,' an extra copy
.the magazine for 1855 will be sent In addition.
Address, post paid,
- ;.y :p; , . 'CHARLES 3- PETERSON
f!.V tU ; !! W f o2 Chestnut Street, Phila
'' tSySpeelihcHs sent gratis:' !
io . .-. i O. ALlMtlCIl,
'''' "- '''',' pEAIiEft If
:! CHINA,: GLA-SSr WARE, ETC.,
- ' i i HI Main Btrtat, Cincinnati, Ohio,
i-ranch CIllBavKiil'f' v.-.i..-..,
Gold Band, China and Tea Ware; "
,( . v WhijteJlnk, dining and tea ware: , (
Wltit Ironitona Ware .' 'f ' ' . , ,,
.'" . Dining, Tea and Toilei' Wore: ' " '' ',"
!- 1 Painted Wtre-' '" ",w "'' 1 !"
Common White nd Edg Ware; o,
Girondolas: Solar Lamps; .
sV Plated Spoons. Forks and Buttor Knives;
- -.a-:- Plated and llritannit, Caauira; r r.i ..
IU German Silvar Table and lea Spoons; :
. ' Guarded and plain; Lautorua; ll-sl,lV
Glassware, every variety; .
i.i Waitnraand Tea Travs; ....,ui
, , 'Foreign and Domestic Cutlery; . . . '
01 1: Britannia Ware. , .'k.8opt.8
Lebanon 'Citizen" copy.j "
: "!Saadlery.'' " "
its stock of Tetv thing In this Una,
aula hfp at .- v. ' So. II barren turn.
.B7.;W. q; GOULD.
Fearless and Free."
$l,50per Annum In Advance.
EATON, PREBLE COUNTY, 0. DEC 11, 1351.
Vol. 11, No. 20.
Fellow citizens of the Senate
anil of Ike Mute of Repreientatwti :
The past has been an eventful year, and
will be herea le'rrej'jriedloas a marKeuepocn
in the history of the world. lnle we have
been happily preserved trom tnccaiamuii's 01
our domestic prosperity has notbeen en-'
ttrultf ,ninti.rrtinlH. The Crons.il) DOrlioMS
of the country, havo been nearly cut oil.
Disease has prevailed to a greater txtent than'
usual, and the sacrifice of human life, through
casualties bv sea and lsnd, is without a pnral-l
lei. But the pestilence has swept by, and re-
iiril ulnliritv invites the nhstnl to their
homes, and the return of business to its ordi-
nary chennels. U the earth has rewarded the!
labors of the husbalidinan less bountifully than
in preceding seasons, it lias left him with:
ab'JiidiiiiCe for domestic wa.'ts, and a large
surplus for exportation. In the present.there-
fore, as in the past, wc nnd ample grouinis lor '
reverent thanklulness to the God of Grace and
Providence, lur His protecting car and uier I
ciful dealings with us as a people.
Al'hongfc our attention has bteii arrested
nainlul interest in passing events, yet our1
couutry feels no mors than the alight vibra-1
tions of the convulsion .which have shaken
Europe. As individuals, we carpiot . n-press1
svmna'.hv with human s'nflVfihir.'nofTretret for'
the causes which produce) ifl Asa nation, we1
aie reminded, that whrpMr interrupts the!
peace.or checks ti,e prosptpiv, of any part of;
Christ; ndom, tends, more of-ftss, to involve
own. The ennditioasof States is not nn-
like tliai of individeal.. .They dro Mutually
dependent iou cacti oHitr. Apiirable rela-
lions bet'.mjn them, aiid reciprocal good will,
are esseirUal fur the promoftou of whatever isl
desiroblain tfieir moral, sociel, political con-j
ditioii,. llrnce it has been my earnest endeav-!
of to maiiiium peace and friendly liiteicourse!
Willi all niitiniis.
The wise theory of this Government, so
earlv adorned andsteadilv perused, of avoid-
iug all entangling alliances, has hitherto ex-
mpUd it lioui i.'n'i.y couiplicatioiis, in winch
it would otherwise have become involved.
Notwithstandi' g this our clearly defined and
well-f uslniued course of action, and ourijeo-
tronhical position so remote from Europe, in
creasing disposition has been manifested, by
some of its eoveniiiients. to supervise. a;id, in
certain respects, to iiirett our loieign policy,
In plai-s lor sdjusting the bounce of poweri
themselves, they have assuiiied to lake
us into account, and would constrain us lo
conform our conduct to their view-. Ore or
another of the powers of Europe has, from time
to lime, undertaken toeulorce arbitrary regu
lations, contrary in many respect to establish
ed principles of interuaiionr.l law. That law,
Ihe United Biatts nave, m then loreign inter
course, uiiifoiuilv lerwcied and observed, and
they caiiiio; recognize any such interpolations
astha temporal y inieresls of othets'
suggest. They do not admit that the sov-j
of one continent, or ofa particular;
stated can legislate for all others.
the trans allantic nations lo adjust
their political system in a way they may think
Lest for their common welfaic, the iiidenend-'
ent powers of this continent may well' ajeert:
the'iiKht to be exempt from all annoying in-
. i-. ' II.:- 1 L'.. .1 . ... I... , '.
leiiercilCe OH Ult'ir pail. O)LC0iaLIU HU.Ul-j
nence Irom intimate political connection with
distant foreign nat'.ous does not conflict with
giving the widest range to our foreign com-
mcice. The distinction, so clearly marned
Our refusal 'o be brought within, and subject-
ed to, their peculiar sysltm, has, I fear, crea-
ted a jealous distrust ol our Conduct ond in-
need, on their part, occasional acts of din-1
effect upon our foreign relations. Our
present attitude and past course gives assu-i
ranees, which should not be questioned,
our purposes are not aggressive, nor threaten
ing to the eatety and wel'are ol other nations
Our military establishment, in lime or piece,
is adapted to maintain exterior defenses, and
to preserve order among the aboriginal tribes
within the limits of the Union. Our naval!
force is intended only forthe protection of
citizens abroad, and of our commerce, diffus
ed, as il is, over all the seas of the globe,
The Government of the United Slates, being!
essentially pacfic in policy, stands preparod
lo repel invasions oy Hie voluntary service
putnotic people, and provides no puma-
neiit means ol foreii-n agression. These
considerations should allay all apprcliciiiions;
that we are disposed to encroach on the
endanger Ihe security, of other states.
onie European powers have regarded, with
disquieting concern, the territorial expansion
of the United Stales, This rapid growth
resulted from the legitimate exercise of sovcr-1
eign rights, belonging alike to all notions, and
bv many liberally exercised. Under such;
circumstances, it could hardly have been ex-
peeled that those among them, which have,
wilhui a comparatively recent period, subdued
history, seems to have been overlooked,
sregarded, by some leading fori ign sla'es.
and absorbed ancient kingdoms, planted their
standards on every coniiiient, and now pos
sess, or claim the control of, the islands ol ev
ery ocean as their appropriate domain, would
look with unfriendly sentiments upnit the ac
quisitions of this country, in every instance
honorablyobtaiued, or would feel themselves
iuslified in immilinc our advancement to
spirit of aggression or to a passion for politicaUof
Our foreign commerce has reached a mognj-
tude and extent nearly equal to that of
first tnarantime power of the earih, and
ceeding that of any olher. Over Ibis great
interest, in which not only our merchants,
nil classoanf citizens, at 1,-nsi indirectlv.
concerned, it is the duly of Ihe txecutivennd
iHiiieintiuA hrnnnls nf ih nnvernment in
ercisp a careful siinervis on. andadont nniner
measures for its protecllou. The policy which
I have had in VieW, in regard lo this interest,
mliriMi itu rli,r n.B..ll ItatnruMnl
,,viiu . j .. . ...
. -'. " ... V
nnn .in.r pum .lino shown Hint, in npr-
rt u'lx.n ih,. nriticinfll Pnwprs of F.nrnnl
encaged i'n war, the right of neutral nations
. . .. ii,. - ..?..: . 1.1 -i
enuangereu. i nis cou.siiier.iiiou ieu, m
progiess ol the w'arofour indepenrtence,to
of the celebrated confederacy
armed neutrality, 'a pi imary object of
was, toassert the doctrine, thai Iree
muke free goods, except in the case of articles
contrabsndof war; a doctrine which from
very commencement of out national
huaVen. cherished idea of Ihe.
power hT by Zl "X
treaty stipuiaiion, reeognizeu tno; pnncip
me to he universally receiveaanu respec
in in ebr international law." But the rem-
next areat. war .wbicti ensued,., thai .01 ,
mong the belligerent (tales of Europe.
withstanding this, the principle la generally
admitted to ipe ipnoi) and salutary one?
.much so, that, at the commencement' of the i
'existing war in Europe, Great Uri'ain and!
iFnnr announced their mirno, to ntiserve it I
for the presenl; not, however, as a tecogniied I
jnitriiBtioiial ticht, tut as a rmre concession 1
for the time being. The co operation, hovr- j
ever, of theae two powerful maritime rauonsi
in the iutcre.it of neutral rights, nppenred to
me to anord an occasion inviting and jnsliiy
wnr, jug, on the part of the United'Staies,' a re-
npwed pff.irt la inc IliP ilnptrinp in miptinil
a principle of interiiatir.nal law, by means uf
special conventions between the several pour-
!ers of Kurope and America. Accordingly, !
proposition, embracing not only the rule, that!
free ships make Iree joods, except contraband !
article, hni also Ihfl les cnnfpsti-! mw. it, at I
on board enemy's, ships, sliall be exempt
from confiscation, has been submitted by
this Government to those of Europe and
Russia acted promptly in this matter, and a
convention was concluded, between that
country and the United Stales, providing for
the observance of 'he principles onnounced,
Lnot only as between themselves, but also be-
by'twecii tl.ein and all other nations, which shall
enter into like stipulations. Noneof the olh-
er powers have lis yet taken final 'action on
the subject! 1 am not aware, however, Hint
Buy objection to the proposed stipulations has
been made: but, on the contrary, they are ac
kno'vledgcd lo be essential to the security ofl
neutinl commerce; and the only apparent ob-!
stacle to their general .adoption is in the
j posil.iT ity that it may be encumbered by in
our admissa He conditions,
The King of the Two Sicilie hns expressed
to our minister at Naples his feadiiitss toroii
cur in our proposition relair.e to neutral
rights, and to enter into a convention on llm
The King of Prussia entirely approves of
the project or a treaty to the same eilect sut-
milieu 10 mm, dui proposes sn aiiuiiionni ur-
tide providing for the renunciation of jinva-
leering. Mich an article, for t:ie most o.,vi
ous reasons, is much desired by nations hav
ing navel establishments, large in proportion
to their foreign commerce. If it we:e adopted
as an international rule, the commerce of a
nation having comparatively a small naval
forr;e would be very much at the mercy of it-
enemy, incase of a war with a. power of
l decided naval superiority, The bare state
j merit ol tne comuuon in wnicn uier Milieu
Slates wouio nepiaceii, auer naving gtirren
among deied the right lo resort to privateers, in the
event ol war w nn a
premaSy, will show
that this Government
could never listen to such a proposition. The
navy of the fust maritime power in Kurope is
at least ten times as lcrgeas thatof Hie United
States. Tli3 loieign coinme.ee of the two
counties is ueeiiy equal, and about equally
I exposed to hostile depredations. In war be
tween that power and the United Statrs,wijh
therein, out resort on our part to our mercantile ma
may rine, the means of our enemy to inflict inju
ereigns ry t'pnn our commece would be lenf. Id g;tt
coinmunityf I er than ours to retaliate. Vo could not ex
Leaving tricate our country Irom this unequal condition
' with such an enemy, unless we at once de.
parted from our present peaceful policy, and
became a great imynl power. Nor would this
j country be better situ.ited in war with one of
, n ....... -t ....... 'I 'k. .... I. I I.- nn-
UIC auoillllili; IIU,.I ('unci.. iliuiillll IIIC lia-
j di.-panly would be less, the gxealei txtent
I and more exposed condition of our wiJe-spread
commerce would give any of them a like ad-
, vini'age over us,
j country should be forced into war with a great
nnvul puwer, is not entitled to more favora-
blc consideration than would Ue a propcsi
d lion U aLTee not to accept the services of vol
liirbing unleers fox operations on land. When the
honor or the lights of our country require
thit.lo as-ume a hostile allilu e, it confidently
calls litem into aciion. The proposal to sur
render the right to employ privateers is pro
our! fessedly founded upon the principle, that pri-
ravages of war; but the proposed surrender
i goes but little way in carryinu out thai pnnci-
01 pie, wnicn tquany requires ir.at sucu privine
pioperiy simuiu not tie seizcu or moiesteu ny
i national ships ol war. btioutu the leattnig
powers of Europe concur in proposing.os a rule
righlsioi lniirnationni law, loexempi private prop
or ierty, upon Ihe ocean, from seizure from pub-
i lie aruitu cruwers, as wt ii as uy privateers,
, the United Slates will readily meet upon that
Since the adjournment ol Congress, the rat-
I ifien lions of Ihe treaty between the I nitcd
states aim ureat umain.reiauve to coast nsu-
enes, and to reciprocal trade with the Untisf.
i iNorlll American provinces, nave oecn e-
: cnangeu, aim some oi us unucipaieu auvan-
The propo.iiiiunto enter into engagement;
to foreg- lesort to privaleers, in case thi)
relies upon the patriotism of its citizens, not
ordinarily devoted to the military profession,
to augment Hie army am. navy, so as to make
them fully adequate to the emergency which
vate properly of u.iofftiiding iiuii-combatents,
though enemies' should be exempt from the
tuges aie already enjoyed by us, (although its
fuil execution was to abi le ' certain acts ol
legislation, not yvl fully performed. So soon
as ii wns ratified, Great Ik I tain apened to our
cumin, rce the Iree navigation of the river St.
Law i nee, nnd lo our lisliermen unmolested
w s lo Ihe shores anil bays, Irom winch Ihey
a ! had 1 ten pieviously excluded, en the Coasts
her North American provinces; in return tor
i wnicn, sue aoneu ioi me imruuuunuu, me io
of duty, into the ports of the United Stales,
the I the fish caught on the same coast by llntish
fishermen. This being the compensation,
Istipulaled in the treaty, lur priveleges of the
but, highest importance and value to the United
ate I Slates, which were thus Voluntarily yielded
: teloto uoccaoie eiiecuve.uiB ruqut.i aeeim
- to me a reasonable one; but it could not
' acceded lo, from Want of authority to sils
' pend our laws imposing duties upon all fortfisn
i fiih. ; In the meantime the, Treasury li-
ke. rmtlllieilt isSUeit a K'lMllulKJII lur ascerlailllllg
ihH duties naid or lecured bv bonds cn fish
. . .,..e.n'..k i..r.
Ca 1C il On li e CCasis, Ol uib ui o i.-n inv. ,-,.,
nrf and brouirht lo our markets by British subjects
is ', nll'ler the fishing grounds had been made fully
- i'.......a,i- m .i.u ,,,,.a nS in I'iiiIbi States.
mi:jaiii mi. v."... ---
the j I retoinmeud. to your (avurablo ounsideM
lormation of , tion a propposition, which wi.l be submUlei.
which;toyou, for uuihority lo,re(und the duties mid
altips. cancel ino uouusuiua
'ces of Canada and New Hrunswick have a
iheianucipaieii me iuu opciowouo .
being,oy legislative unmisemcu,,
n d Tn .r.ngeinent similar to that re-
fish nn teen mnAe fot -Ju,ieS
e, t , ble product of those prov-
e --' ' , smtes.
niuouueru njeiiw... .v: ".ra T,.
tne juuge. .e..., m, ... ,
United Statea and Great Britaim 'to' t
loi)daryUMOl weTWfilorirol . WMniujwu,
adjoining the British possession on the Pacific
which has already led to difficulties on the
nart of the C ilir.ens and local ailthorilies of
the t0 govemnients. ' I recommended thai
provision he insde for a commission, to l e
joined by cue on the part of iler Britannic
bi'J". y"r i"'5 "
the line in controversy. Certain
st'pnla'iions of the third and fonrth articles. i,f
the treaty concluded by the Unittd Slntts
and Grest Hrilain in 1816, retsrding possess-
'T t'S",s ,l"cI1 nuuson nny yi.inpniiy, r.u
pr'ipen 01 uic i iicgei a o-juhu ngiK.imuid.
Company has given rise to Stnous disputes,
ant! it " i'"lo"Mit to all concerned that sum"
mury menus ol settling them amicably shouli.
be devised, l'havc reasons to believe that an
ariangemt'tit can be made, on just terms, fur
the txtinffinm'niTOi me rignts in quesuon,
embracing, also, Ihe right ol the Htids in liny
Company to liie naviauon of ihe river Colum
bia; ond l tlierelore supesi io your considera
tion the expediency of making a contiigcnt
annrnniiation for that inirtiose.
France was the early oi:d efficient nlly of
the Hnitid States, in their struggle lor nide-
pendence. From that time lo the resent
wifh'oceasinnal slieht interruptions, cordia
relalious ol friendship have existed between
the governments and people of the two conn
trii-sl The kindly nentmienls, cherished alik
by both nations, have led to extensive social
and 'commercial intercourse, which, I trust.
wilKnol be interriiottd or checked by any
csitSuul event of an apparently unsatisfactory
chancer. The French Consul at San Fran
cisco was, not long since, brought in'-'1 the
Unites States District Court at that niece, by
compulsory process, as a witness in lavor ol
snetliur loreign Consul, in violation, as the
F re ii': h Goveriiineut conceives, of His pr vi
ileires undr rn.r consular convention will
France. There being nothine in the tr.iusac-
iioii' which Could imply any disrespect to
Frai.ce or its Consul, such explanation has
been made as I hope will be satisfactory.
Subsequently, misunderstanding arose on the
subject o! the rr-.ncli government having, ns
it appeared,' abruptly excluded the American
Minister to Fpr.iu,from pissing through France
on l.is way from London n Madrid. I'ut
that government has unequivocally disavowed
thy design to deny the right of transit to the
tlini.-ter of the United iitn'.cs, and, after ex
planation lo this effect, he fas resumed his
journey, and actually returned through France
to Spain. 1 herewith '.ry oetore Congress the
correspondence on this subject between our
envoy at Paris and the iiiinie.er of foriijjn re
lalions of the Fiench government.
The position ol our Allans wih Spain remains
as ot the cluse ol your lasl session. Inter
n '1 agitation, atsuming very nearly the char
acter ol P'li icnl revolution hnsreeentiycoii
vulred that eountrv. The late niin isters wtre
vtolentlv exM.lled from power, and men of
very different views in relation to its internal
affairs lave succeeded. Since this change,
there his been no propitiojs opportunity lo
resume and press on negotiations for the ad
justment ol serioua questions of difficulty be
tween the Spanish government and the Uni
ted Slalcs. There is reason to believe that
our minister will f.nd the present government
more lavorably inclined then the preceeding
suitable arrangements for restoring harmony
and preserving peace between the two coun
;.'Cf;oti.ilions are pendinj wilh Denmark to
discontinue the pmclice of levving tolls on
our vessels and their cargoes passing throuth
tl.e Sound. 1 do not doubt that we can claim
exemption therefrom, ns a nialttrof right.
It is admitted on ull hands that this exact ion
is sanctioned, not by the general principles
the law of nations, but only by epecial con-!
vntions, which most of ihe commercial na-i'.d
firms have entered into with Doinmnrk. The
fifth article of our Irealvof 1SJG, with Dem
mark, provides that there shall not be paid on
Hie vessels of the U. S. and their tarcoes,
when inssing tliroiit'h the sound, higher duties
thai) those of the most favored nnlious. This
mcv be regarded ns nn implied agreement
to the tolls-continuance of the treaty,
nnd, consequently, may embarrass 'he assert ion
of our right to be released therefrom, There
are also other provision! in the treaty whieh
ought to be modified. It was to remain
force for le:i years, ond until one vear afterl
either party should give notice to Ihe other
intention lo treminate it. I deem iiexpe.lien
that the comtemplated notice should be given
to the government of Denmark. i
The naval expedition, despatched nboul'two
yeau since for the puipose of establishing re-1
bilious with Ihe empire of .lapnn, has been
nl,ln,l .kinfntu roodui'ted n n successful.to
termination bv 'he officer to whom it vas in
trusted. A trentv opening certain of the ports
of that populous country, has been negotiated;
and in order lo give full effect thereto, it only
rcmains to cxehiiuee raiificaiions, and adopt
requisite comimtrcal regulations.
The treaty lately concluded between the
United St .tes nnd Mexico settled some of
most embarrassing dilnculties wilh that coun-
hut numerous claims unon it for wrnncs
ami iniuries lo our citizens remained unadjost
ed, and ninny new cises have been recently
added lo the former i'sl of grievances. Our
leirntion has been earnest in its endeavors
obtain, from the Mexican government a favor
able consideration of ll.eseeluinis, uuri.Hheno
without success. I his failure is, probably,
some measure, to be aseiibed to the disturbed
condition of that country. It has been
anxious desire to maintain friendly reln'ions
with the Mexican republic, and to cause
rights and Territories lo be rejected, not only
by our citizens, but by foreigners, who have
resorted to the United States for the purpose
ofori'tinizing hostile expeditions against some
of the States ol Mint republic. The defence
less conuition, in which its fiontiers have been
left, has stimulated lawless adven urers to em
bark in these enterprises, nnd greatly increa
sed the difficulty ol enforcing our obligations
of neutrality. Regarding il ns my solemn duly
to fulfil, efficiently, these oblign' ions, not only
toward Mexico, but other foreign nations,
have exerted all the powers with which 1
investeJ to defeat such criminal proceedings,
and bring to punishmelittliose who, by laking
a part therein, violated oiif laws. The ener
gy and activity of out civil and military au
thorities-have frustrated the designs of those
who meditated expeditions of this character
One ot inese, com-
except in two instances
nrAl ett frtoi,ini-. uM nl first cniintunaiiced
71 ,;:YvVi, M.in .nvVmnn,! itself
The oHieV .ina.l in number, eluded the vigi-
UnCe ,f l-h? nmB'trts at San Francisco,
aueceeded in reach ng the, Mexican territories;
I ernmen t. .comnell. d i,e ai.ando.iment of
, .... ,,: c..,:. ,a m.t.
ho j 30th of. Deceirber last, has been orgapited,
iuu uio wpn iaaueaiiy wuiieu.u. .0
Our treaties with the Argentine Con fed era'
tion and with the republic rf I'ltiituny nud
Parsrnay, secure to us the free navigation of
the river La Plata, nnd snme of its largest trib
utaries; hut the same success hns not attend
ed our endeavors to open the Amazon. The
reasons in favor of the frreuseof that river, I
had occasion to present fully in a former mes
sage; and, considering the cird::: relntmns
which have long existed between this ,uov
and Brnsiil, it may be expected that pending
negotiations will eventually, reach a lavoraule
Convenient means of Irnnsii between the
several parts of a country are not only desiro-
bie for the ot'jtct of a commercial and person
al communication, but essentia to its existence
under one government. Seperottil as are the
Atloiiticand Parilic coasts of the United States
by the whole brendthof thecominent, still the
iiihctiilants of eacli are closely bound togelker
by community of origin and institunoiis, and
hy strong attachment to tie Union. Hence
the constant and increasing und vast inter
cliange of commercial productions; between
these remote dhisioris ol the Kr-piihitc. At
the present time, the niwt practical, le and
only comirotiioui routes for comnnitiici.timi
between nie hy the way of the Isthmus of
Central America, ft is the duty of the gov-
eminent to secure these avenuei ag. I.ist all
In relation to Central America, v rplexing
questions CMs.eu ueiweeii me i. uiicik.r,-..T.es
and Great liritnin atthe time of ihe cession of
California. 1 hese.as well as questions which
subiiqiiently arose coiictrnmg iiiter-ocemr.c
communications across ii. c imiuio, eir, dm
it wiiS supposed, adjusted by the irea'y of
April 10, K-.-0; but, unfortunately, the; hive
been reopeiiid by serious rijisuii'ltrti:n.i!ing
as to the inqiort of s'.riie of r;s provisioris, a
readjustment of which is now under tun id-r-atibn.
Our ninistcr at London Its n.ade
strenuous i ffrls to arcoitipiitli llns dsi.'.i'ot
object, hut. has lot yet fiit ltd it po'cib'e to
bnn? the negotiations to a lermiim ion-
incidental lo these question.", 1 ih em it
proper to i:o:rc an occurrence wtiich happen-
d in Central America, near the c'.fse ol the
las' session of Congress. So soon ns the ne
cessity was lerctiwd of establishing inter
ocer.iiic communicatioiis across tiie Isil n.us, a
company was 'organized, under nutht.titv l
the Sta'c of Kici'isng'in, but composed, forll.e
most part, Of citizens. of the Lniluu iitalis, fur
ihe purpose of pntiting sucli a traiisl; way, f
the river fjan Jiian und Lute Nicaragua,
which soon beci'ineau eligible and much n.'ed
route in the Iran: puital oii of eur cit.zcii;) and
their property between lie Allau'ic and Pa
cific. Meanwhile, and in lite anticipation of
the completion and importance of this transit
way, o Lumber of adventurers had taken pos
session of the old Spanish port at Ihe mouth
cfthe liver San Jus1 , in open defiauee of the
Stale or Sates of Central America, which,
upon then becoming independent, had lijjlrt
fiilly succeeded to the local sovereignty and
juri.Mliction of Spain.' These adventurers un
dertook to change the name oi the place from
San Juan del Norte to Grertown, and, tnoucli
at first preteiidii'g to act as the subjects of the
fictitious sovereign of the Mo.-uiiilo Indian,
they suddenly upudiatcrt Jhc control of any
power whntiver, assumed ID nd pi a distinct
polilical organiznlion, innl declared trems-ives
on iniiepeiidintjsovereign Stale. If, tit some
time, a luint hope was entertained that they
nnirht become a stable and respcutuhle cam-
! nmuity, that imps s".,n vanisi.eu. ii.eypro
i ceeded to assert unfounded claims lo civil ju
risdiotioii over l'unta Arena, a position on the
opposite side of the river Sun Juan, which was
in posse.,si in, under a title wholly unii pend
of, ml ol them, of citizens of the Linen Stages,
interested in the Nicaragua I imhsU Company,
which was indispensably necessary to the
, prosperous operation of that route- across tc
Isthmus. The company resisted their ground
less claims; whereupon they proceeded to de
stroy Some ol its buildings, and attempted vio
itruly to dispossess it.
Ala inter period they organized n strong
to i-'' ' me purpose oi ucuioiibiiiug me esiau
suhmit lishnient at Finite- Arenas, but this nu.schitv-
ous design wes detested by the interposition
of one ol our ships oi-war, at that Inue in the
I '""l" 01 tiu" Subicqui nlly lo this,
in pi" llls'i a ""''J1 uf men aH.reyi..wn crowcu
uver to Puula Arenas, arrogating auihoriiy
o; arrest, on a charge of murder, a cuplain
one of ihe sleamboas of the lransu Company,
C'"g well aware that the claim to exercise
(jurisdiction theie would he rcsisced then, as.it
I bad been on previous occasions, they went
prepared to asrert it bj force ol arms,
I Unr Minister u Cenwal America happened
oe present on that o-icasion. iieu.-iig
that the captain of the steumboat was ir.no
cent, for he witnessed the transaction i'n
w liich Ihe charge was founded, and hulievirn
j"! o, thi.lllie iiiiriiuing party, i.av rig no juns-
uibi.uh ui c, u,.; .v
nwke the arrest, would eiiccun.er desperate
j residence if they persi. ted m their pm pose,
oiir''e interposed, eilectually, to prevent violence
a"'1 bloodshed. The American .Minister niter
rrv. 'd visited Greytowu, and while he was
theie, a mob, including certain of the so-cil-
ed public functionaries ol the place, surround
ed the house in which lie was, avowing ilia,
they had come to arrest hint by the order
some person exercising Ihe chief authority.
While parleying with them he was wounded
by a missile from the crowd.. A bo8t, dis
patched from the American sttainer Northern
Lialtl to release hiln Irom the perilous situa
tion 111 which he was understood to be, was
fired. into by the town guard, und compelled
to riiurn. These incidents, -together with
known character of ihe population of Giey
town, and their excited stale, induced just
appiehensions that the lives and properly
our .citizens at Punta Arenas would bu in im
miiuMit danger alter the departure of
sieitmcr, wiui l.er passengers, tor New York,
uiilcss a guard jvas left fur then protection.
For this purpose, and in order t0 secure
safety of passengers and property, passing over
the route, a temporary force was organized,
considerable expense to the United Siates,
w h it-li provision was tuaue at Uie issi seosion
of Congress. 1.
i This pretended community, a heterogeneous
assemblage gathered from various 'countries,
and composed, for the most part, of blacks und
persons of mixed blood, had previously given
oilier indications of miscuirvoiis and dangerous
pmpenrities. Early in the same, month, prop
erty ws clandestinely abstracted from
depot of the Transit Company, and, taken
Greytown. .The plunderers obtained shelter
there, and their pursuers were driven bacK
its neonie. who not only protected Ihe wrong
doers and sbcred the plunder, but treated with
m.ti.n.'.i nnd violence those who souuht to
-ooret their property. . : : ,f
Such, in substance, are the facts submitted
to 'my consideration, and proved by. trust
worthy evidence, 1 could not doubt that
case demanded the interposition of., ibis Gov
ernment. Justice lequired tbatt reparation
should be nude for ao many and tuch grots
Fellow citizens of the Senate Rates of Advertising
.' . ! ' .. . :i- . I .
One square, (orlc) 3 insertions. ( v
" J.ocli additional inieniou, . .
.'" ' ' Three' Biorrth,,,' -' ' ',.,' 3,1 a
" ' ."..Six moiidis, , ," - - MM
,r Twelve months', 8,'U
One fourth of eoiumn per year, k , IS.Oi
.. jjjif . 13,00
" column ' ,. V .300t
All oi a square charged fit t woqti,rea.
tTAdveftisemen'a inserted till fordid at tht
expense bf the advertiser, ' ',"')
Executed at( this Office.' with 'ne'atnest and
despilchit the lowest possible rales.' .'
wrongs, and that a course of insolence anil
plunder, tending directly to the insecurity of
the lives of numerous travellers, and of the
rich treasure belonging lo our citizens, pass
ing over this transit way, should be peremp
torily arrested. W hateier ii might be in oili
er respecrs, the community in question, in
power to do mischief, was not despicable.
It w well provided with ordnance, small
arms, and ammunition, and might easily seize
on the unarmed boats, freighted with millions
of property, which passed almost daily within
its resch. It did not profess to belong to any
regular government, and had, in fact, no re
cognised dependence, on, or conneciion with,
any one to which the Uniled Statea or their
injuied citizens might apply for redress, or
which could be held responsible, in any way,
for the outrages committed. Notwithstanding
before the world in the attitude of an organ
ized political society, being neither competent,
to exercise the rights nor to discharge the ob
ligations of a government, it was, in fact, a
marauding establishment, too dangerous to be
j disregarded, and loo guilty to pass unpunished,
I nnd yet inca; able of being treated in any other
1 way than as piratical resort .of outlaws, or a
i camp of savages, depredating on emigrant
! irains or caravans and the Iroiilier settlements
j ul civilized states.
Seasonable notice was given to the p'eOplo
'of (ireytown that this Government required
tltm ., repair the injuries they had done to
i , , juzens, and to nml'.e suitable apokgy lor
i Ul,.lr jnf ;Jn .ol)ur minister, and that a ship of
...... Uonld be dispatched ihhher toeulorce
But the no
tice pa .ed iinheeUtit. lnereupon, a com
mniiih r in the navy, in chirge of the sloop of
war Cyunr, was ordtred lo repea thejde
i.Trnds, and ti insist upon a compliance there
wi h. Finding that neiiher t!,e populace nor
tiioje nisiiining to have authority over them
mai.ifisted any deposition to make the reqnij
compliance with these demands.
rtli M.uaiaiioii, or even to oiler, excuse fo
i ;j1!;ir conduct, he warned them by a public
j (,ji,c!.:iiotion, that il they did not give satis
As , (a(.,mll within a time specified, he would bomj
t i,;iri town. Uy this procedure he allorded
tiieui opportunity to provide for their personal
safety. To those a. so who desired to avoid
iu3 of properly, in the punishment about to
beinl'iicled upuu the ofieiidini town, lie filr
iiished the melius of removing their effects, by
the boats of his own ship, nnd of a steamer
which he procured and tendered lo them for
'.hot purpose. At length, perceiving no dis
position on the part of the town to comply
with ii is requisitions, he appealed to the com
mander of her Briltuuuic Majesty's schooner
iltnuutk, who was seen to have intercourse,
a d apparently nilicn innuenue wnn inc ieu
ers among them- lo interpose and persuade
Uaiu to take some course calculated to save
the necessity of resorting to the extreme mea
sure s indicated in his pioclorhntion, but that
eGiuer, instead of acceding to his request, did
nothing more than to potest rgajnsf the con
templated bombardment,. )No steps of any
sort weie taken by the people to give the snt
iataciiou required. No individuals, il any
there were, wuoregarueu uiemseivea as noi
responsible f r the misconduct of the cornmu
nity, udopted any means 1o separate them
selves from tiie lu'le of ihe g-iilty. The seve
erol. tlarg.s, on which the demands for ra
dios erc founded, had been publicly known
to all lor some time and were again announced
lo them. They did not deny any of these
chnrues; they offered nu explanation, nolhmg
in i-Meniiaiion or ihOir conduct; butcontuma
cioiisly refuted to hold any iuteiconrse with
the toinmunder of the Cj'ir.r. Hy their obsti
iiule silence thty seemed lather desir6us to
irovoke chastise ucut thnn t'J escape it.
There is ample reason lo believe that this
conduct of wanton defiance, on their part, is
imputable chielly lo the delusive idea Mint the
American Government would be deterred from
punishing tiieui, through fear of displeasing'a
furuii'-nble loreign power, which, they pre
sumed lo thin, looked with complacency upon
their aggressive and insulted deportment to
ward the United ."'.ates.
The I'yfitr si length fired upon the town.
Eclbre much .injury had been Jone, the fire
was twice syspeu ed, in order to afford oppor
tunity lor arrangements; but this was declin
ed. Most cf the buildings of the place, of
little value generally, were, in the sequel,
destroyed; but owing to ihe considerate pre
cautions luktn by our naval conimander,there
was lu destruction of life. '
Wtien the Cijune was ordered lo Central
America, it was coulideiitly hoped and ex
pected lhal no occasion would arise for ''a re
sort lo violence and destruction of property
and loss of lile." Instruction to Mini effect
were given to her ccminander. And no ex
treme act would have been requisite had not
the people themselves, by their extraordinary
conduct in the alhYir, frustrated all the possi
ble mild measures lor obtaining satisfaction.
A w ithdrawal from the plact, the object of
l,;.s visit entirely defeated, would, Under the
ciicniiiilaiices in which the commander of the
Cyuue leund hinuelf, have been absolute
abandonment of all claim of our citizens for
indemnification, and submissive acquiescence
in natiaiial indignity. It would have encour
aged in these lawless men a spirit of inso
lence aud rapine most dangerous to the lives
and properly of our citizens at Punta Arenas,
and probably emboldened them to grasp at
.he Measures and valuable merchondise con
tinually passing over the Nicaragua route. It
certainly would have been most satisfactory
to me if the objects of the Cynne'e mission
could have been cofisuinated without any act
of public rorce; but "thenrrognnt contumacy of
the offenders rendered it iniposible to avoid
the alternative, either to bieak up their es
tublishmei.t, or to leave them impressed with
the idea that they might persevere with impu-'
uity in a 1 areer of insolence and plunder.
This transaction hns been 1he subject of
complaint 0:1 the part ofsome foreign pow-ers,
and has been cliaracteriited with more harsh
ness than o! justice.' If comparisons were to
be instituted, it wo.uld not be dillicnlt to pre
sent repeated instances in the history of slates
standing in Iho very Iroill 01 modern civiliza
tion, v. hre cstntiiuiiities, far less effendrrg atid
mpre jdi leiiceless than' Greytown, have been
chastised with lr.ucii greater severity, and
whew not cities only have been laid in ruins,
but human life has been tecklessly sacrificed
aipl the blood of the innoient made profusely
to mingle with that of the guiHy.
. Pdiiing from foreign 10 domestic affairs,
your attention is naturally directed lo the
financial .condition of the country, always
a subject of general interest. For complete
and exact information regarding the finonces,
and Ihe various branches of the public serv-
ra- hen cnmiecipd therewith. I refer vou to the
'.report of the Secretary of the Treasury; from
which it will appear, tuni me amoum 01 rev
enue during the last fiscal year, from all
sources, Was seventy three million five Imn
dred ai d forty niue thousand seven hundred
and five yjollarij and that the public espen
dituivi jfoitaame period, esclnfive of jay.