... ii nr."11 nin'--"' - w..nv"TZZYr-.' . . A- . - - - flAix J2S rdr - I , .wvVr. t .
YOL. VII. NO. 224.
COLUMBUS.-, OHIO. TUONDAY EVENING. FEBRUARY
,.51 i... La..
SIX D0L1AH3 T22 TEAH
" " InrartaWy u Idrtno
DAILY, TEI-WEEKLYA5D WEEKLY
MAN YPENNY & MILLER,
?UBtISH)BB AHD PBOfBIBTOBI.
fT Office Sos. 88, 88 and 40, North High St.
TSRM3 IJIVAEIABLT IN ADVAKC1. , ;
0Ut .... 16 00 per year.
" St tba Currier. Mr week, MJ6 eentt .
aaVW .... . S 60 per year.
DO per ye
ermo ol Advertising bT '
n square t yeai.v.tSO 00
One ," Smooths 18 00
3ne ' ' 6 months 15 00
3ns 3 months 10 00
Doe S nonthi 8 00
One " 1 month. S 00
One iquere 3 iMki..8 0
On . " SwMka.. 3 X
On " lwaek... in
On " 3dyi... 100
One " 8dT.'. W
One "1 IsMrtloa SO
Dliplyca advertlMnunU half more than the abort
rAaT(itlsementi leaieil and placed In the eolnmn of
TrtHotlct,"tolfoth4 ordinary ram.
All uulioua required to be published by law, legal rate.
It orrtered on the Inilde exclusively after the flrat week
iiei cent, more than the above ratei; bat all inch wll
i-iieT In the Trl-Weekly withonteharge.
' Hntlneee Cards, not exceeding Ave lines, per year, ln
He, -i SO per line; outtMe t'i.
Notlcei of raeetlniiS.charUablM odeUea, fire ooaipanie,
stD., half price. ' . . ' . . .
Alltranitt ailvtriUmunU mutt b paid or 1m
ftvanet Te rule will not be varied frem.
. Weekly, same price as the Dally, where the advartlsei
see the Weekly alone. Where rb Daily and Weekly
a re both nsed, then the charge lertha Weekly will be
a ir the rates of the Dally
Me advertisement taken except for a definite peno.
EAGLE BRASS WORKS,
- Corner Spring; dr. Water te.
W. B. POTTS & CO.,
And ManufactUreri of Brass and Composition Castings,
finished Brass Work of all Descriptions.
Electro Plating and Gilding!!
STENCIL CUTTINC, &C.
F. A. B. 8IMKINS, '
Attorney at XjtT7r
AND NOTARY PUBLIC.
Offlco Am'ooe Building, opposite Oapltol Bqoare.
Machine Manufacturing Company
MANDrAOTUtEM or ,
STEAM ENGINES & BOILERS,
Casting, Kill Gearing, Meehlaery.
Of rVIET DtSCXIITIOM.
. i t . . OOLfJlrlBCSs OHIO.
OBAB. A II BOS, taf't. t. AMBOS.iTreee.
Little Miami & Columbus & Xenia
For Cincinnati, Dayton & Indianapoliil
Through to lndianaoolie withoet Change of Cun
and bat One Change of Can between
Columbus and St. Louie. . . , .
THREE TRAINS DAILY FROM COLUM
.... FIRST TRAIN. '
(Dally. Mondsys excepted.)
NIOIIT EXrKKSa, o Dayton, at 8:45 a. BMiton
ping at London, Xenia, Dayton, Ulddlotowa and Hamil
ton, arriving at Cincinnati at &90 a. in.; Dayton at 5.45
, Indlanopolisat 1U:41J a.n.;rt. Louts at 11:50
ACCOMMODATION, al 8:10 a. m., stopping at all Sta
tion, between Columbus snd Cincinnati and Dayton, ar
riving at Cincinnati 11:02 a. m., Dayton at 9:13 a. .,
IndianopolUalS.W p. m.
SAT IXPBISS.at 9:30 p. m., stopping at Alton,
Jefferson, London, Charleston, Cedarville, Xenia,
Spring Valley, Oorwin, Morrow, Dearneld, toiler's.
Loveland, Millfordand Plalnville, arriving at Olndn
naU at 7:30 p.m.; St. Louis at 19 as; Dayton at 6:35 p.
a).; Indlanopolisat 10:38 p. as. " , . .
Sleeplner Oar all Nlprkt Train I
Cincinnati and Indianapelis. .
BAGGAGE CHECKED THROUGH,
for farther Information and Through Tlcxet, apply la
M. L. DOHIRTT, ,
1 'Ticket Agent, TTnlon Depot, Onlambus, Ohio. ,
" ., B. W. WOODWABD,
' ' Superintendent, Cincinnati.
' ' JNO. W. DOBIBTT
Agent, Columbus, '
Buch artlolf as you StHr$ tat yonr IITJBBAND "
Booh u you a! for your WIH.
Buch a are proper for your DAUGHTER. .
Buch u your BI8TIB will pra(H you for.
Buch as yonr BROTHER oanwss.
Bach as you wont for " TBI OM1 TOTi LOT1 BIST.'
Bach ss will be good for the " BLISBID BAT." ,
8uohssallfor, . "" . ' T; . '
Mar be fonnd In variety, in my new stock ol
WATCHES, CHAINS, JEWELRY,
..Jr( PLATED GOOD, ,
Andgensral assortment of , " . r, '
faney at4 Tssfal Articles. "
No. 10 Buckeye) Blooke
- Just Eeoelvedl
Atn. nr. OH 6BEEN and BLACK
1UU T14A9 lOO bags prune Bio Oonee.
1 SO pockets old Dutch Government Java Cones. .
15 bags 3eylon Coffee. . r . . -BOObbls.
standard White Bngars, ecpslstlng of Pow-
dred.Ohrnshed, Granalated Aand B Coffee.
. BO quintals fleorge Bank Oodnsh. j .
SO bblSk Hess and No. 1 ttsokerel. ,-.. v
ft Us. flak Baleson. i j - : ' "'
10O bx. Layer KaJslns.. i ' ' " -I --":
W kt, box da : do :- r " -,-; ' ' 1 -lOOqr.box
do ' da.- ...! :.'....:...''''
lOO at Cigars, different brands and grades. ' " -bovT
- . . WM. aloDOMALD.
hi Ll POWERS l BRO
DVAlkU IN larrolTCD AND DOHIST10
cioahh. ; ' ' -
. lOBAOCO. -,' :-jt
AND 1AN0T ABTIOHB
- No. 1 1 East Stat "treet, betwra nigh aad
the Peet-Omce.uoiomDns, oavs:da
i rAIUlLV FLOUM.
TTrnrtii wheat, branded
B N" O "W ti A. IC B3
Ircm 44 Bamslt If Ills," Springfield, 0. the best brand it
Hour brought to-our msret. Battirsetion gnarautaou.
lor sale only a 4.,, . " MouUNAiji B, r.
novsr; " Jl- 10 Bontli High s
Hol iday Presents. '
CAL1UUW, iresiAirsHS, rrs Kiasnva,
CIslHlZESVUKSS) SILKS, and all
kinds of fashionable .n i .
i "Winter DreM Good,
we are nowofferiegatreri lowprkes.
i ... . .. P1TKRBAIR,
THE WEEKLY OHIO STATESMAN IS PRINTED ON
. AT THE LOW RATE OF! .
ONE DOLLAR PER YEAR!
. PAYABLE IN ADVANCE. ,
i , It ie an old and reliable Democratic Journal, and, as a political paper, hae .,
No Superior in Oliio or any other State!
a addition to ite political eharaoter, it ie a firat olaee newepaper, furniBhing ite read'ere with tha
GENERAL NEWS OF THE DAY,
An epitome of the etirring event constantly ocourring at home and abroad, and choice miioel
laneons eelections. It alto gives the latest and most reliable
, . From all the prinoipal marts of Trade and Commerce.
The Easiness Man, the Mechanic, the Farmer and the Laborer
Will each find their tastes and interests consulted and attended to in the columns of
JPIEriD WZliaBLIiT STATESMAN.
During the session of Congress and the Ohio Legislature, the readers of the WcnxT Stars
man will be furnished with a eonoise report of the doings of each of those bodies. . , , , ,
During the past year, the circulation of the Wimr Statesman has increased very rapidly,
being now more than double what it was twelve months ago. It is our desire to extend its cir
culation, not only in Ohio, -
But in all tha States and Territories West of TJs!
In proportion as it is diffused among the people, its usefulness will be increased; and we invito
our politioal apd personal friends to aid us in giving to the Wikklt Statismaji .
The Largest Possible Circulation
Among the people. The price of the paper is so
an inducement to friends to aid us in increasing
A PREMIUM OF THIRTY DOLLARS
To the person who will, byj the 1st day of January, 1861, send us the largest Club of yearly
subscribers, with the eash for the same; TWENTY DOLLARS to the person who sends us the
second largest Club of subscribers as aforesaid; TEN DOLLARS to the person who sends us
the third largest Club of subscribers as aforesaid; and to each person who sends us a Club of
I ten yearly subscribers, with the cash for the same, we will send copy of the
Weekly Statesman One Year without Charge!
' CT Those who are willing to compete for the Premiums, or solioit subscribers for the States
man, can eut this Prospectus out of the paper and attach to it a strip of writing paper, on which
to record the names of all persona who may become subscribers.
MANYPENNY & MILLER,
' - y rcBLTSHxas OHro statewah,
FOR CLUBS ! !
low that no Democrat need be without it
the circulation of the Wiiklt Statesman,
STo. 4 Gwvnne Block.
A. P. STONE & O'HAEM
TZR GOODS, and Invite the publlo to Inspect
them. No such stock of Goods hss ever been brought to
this market. TbeBouth, In oonsequenca of the failure
of tha grain orop, has not been able to purchase $e us
ual quantity of rich goods, and this fact has forced the
Importers to sell went at puDife auoiiou. u uujer
fill.. Stonel beine in New York at these large sales, took
advantage of them, and we oan and will sell our goods
hare, at less man any one wno purcnaacu iwo uuvc,
paid for them In New York. Our stock Is complete In
every department of
ELEGANT DRESS SILKS,
OTTOMAN VELOURS, . .
B ROCHE VALENCIA9,
- PRINTED COBURGS,
' - DYED COBUGSj
, ORLEANS, i
FANCY WOVEN FABRICS,
ALL WOOL DELAINES,
. , . POPLINS, PRINTS,
SHAWLS AND CLOAKS!
Five Thausand Dollars -Worth
Bought in . One Day,1:
At on ball the) Coat of Impoitatlon.
. LADIES' FURS,
In all Varieties, of tb Celebrated
laannfatnr of c. u. van
. titer it -
HOSIERY DEPARTMENT, .
ilea's. Ladles and Children's Under Shirts and Drawers;
M!7: ui. ..A dhllriran's Hosiery of all kinds, in
Wool and Lamb's Wool; fleecy Lined and Cotton Gloves
of every make. , , . , . ......
A complete assortment or all the usual Tana
tie of ... ., . :; ': ,v
LADIES' CLOTHS, ; - "
Ladioi and Gent'f Linen Cambric Hand
v , kercniefj, Ac, &o.
ta m Mil aa us. ww nlodn our words to
show them the largest, best and enoapest stock of Goods
ever seen in wis matrssi, or pay wem one uoiiar r
hour wbiie looaiog. , ,-.
deol-dlyxtawttw. . btuwi ec u iii
lOLDEN 11IS.L. SJlllHTS,
It golden hill bhirtb, ! 1
. boldest hill bhibtb.
en, mMmi af thaaa ahirrs are new. The Bodies. Yokes,
eleeves and bosoms are formed to fit the parson with eats
and eomfort. The mars upon eaoo one aesignanng we
alas mav be relied on aa being correct, ana eacnsmrt is
(uaranteed well nude. A full stock of kll qne!l
eonetantly for sale at
Ho. W South High street.
i Watches and Jewelry.
wwn iSsnRTXtKNT OF WATCH
iVss, Clocks, Jewelry, Bllverwaro, ko., kept constant
, oa band al ; , - .- K1R1TRiCK'B
' ' Mo. 165, Booth High Street, Columbus, 0.
TTT Watches and Jewelry repaired, i. ;
deod3a. . . -.
lAjKv BB"8 W-h '.J'' f"
i . l . - T li.wnv nsKHH hn.KS. t.-r
W. .M Vauri.. m Innu atook of f aheW Drees
Silks at prices lees than ever before offered la this city
The attention of the ladles of this elty an vicinity Is
aolldted. aa anr stork ie van ssleet and eompwtet all
grades of goods In this 11ns. PBTBR BAIN, -
novW. ' . ' Kb. Bonth High street,
r. 'lfr Rleelloat Pnrpoee.'
pURB BRANCTiUS.WINgR, CORDIALS, AND BTT
JS. Taae,iram -sonaea WMenonsa "
novW ' ' ' ; ; ' -- ', lOq Bonth High street.;
H r ALTEssS dfe TI1MEAD LACE BIITTS
ill of elegant qnallUes for Ladtesi else, Vlsees' Ultfcs
B treat variety - BAIN'B
OHIO s STATESMAN
Nos. 36, 38 & 40, North High St.
INCREASED FACnJTlES !
HAVING MOVED INTO MY f
' 1 HAVE-r.V'VW;'::
BOOK i JOB DEPARTMENTI
' - WHILE BOTH HAVE BEEN :. .
" , wiTir-f rr-.iT.::''!
New Types,' Borders, .Ornaments, &c
IBOM TH1 OBXIBRATBD I0TJNDBT Of -
C. T. WHITE ft CO., NEW TOEK,
Most Complete Establishment
IN THE CITY.: ; ,1
I im now rrepsred to Execute all Orders for
BOOK AND JOB
And la tha Most Approved Btyleof the Art
PARTICULAR ATTENTION PAIS TO . -n
MERCANTILE AND RAILROAD
I lTITSTT ING.
Bill of Latins-,' Circular, :
BIHHeaal, ; Hiank, Deed,
.. sjrtiitoaie,' - ssecoipta,
r Dray XiclteU, ' Uegrlster,
HOW CARDS & BILLS LNCOLORS,
EZASID08, COMXEACTI, ,
Illnstrated Show Bills,
;, FOB CpTJNTRT , MERCHANTS,
oaow auu, bua 0Uih J.eilWAa, wuwi, m
i am. w..A vjiii. v.v.i. .
grammes, Benool ana uoiiegs Bcaemes, ho-
. wall .A V T..It.aJ.. A.. .
Wk aPAAltl gi M llI JUITiMUVIaal fV
) .1) en esa , - .a ..isM. at. . H U:U
El o o 13L ""W oris.
OF jEVERY DESCRIPTION) .
. ' i " .... i'! . a
School and Collsja Catalogues, t . '
KiseeUaneons fampnieta," ' 1
" - Constltutloni, Beportt, Briefs, as
in Gold and Colors
I 1A T?lnte4 li Ertry Colpf a
Tha only Pies of tha kind La Central Ohio.
i . - 10"
i lb facilities for doing any and all of th above descrip
tions of work, are now unsurpassed, and gaUstaoUon
harosmtecd In all eases. J " '
UTAH work, rwnlibew prestpttr fcthe time womleod.
Dally, per year.... 8 00
Tri-Weekly, per r;ar.. uu
Weekly, peryoai 1
SPEECH OF MR. HUTCHESON, OF MADISON.
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.
Feb. 21, 1861.
Hon. R. Hotohison: SiamTba undersiirned
ask for the publication of jow manuseript speech
on tho rendition of fugitive slaves.
LBV I SLUBBER.
A. I. CORY.
I. L. WiUNEK.
J. B. OHABK.
N. A. DBVORB
HENRY L. DICKEY.
, A. P. I. SNYDER.
' 0. L. NOBLE.
SmcR or Ma. Hutcheson, or Madison Codstv,
Dilivibid in thi House orRiraniNTATivis,
Fsssuast 21, 1861.
The question being on agreeing to the report
of tha Judiciary Committee, by Mr. Rosinssn,
recommending the Indeftnltapoetponement of
H. B. 319 To prevent harboring and secret
ing fugitive slaves and assisting in their escape,
Mr. Hutchison, being Indisposed, had Mr.
Woods, of Licking, to read the following address
to the House:
Ma SriAKia: The object of this bill seems
to be misapprehended. It is not to hare the
State Interpose her authority to assist in the
reclamation of fugitive slaves, which hss been
provided for by a law If Congress. I am aware
it has been decided in the Prigg case that en
the matter of rendition the jurisdiction of the
General Government la exclusive. But what
was the real question deoided by the Supreme
Court in that case? It was simply that, as to
the remtditi la recapture, when the owner bad
to resort to legal process to secure bis right, the
jurisdiction la exclusive in Congress.
The State of Pennsylvania bad, on the 86th
of Mirch, 1626, pissed an act for the purpose,
as deolared in its (title, of aiding in carrying
into effect the Constitution and laws of the Uni
ted States, relating to fugitives from labor.
She did this on the application of Commis
sioners from the State of Maryland, after it
bad been discovered that the old law of 1793
was not so perfeot as to furnish a sufficient rem
edy in all eases.
The act went further, and undertook to make
it kidnapping for the owner to seize his slave
and use lorce in carrying him away a thing
which he had a perfect right to do under the
Constitution of the United States, provided he
did not commit a breach of the peace. It was
uron a writ ot error, originating in n prose
cution for kidnappiDg under this aot, that the
case was oarrieu to tne supreme uourt ot me
United States. In this state of facts the Court
held that the act was unconstitutional and
But the bill (before the House seeks none of the
objects which were contemplated by the Penn
sylvania Act. ' Its subject matter of legislation
and its Intention are outside of end independent
of any of the objects contemplated by the law of
(jODKress as passed in i'jj ana amenaea in
1850. The tfftet of it would of course be to di
minish the number of escapes into this State,
and to facilitate, Indirectly, the recovery of fugi
Uvea .when pursued by the owner, agent, or
officers butit contemplates no object whion has
been provided for by the law of Congress. The
only provision in the fugitive slave law which
can be claimed to have any reference to the
subjects embraced In this biiikis in tne seventh
section, which I will read: ,
Siction 7. And 6s it further tnacUd; That
anT person , who snail knowingly and willingly
obstruct, hinder, or prevent sum claimant, his
agent or attorney, or any person or persona
lawfully assisting: him. her or them, rem arrrsf-
inj such a fugitive from service or labor, tithcr
teiA or without procttt as aforesaid.or ihall rttcu
or attempt to rescue such fugitive from service or
labor, froth (As cuttody of such claimant, his or
her agent or attorney, or other persona lawful
ly assisting aa aforesaid, when se arrttttd. pur
suant to tne autnority nerein given ana aeoiar-
ediorsAau aid, 6ct or auut such person so
owing service or labor as aforesaid, directly or
indirectly, ie escape from tucn claimant, nis
aeent or attorney, or other person or persons
legally authorized as tforettid; or shall harbor
or oonoeal ueh fugitive so as to prevent the die-
cover n ana arrett or saen person, after nones or
knowledge of the fact that suds person teas jit
gititt from service or taoor as afireiaid, (ball
lor eiuer oi saia onsnses oe auoject to a nne
not exceeding one thousand dollars and impris
onment". (Vol. 9,U. S. Statutes at large 464)
It is apparent upon a carelul examination ol
this section that it la to punish persons who e6
sfrnef the execution of the law, by Interfering
to prevent the seizure of a slave, or to rescue
him from custody, or to assist the fugitive to
escape vhtn arrttttd, or to harbor or conceal
him, when the claimant, his agent or attorney,
or an officer, is in purtuit. . There is no offense,
therefore, unless there is an attempt at recap
tion, under the provisions of the fugitive slave
law. .. - .
It is proposed by this bill to provide ssalnst
othsr and different offenses from those contem
plated by the fugitive slave law.. The object of
this law was simply to furnish the aid of process
and legal remedy to the eiaimaaf ot a fugitive
slave, and per consequence to punish all persons
for Interfering with or obstructing its full and
eomplet execution, in any of the ways specified
In the law Itself. It refers only to recapture or
reclamation. If, therefore, this whole subject is
within the exclusive inrisdlction of Coneress. it
Is clear that Congress has not legislated upon it
In the particulars contained in tne bill under
discussion. It baa been decided, I believe, in a
ease Involving the question of jurisdiction upon
the subject of a bankrupt law, upon which Con
gress is vested with exclusive jurisdiction, that
the States mignt legislate on wis auDjeci u tney
noted only upon such particulars and with snob
objects as were not within the purview of the
law or (Jongreas. ti wis otn no aon in regara
to one subject which Is within ths exclusive
power of Congress, why not in another! The
power to legislate for the return of fugitive
slaves, can be no more exclusive than the power
to pass a general bancrupt law.
It is here admitted that It is the principle of
the decision in the Prigg case, that the power
to legislate for the reclamation or fugitive
slaves la exclusively in Congress that the
States ean neither pass laws to d or eos'rucf
the execution or tne law oi congress, jjui i
maintain even by this decision that it is exclu
sive upon the subject of recapture alone, and
that It haa reference to nothing else whatever.
This is clear, not only from the ordinary princi
ples of construction, but win appear , irom a
Mfemnca to tbe decision itself. Tbe Court say:
"To guard, however, against any possible
misconstruction of our views, It is proper to
state, that we are by no means to be understood
In anv manner whatsoever to doubt or to inter-
fere wiiathe police power belonging to the states
in virtue 01 tneir oeaeraissreToynijr, iveter
This Is the same "power" to whion. we resort
in passing all criminal statutes and punishing
Offenses which the legislature may declare to be
suehj and this bill must be passed, if passed at
11. and for the same reasons of public policy as
other misdemeanors are maue puaisuBuiu in vne
exorcise of this general sovereignty, a ne uonn
say that this power, "is trteHj rfisfiNOMisfteftfs
rrom tne rignt anu amy "j p.-
in nnr nnrier consideration; which is cIusiS'
iy derived from and secured by tbe Constitution
r iha United States, and sates its whole tfhctai
thereto." r This Is tbe very distinction which I
he been seeking to draw, in Aonrt evi
dently mean that the provisions of the fugitive
lav law are axolusirely derived rrom, and
limited to, the object contemplated by that sea-
lion of the Constitution in regara so iugiuves
rWun or labor, which is rendtiieBerr-
MBfare. To show that I am clearly right In
the position I have assumed, but on more quo
t.tin ta nnfleaaarv from this decision: t ; ?.
. "The rights Of ths owner Of fugitive slave
are in no mat sens inwrjereu w nf"
such ft oourss, and In many oases, the tperatlons
of this police power, although detigned etiential
lyforjUher furpoeee, for tbe protection, eafely and
peace of tbe State, may essentially promote and
aid the iniereete of the owner e. Hat snob regu
lations oan never be permitted to Interfere with
or to obitruot the just rights of tbe owner to re
olalra bis slave, derived from tbe Constitution
of the United States, or teifA the remtditi pre
scribed by Congressto aid and enforce the same."
(id.) , ' .
I think it is fairly Inferable from thls.that tbe
power to legislate upon this subject isadmitted
to belong to the States, provided it is not ex
ercised either to obstruct or to aid in enforcing
the remediea prescribed by Congress for tbe re
capture of fugitive slaves. .
1 I have thus far endeavored to show, Mr.
Speaker, that even on the hypothesis that Con
gross hss the exoluBive power to legislate in
relation to fugitives from labor, there is noth
ing In this bill which confllots with any decis
ion based upon this theory.
But I deny that this power is exclusively in
the General Government, aa 1 shall next pro
ceed to show. The Court was not at all unan
imous in the opinion In the Prigg case tbe
judges who expressed opinions united in tbe
game conclnsion on the speciflj matter beiore
tbe Court, it is true, but their reasoning was
different and sometimes opposite In regard to
the general question of the power of Congress
and of tbe States, which was argendi 1 toiDk
the argument and tbe taw were with those who
dissented from the views of Judge Story. The
Chief Justice (Mr, Taniv) maintained 'at tbe
time that the States bad concurrent jurisdiction
with Congress over the subject of tbe surrender
of fugitives from labor to the extent of aiding
In tbe same, and held that tbe Statee might
interfere "for the purpose of protecting tbe
right of the master, and aiding him in the re
covery or nie property." ne neia mat tne pro
hibition upon the States extended only against
passing laws to obstruct or impair tbe right of
recapture. It is now tbe law, as decided in a
case which originated in the State of Illinois,
that the Inrisdlction is concurrent In this par
ticular, and that tbe States may pass laws to aid
the" enforcement ol a law of Congress for tbe
reclamation of fugitives. (Moors ei . the Slate of
Illinoxt, 14 Howard .)
It la not surDrisinir that Judee Storv should
have construed tbe Constitution as he did on
this subject. He was an advocate of consoli
dation, and has done more than any other man
in this country, save Webster himself, to in
doctrinate the publlo mind with tbe centralisa
tion theory ,-an abominable dootrine, of which
we are now reaping the bitter fruits. Sir, it
has always been my humble opinion that the
duty of surrendering up fugitives from service
or labor was an obligation imposed by the Con
stitntionlupon tbe Slates, as a part of the com
paot of Union. It would have been better for
all concerned if it bad been left there. It baa
been the imposition of fugitive slave laws on
the North and of tariff laws on tbe South that
has made the people of tbe two sections mutu
ally bate their common Federal Government,
and each other. If I am told that public senti
ment at the North bas become so hostile to
slavery that it would refuse to obey this com
pact of the Constitution, I answer that it would
be a simple question with tbe Northern States
whether they would prefer to fulfill their obli
gations or break tbe bargain and dissolve tbe
Union. I have no doubt which they would have
done if the question had been so presented.
Tbe same publio sentiment which would have
repudiated tbe compact, will continue to evade
and violate a law or umgress, made more odi
ous by the consciousness that it is a usurpation
It would have been better to rely on the good
faith of tbe States than to march into their lim
its to ride down their citizens with the armed
power of a hateful government, as the sergeants
of a European despotism chase down the sedi
tious peasant. And here let me remark, that if
that party which a few years ago cowardly slunk
away In a vulgar political caucus to hurl its
anathemas against the fugitive slave law, only
to excite the thoughtless to acts of lawlessness,
had invoked the sovereignty of the State of
Ohio to interfere against it, and it bed spoken
its voice with them, that act would bsve
found no firmer defender against all ooeroing
assailants than your speaker. How much nobler
to have emulated the oouduot of South Carolina
That noble little State, diminutive in terri
tory, meagre In population, limited in resources,
and perhaps too htsty in punctilio, then brave
ly stood out sgalnst a usurping Congress, the
threats of power and the denunciations of near
ly all her sister Statee, nntil ehe bronght her
enemies suppliants at ber feet suing for peace!
Obto joined . in in senseless denunciation
against ber, and has preferred to hang as a mere
dependency to central power. She whines and
whimpers over her State wrongs, and humbly
implores that her chains may be made no
heavier! Our sovereign taxing power has
been invaded and superseded by tbe decree of
the Federal Court, without even a protest against
the usurpation. And now our chief magistrate,
who bears the insignia of our State sovereignty,
is itandlng before, tbe bar of tbe Supreme
Court to respond to its process, and seems to
excite no more concern than the arraignment
of a constable for malfeasance la office 1 It
was feared, Mr. Speaker, by tbe founders of our
political system, that the General Government
would lack power; just the opposite has proved
troei the centripetal tendencies have been great
er than tbe oentrttugai. l ot government nas
been consolidating and the power concentrating
until at last if Ass retulted in a dioruvtion.
Right here arises the great question of the day
the nature of our politioal system whether
it is National or federal whether sovereignty
resides in tbe American people, as an aggre
gate, or in the people of the States separately
whether the States have a right to judge
of the extent of . their ' reserved powers,
and to defend them against the enoroachments
of the central government, or whether the Fed
era! Government i tne supreme jaoge ootn or
the reserved and delegated powers, and bas a
ight to enforce Its own construction against an
- The country is airiaea into two souoois oi poi
itlofl : Webster heads one, and Calhoun the other,
The former I have always rejected and despised;
tbe latter I have followed and admired; which
wm right, time is fast disclosing. "Inexorable
loglo is making its way through oloudsand pas
sion," and will vindicate tbe great statesman of
South Carolina as the wisest man of bis time.
Mr. Webster and the Federal school of politi
cians bold that In all cases not capable of assum
ing the eharaoter of a suit in law or equity, in
which event tne supreme ueurt ie tne nnai in
terpreter, Congress is final and exclusive Judge
of tbe extent of Its own powers. ' Mr. Calhoun
and tbe State rights school, on the contrary, bold
that tbe Constitution is a compaot eettseea sov
ereign States; that the States are not united on
the principle eiuoumueu suomission to tne r eo-
eral Government; that as it is the creature of
the Ststes, it is not the exclusive judge of the
extent or powers aeiegatea ro itseii; out mat
aoh State bas an equal right to judge for Itself,
" as well of Infractions of the Constitution aa
tbe mod and measure or redress." 1 bis doo
trina would preserve the eaullibrium of tbe sys
tem, beautify and perpetuate It. The Webster
theory oentrallzea power, consolidates the gov
ernment, reduces the States to mere dependent
corporations, and destroys all limitations and
restrictions, in vain, win written cociuiuuons
erect barriers against tbe encroachments or pow
er, to secure the rights and liberties of the peo
ple, if tbe Government can construe the ex
tant of Its own powers and enforce that construe
tioo under tne moutn oi tne cannon ana at tne
Ttnlnfe nf tha havrmeL . (
IV... M.n AlaAnna tti Art.tiaAa nA i.miiM Af
the present crisis. The election of Lincoln,
tha Personal Liberty Bills.and th e Chicajo Plat
form, are all gravely advanced as tbe causes or
secession. These views are an on tne suriaoe,
and: men had as wall cease to waste breath upon
them... , ' -. ' ' . '
. These are only symptoms of the iinease tne
disease Itself lies deeper. Our publlo men are
confounded startled ana non piussea litncom
himself is certain that "nothing Is going wrong
anywhere," that "nobody has been nurt" ana
they, nyiirom on our-imo w- sumun
one expeaieui to auomer junt as m quai;.
doctor alternates, in opinion ana . vacii
UtM In treatment. Bat the Southern states
men understand it they were educated .for the
fornm and tbe Senate ours for tbe Intrigues
of tbe caucus and tbe management of the ward
meeting. They know by the Webster theory,
which prevails among nsarly all parties at tne
North, that as the minority section, when par
ties have assumed a permanent sectional char
acter, they wonld have to submit to what
ever tbe fanaticism or avarice of tbe dominant
section might dictate. Tbey correctly main
tain that free constitutional governments, so
far as their protecting power is concerned, er
made for minorities, and that majorities have
no absolute right to rule. Tbe South fear this
power which remains behind, which may speak
to ernsh ber, if it does not do so now. ' It Is th
principle tbey fear, not its maweataftens. ' Sh
knows full well that there is no party now at
the North powerful enough, whiob sincere) de
sires abolition and the equality of tbe race.
She knows, ss we do, thst there ars t few such
in tbe Republican party, but she knows too that
the leaders have used the "negro" tbe "tariff
and tree homes," according to tne locality, aa
rallying eries to raise themselves to the seats of
power and tbe avenues of pnblio plunder. -
Sir, Are not ber fears well founded? : When
the dominant'party now at the North shall have
got control of all tbe departments of tbe Gov
ernment, what will it be but the majority sec
tion acting through the forms of a government;
intended lor common protection, (to aggrandize
Itself at the expense of the weaker section 7 It
makes no difference what shspe it assumes, or
what object it basin view, the principle is the
But how has tbe crisis been met? . Absolute
ly nothing has been done. If a Convention of
tbe States had been called in time, the lost bal
ances of tbe system might have been re-adjusted,
and its original harmony restored; or If not,
a peaoeabie separation might navs been deter
mined. The arm of Congress bas been para
ljzed by selfishness and Imbecility. But it oan,
and 1 tear will, do much to aggravate tbe dim
cultv. Tbe first thing it should have done waa
to repeal the 25th section of the Judiolary sot of
iitiv, ana tne iniamous rorce win or Idas, and
all other laws which tend to centralis e the sys
tem. Tbe two former are fetters which have
been forged and hung np for future use, to bind
the limbs of State Sovereignty they should
have been cast aside as so many badges of Tyr
anny. And In this connection 1 mnst be pet m it ted to
remark, indue deferenoe to the opposite opin
ion of a large majority or my fellow members
on this floor, as hag seemed to me manifest,
from what bas oocurred, that Ohio has now a
deep interest in recognizing (As tru(A of theee
principlte in all their fullntet. , I do not say this
in mere reference to that question which seems
so much to exercise my Republican friends
the manner of the rendition of fugitive slaves,
and tbe protection of our omn citizens but
rather in that larger sense which looks to tbe
ultimate interest and safety of our people as a
wnoie. it absolution- teice piece u dis
integration go on Ohio must determine
where she shall go, and where she will re
main. Her population are producers and
consumers. 1 hey demsnd tbeibignest prices for
their productions, and tbe cheapest for their
consumptions. As a part of tbe great Missis
sippi valley, ber destiny is linked to that ot the
whole. Temporary luiatuatiorr may blind us
to this great truth, but time will dissolve the
spell, and lead ns to the alliance of bomegeneity
ana common interest, it we act wtseiy, our
future civilizMiou and grandeur may even sur
pass the old, but if we suffer ourselves to b
bound with the withes of Eastern Tariffs and
eastern power, wo may soon witness onr own
queen oity, which glasses herself in tbe beauti
ful unio, sit in wiuows weeas to mourn over
her vanished glory and departed prosperity.
But Instead of this, we find Congress eneaced in
devising Tariffs still more oppressive, aud con
triving Force Bills still moreodiona. And what
have we, tbe representative ot the great Suae
of Ohio, been doing In tbe midst ot acrisis.such
as bas never been known and big with events
whose results no mortal wisdom can foretelll Our
Committee on Federal Relations, now the most
important in the House, baa had one meeting,
and gravely considered a petition Irom some
blustering militia colonel, praying that we
might provide a tptdal mode for giving bis ser
vices to tne country.': i a nous nas dis cussed
tbe question whether our prison oonvlcts wonld
make good soldiers in tne war to oaoe the Union
whether the Legislature or the Governor
should appoint Commissioners to the Peace Con
ference and bow to receive the President elect.
And I suppose the General Assembly supposed
ite "oreat duly" performed when il "tendered
tbe resources of the State to the President" In
tbe belief that they would be employed to whip
South Carolina! . , ;
' But I have digressed already too far. and
asking pardon ot the House ror this digression;
I return to tne aiscussion ot tne Din under con
sideration. . I think 1 have shown, Mr. Speaker,
that in any view or tne constitutional question
Involved, we possess the power and have tbe
rieht to legislate on this subject, even If It In
tended to aid the execution of the fugitive slave
law. Why shall we not do ill There are cer
tainly reasons strong and numerous why the
legislature should act. The complaints of tbe
eitizens of other States eome to ns daily of the
loss of tbelr property, and the misconduct of
onr eitizens. Justice to them, and a respect for
the rights ot property of all kinds, urge upon
us tbe enactment of this law. Reasons derived
from tbe political aspect of the country nrge ns
to act promptly. If the Union with tbe border
Statee is to be preserved, ibis act of Justloe and
good neighborhood, on our part,-will go far to
ensure it, and perpetuate it. And if total dis
solution is to occur, let me remind members
that the reason la still greater why we should
remove the cause of complaint. - Acts of wrong
on on side will lead to retaliation on th other.
Our Southern border will be exposed to preda
tory attacks our cities and villages will be de-
. . a 3 , , ...
liverea over to conuigrauuu, auu our inuaui
tanta to outrage and murder. '
Fur many years, Mr. Speaker, a oertaia class
of our citizens, prompted by motives of false
philanthropy, have been in the habit of going
into the slave States.to tamper wun tne slaves,
to entice them away and assist In their escape,
whilst, witbin those States, such persona are
made punishable by tbe laws ot anon states.
But thev have confederates, alders and abettors,
this side of the river, who can not be punished
at all unless we punish them, inn is tbeob
i act of the Bill. I think It is high time the busl
neaa of the U. G. R R. should be taken away
and its charter revoked Or anspended, at least
uotil other commerce is juf on Mile octter foot
ing! I suppose all are familiar with the exist
Anne of this "institution." -. It is a phrase nop
nlarlv nsed to designate the secret means of
oonveyance by wbiohour Abolitionists transport
alavea from the South to different destinations.
It is said to have received its name irom a blunt
Kentuokian, who, having lost tbe track Of bis
runaway slave this side the river, exclaimed
with an oatn: "tne Aooiuionien muss nave w
railway under the ground, by whiob, they run off
niggers." This road is not traced on map and
hnno no in public places, but it exists in all
tha multiplied accompaniments and system, of
any railroad. ' It bas Its main trunk"' and
"branehes'-lla '"tersnlDi'? its depot -and
"stations" its prinoipal "track" and "switch
es." It bas "presidents," aireowrs, "conauo-
tor,, and "engineers" Rs "ewiloh men" ana
"baggage masters" Its "time tables" are es
tablished with all the precision ei eoneerted con-
venlence,snd altbeagh the time ot 'arrival- ana
Hdonar-ine" are usually nocturnal oours, tney
are alwaya fixed, and the 'connections' are made
t.u ..n.tatnf' The time tahloa are aniw
nosed to be thus arranged In Order th more er
tainly to avoid 'collisions" with the rent f the
world, which moves , in dayiignu uranotiiDgont
from various points on our southern border,
it penetrates the Interior, and ramifies as it ex
tends, nntil the Statu is literally thatched with
its devious network.'! I'jvjji!.,- . ,,
It is said that not. less than twelve hundred
slaves are annually conveyed Into Canada
sty nothing of an eqnal or greater number whion
stop on the way. la Canada it is - estimated
thatr there er now forty pot iAomasd fugitive
slave troxa. the south. .. Why should we wonder
at the amountof irritation and exasperation this
gives the south; and that it forms an Important
nei-t in tha lut of. trrtevanoM whiob her rjBople
record: against Bat; By a letter. tUoh I bare
received from a Kentucky official, it appears
that Kentucky alone annually lose about $201),
000 In thi way; and as the population of Indi
ana and Illinois for fifty or sixty miles back is
yet disposed to be neighborly and assist In th
return of fugitives, it b said th prinoipal part
of this amount Is lost In Ohio. If we permitted
organized bands in our Stat to steal and sua i
oft' her torses, the offenswwgvrngt ber rights of
property would be no greater. ' -
Here I may antisipate objections, Thsfbl.V '
lowers of party- clap-Up will say it is "orlng--,
ing to the 81a v Power1 thla le meauinglees
and deserves no snswer. .The advocates of the
"Higher Law" and the nambv
lytee of tha Oberlin Philosophy will say 1 have .'
no right to pat slave property on tbe same ba- '
sis of property in a horse that the negro is a "
"human beiur." and thev have not nnlv tha '
right, bnt it is their duty to help him to "free-; ' '
doffl." -!. '. ,.- ... : , i .j , j tir--
Mr.' Speaker. It is hard to tell whether the "
northern mind bas been more misled In it learn.
ing or Constitutional law or in iU moral pbilos-'
ophy. Of all the batch of delusions and her
esies which this philosophy bas entailed nponfjus,
I consider that which seta up the authority of
individual conscience (1) against the; rlgbuof ,.
property aa tbe most egregious and dangerous. :
There is nothing at all in it of sound morals or -tree
religion or true philanthropr, which I might '
easily show if I bad time to dwell on thia hraneh '
of tbe subject, - ,,
uu Vlr, i bnd;the true dootrine on this sub :t z
eo well expressed in a charge to the jury in th .'
Circuit Court of tbe United Sutes for the East-'
era Di't lot of Peons jive nis, by Judge Baldels,
In 1833. that I will detain th Hons with refer-
ring to it: - -o -j - ?,-.-r
lo deny to th owner of property the use of -
such means to recover it, would make bis right
an empty and barren one, by Uking from-, hiss ::
the means of enjoying It it was tbe mode best . .
calculated to alarm or dielurb the family. This '
ngnt oi tne master to arrest bis lngitive alave, , ,
is not a solitary case in the law; It may be axot-jj-cised
towards a fugitive, apprentice or redemn-
tioner, to tne same extent, ana it is aon aaily
without producing any excitement an appren
tice is a servant, a elave is no more; though bis .
servitude is for life, tbe nature of it is lb
sam as apprenticeship or by.redemption, wblcb,
though terminated by time, is. during its contin
uance, a severe as servitude aa that for life XOf
the sam nature 1 tbe right of a parent to ths
servioes or bis minor children, which gives the .
custody of their persons. The lawful ex. "
ereise of this authority (recapture) in such cases .
is calculated to excite no sympathy; tbe law
takes its course in peace, and unnoticed, yet it
la the same power, and nsed in the sam man
ner, as by a master over bis slave.; Had Jaek
been the apprentice of Mr. Johnson, or be bsd
been the special ball of Jaok,he would bave tbe
same right to retake bim a he had by being bis
owner for life the right in each csss is from ' '
the same source the law of the land. ' If tbe
enforcement of tbe right excltea more feeling
in one ease than tbe other it is not from tbe
manner in which it is done, but the nature of
the right which is enforced property in Aa- '
man being fat life. It this is unjust and oppre
sive.tbe sin Is en the beads of tbe makers of tbe ;
laws, which tolerate slavery, or in those wbo
have the power in not repealine them: le niait
it entAoseicAe hive honetuy acquitid and lawfully c-
noia property anaer me ovarantce ana pretrcu
of the fates, is thi wosst or all orrgnssisN,
AND TUB BANEBiT INJUSTICE TOWABOg CUB riL-. .
low-men. Jl is I As indulgence of a spirit of per
ttcutionagaineloutntighbottfotnooffenitogaitut society or itt fates; for no nftngtment of ike .
rioAt of etAers, but oxmply for tie aetettionofj
tAeir en in lawful manna.", ' , - . ..
Again be eaysi "If this spirit pervades the ""
country; if publio opinion Is suffered to pros
trate the laws which protest on speoiee of 7
property, lAese wA lead the erutade againtt sfa- ,
eery may, at no dietant day, find new ens di
rected aoainst thcib laniw, thsik stoics aw "
thbib debts; if a master can not retain the ens '- r
tody of bis slave, apprentice or redemptioner,
parent must give up tbe guardianship of his .
children, bail have no hold on their principal, ' " '
tho creditor can not arrest his debtor by lawful7' '
means, and he who keeps tbe rightful owner of .-
lands or chattels out of possession will be pre- ,,
tected in bis trespasses. " e . Th only
permanent danger is in the indulgence in the hu
mane and benevolent feeling t, at what we feel to '
be acts of oppression towards bnman beinga en- ;
dowed with the same qualities and attribute a ., ;
ourselves, and brought into being by the aame
power which oreated ns all; tntAovt reflecting " 1
tAat in tu faring lhte feeUngt to setae into action '"'
againtt rtoAts tecurtd by the fates, tec forest IA ' :
lSrit rfuty of ehitent of m government f Uwt t
obedibnob to its oboinances. Those who are
looking only to the oppression which exists but v '
ia their etea iwaptnotton, may make their own" " '
philanthropic feeling tbe standard of right and -wrong,
but it must be remembered and impretted ',
on every member of society, that no man can ooh- t 4
SJDIB THAT TO SB INJOSTlCC WHICH THE LAW DS '
OLABBS- AND.raOTECTS AB A BJOHT, Ok AN AOT TO !
bb orraxssiva which thb law has raovingn as .'
a bemedt roa its invbinoembnt. . The impres-,
sion may be konett, ike feeling laudable and the '
motive eirtveus in the abttraet, atrr thi law roa- ' r
BIDS ITS EXEBCIsE ON THI MOrEBTT OB riBSONS Of '
OTITEBS." " ... . : - . , .
This, sir, contain! the whole philosophy and ' ' .
law of this question, legal aud moral, both blend-' ' '
ed. i It is well for ns to pause and study it at - ' ;
this time. Are we not fast approaching tha -time
when this learned Judge said that those
who were "leading tbe crusade against slavery"
might find ofAer rights of property referred to ' r
the arbitrament of popular "feelingT" May t. :
not the promnlgatore of thia modern nhiloaoohv . -
soon . behold tbe fruits of its teachings appearing ,
woere least tuey expected wnen attacks may be
made upon existing rights ot property and
when orowds of hungry and savat men ah all
pass under tbelr terrified gaze, with banner in
scribed with tbe terrific words "bread or,.
blood 1" -,
' We are In revolutionary times, and tbe fonn- ' '
datlona of society are unsettling. The mildew. - U
of disorganization sweats upon the basis ol th lo- , . j;
gal fabric" Lloense and disregard of law ar on, ,
the constant Increase. Some of you ar predict ' 1
Ing the calamities that will overtake the South,"
and seem so feel quit sure that all will be wall an
wits us. Be not deceived. . At th South tha .
relation of capital and labor Is fixed at the '
North it ia not. In one section tbe laboring '7 ' ;'
olass is an inferior race, held in bondage; in the ' ' '"
other it is the equal race restless and active t '
whit men a race wbioh ia alow to move, but , :
wben it moves it Is aathe throes of an earth-'
quake, or the descending of the avalanche. 1 In ' n "
the dissolving and reforming transition which ".q
we are now undergoing, it 1b difficult to foresee . $
what new shape Southern eociety and govern-,
ment may assume-probably a limited monarchy t
and th revival of the feudal system; but lam" -satisfied
our destiny Is quit as uncertain, and! ; .'-
that our dangers are as least equal to bare. . . . ,
. Th moral causes, whion ar peculiar to all
types of civilisation snd all forms of govern- - "
ment, most work out their own logical sequen-'i-
oes,:..::" -.-m " . y,-1:
. It baa long been my opinion, Representatives:, s,
that unless tbe underlying principles of North- I '
era politics and morality, and of our whole socl . -at
system,' are soon superseded by sounder t.i
teaching, we are as certainly destined for anar-,y..
ehy, revolution, and ultimate military despot- l,
ism, aa that those principles are now at work
The causes which control the event ar as cer-'ttf
tain nd fixed at any In the physical world! V jatj'.A
' Let u begin (o reverse th teaching. Let!x
ut throw away Webster and take op Calhoun.'
Let our " administration' of government, both V-
State and Federal, be restored to the true prie- m
olpleai of too Constitution L,st our people; it- ,
cease to driuk from th prurient streams of false
morals that flow from tbe "degraded pulpits" of
th BeecherS and Cheevers, and return to th '
pure-fountains of the true faith, and all raayyst. a,
be well. ".; --;.-'ii.-,..-.,lf i-i e 'i i- l-aca ;V
' ,4 i t- tlEXKY KOEHLEal, 3 f-.j ,'
(Lata bf Phalno'e SatablMbaMot, M. Tn) TmprWtnre .,
ihe Mew York luhionahle Sharing, Hair Catting va
' llnampoofilng, Oarilng and Dressing galooa, Kast Stat 0-1
5 street, over tbe Post Office, where eatis'acuo will
be given m all tbe varlona branches. Ladies and ' '-'
' Miami's ilat Dressing Son 1 the beet style. doit
IANOT LINEN AND "ILK FANS II
new styles) aiUbbo Bound, Aiiten.ion and in- w
dlaaVaneat. -.: K w . . '. BAUD' -
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