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Daily Ohio statesman. (Columbus, Ohio) 1855-1870, October 08, 1868, Image 1

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COLUMBUS, OHIO, THURSDAY MORNING, OCTOBER'8, 18G8. 1 ;
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How We are Taxed and What
We are Taxed For.
SPEECH OF
JOHN H. JAMES,
At London, Ohio, Sept. 21, 1868.
Hi DMetintr of tb Democrmcy and other
Jt!etia of London' was beld at Toland
Hall, on Monday evening:, Septembei; 21st,
1968." The meeting was presided: over by
Colonel "WhJ IT. "who Introduced
Mr JAitfe,': who 8iX)k in gobstance, as fol
lows: . - .i.?..?. ... ..: j... :!. A
have been, announced tagpeak to you thl9
. evening-.on tii abject : 1 our- taxes and
flnancen.- It is a snbject that is, perhaps,
jrenerall J"'reffHrded as rather' dry and, un
- terstiM.-Ad in ordinary- -times,- per
haps, it is. But wnen times are hard, basl
esg doll od money ecarce;: when men
who ewe money find It difficult to pay, and
when creditors find it difficult to' collect,
few political questions possess so much in
terest as those which relate to these very
questions, of' finance; which- concern the
taxes we pay and the objects for which we
re required to pay them. i I is a matter
wbich eonaes dirccly home to -'men's busi
ness and bosoms." i When we approach it,
we leave the realm . of abstract political
discussion, and come to the -consideration
of a matter of business having a personal
interest to each one ol us. It Is to this sub
jeet therefore, that I Invite your attention
this evening. . .' . .
-! We are the most heavily taxed and debt
burthened people on the face of the earth.
Our debtts absolutely larger than that of
France or any other European nation ex
cept England, and comparing the popula
tion and wealth of the two countries, is
relatively' much greater than that of Eng
land,' while the rate of interest paid by us
-six per cent, nominally.; but as I will
Show, much more is vastly greater than
liers. ' As presented' by orators and editors
of-'thex-Radlcal party, 'I have -been-- led
to believe that it is the key note of their
present campaign .It: -was claimed that,
voder the- system of taxation established
by ttoe Republican party, and now in
force, that the taxes for the support of the
United States Government and its immense
expenditures, fall .mainly- on a few indi
viduals, and those of a class which can
best afiord to pay, while the mass of the
people were exempt; or, as Mr. Lawtence
remarked to his constituents In the neigh
boring county of Champaign, not one man
in thirty in the county paid any Federal
taxes at all; that the large manufacturers,
the men ' who owned distilleries, or were
engaged In- the manufacture and sale of
tobacco, "or who possessed large incomes,
paid the taxes.- This was coupled with the
charges which was certainly-entitled to
claim the merit' of originality, to say the
least), that because the platform of the Na
tional Democratic Convention- demands
equal taxation of all kinds of property, in
cluding Government bonds, that therefore
the party was in iavor of charging all the
taxes now raised from duties on imports
and other forms of indirect taxation upon
the land of the farmer and the property of
the country at large, and thus making the
farmers and others pay . large taxes, from
which they are now exempt. Now this
bas a specious appearance,' which' may
deceive some persons. . Some men may say
"these United States taxes don't concern
nfe especially? the collector' and assessor
don't come after . me. And they may
think that the United States taxes really
fall only on a:few: of the more wealthy
classes of the- community, and that they
are exempt from paying them. ; '. .-.
But the fallacy of all these arguments,
used to reconcile the people to the burdens
under which they labor, will be readily
seen, when our systems of State and Fed
eral taxation are once understood. A.nd I
am firmly convinced that the lack of a
ceneral understanding of the nature and
extent of our taxation, or our debt and our
expenditures,' bas been the main reason
that they have been so long acquiesced in,
and the party which is responsible for them
entrusted by the -people with any power
whatever. There' were, It Is true, other
causes which contributed to produce this
uatient acquiescence on the part of the
people Most of the debt was contracted
and the high taxes first imposed during the
war, when, every one expected large expen
ditures and hish taxes, and when very
many persons were deterred by patriotic
considerations and a fear of injuring the
pnblic credit, from looking too closely into
tne puoitc nnances. - men, too, is was a
period of expansion of the currency; money
was plenty and business active, and men
did not feel the pressure as they are begin
ning to now, and as they will more and
more But these causes have ceased to op
erated The war has been over for more than
three years. 'The "flush times' which ac
companied and immediately followed the
war. are over too. I am satisfied that the
only remaining cause for the apparent apa
thr of the Deoole on this subject is a ten
eral failure to understand and appreciate
how much money is year after year drawn
from- their pockets-end for-what it is ex
pended. . The taxes levied : by the United
States-are mainly ' indirect they are not
directly felt by those who pay them ? it was
not intended by those who laid them that
they should be, The system of taxation in
its details is an Intricate one, comprised in
voluminous statutes not generally accessi
ble." .Now, in brief, what is this system ? i
The taxes we pay are of two kinds
State and United States. The State taxes,
which we pay to our connty treasurers, are
the most familiar to us; so familiar indeed
that it is hardly worth while to refer to the
mode Of their collection. 'With' the ex
ception of the road tax,' which Is rather a
commutation for labor on the roads than
a tax, our State taxes, as you are aware,
are exclusively a tax on property or capi
tal every person paying in the same pro-i
portion on what he owns and is perhaps
as nearly equal and just a system as we can
expect to have. Periodical valuations are
made of , all the property of the people of
the real estate every six years and of the
personal ' property - annually- a sufficient
percentage of. taxation is levied upon It to
raise the amount needed for the use of the
State and municipal governments the sup
port of schools and other purposes, and
ypuTgo to the treasurer's office and pay the
amounts so levied annually or semi-annu-.
ally as you prefer. L. Now this system has
not been affected or changed since the war,
so far as the mode of collection is concern
ed. But let us see how the Federal -debt
and finances affect the amount of our State
taxet. .'1 i - :" -: '..
Before the war all the property In the
State, of every kind, (except eh urch, school
and public property aud a $50 exemption
to each taxpayer) was on the duplicate
for taxation.. No form of private proper
ty,' Whether owned by Individuals orcor
po0attoarwaa exempt.- All paid its share.
There was no privileged class of citizens
entitled to bold large amounts of property
exempt from tsxatton. Now what have
we? United States bonds have been is
sued to the amount of over $2,000,000,000,
exemnt from all State and municipal taxa
tion. Now, as I heard a very able speaker
remark the other evening, were is no mys
tery about the8e United States bonds. Au
impression seems to have been dissemina
ted that thev are different from Other prop
erty ; that there is something sacred about
tnem, mat they must not De taxea. y.&ow
they are simply private property just like
n your horse or your farm. Tnere Is no dif
ference In principle between public busi
ness or finance and private business. . II
you wish to borrow money you give your
note. r The note you give is property. The
holder can sell It, anditnassea (mm hand
to band like other property, and is subject
no auuiu uu ukusr property. . . xoe (xoy
ernment wants to borrow
its note which is a United States bond
A man sells his farm which was subject to
taxation anu ilyctu iuo price m United
States bonds. Why should ' the mere
change of- orm affect iw taxability But
these bonds, are exemnt from taxation. Ot
the total amount of them, Jl(l estimated
'
1
byrthe Auditor of State that about rone.
hundred million dollar, are. held in ! the.
State of Ohio. What is the result? This
Vast amount of property has been with
Irawn from the duplicate. It was former
ly Invested in real estate, loaned on bond
or mortgage, or employed In business; and
in each case- it' bore its? share of taxation
and at the same time contributed to swell
the "productive capital of the country.
Now it is converted into bonds and exempt
from taxation. On what-do -the burdens
It used to bear fall ? On your property and
mine on all the remaining property of the
conn'iy.
I Let us look for a moment at the practical
operation" of this thig-A farmer' has a
farm, worth say ten thousand dollars ; his,
taxes will' be in onnd ' numbers, not far
from two hundred dollars a year, according
to the rateot local taxation.' You know
the rate of taxation varies in different
townships and localities. I was looking
the other day in 'the Treasurer's office of
Champaign county, at the statement which r
the treasurer will shortly publish, as he
does every year, showing the rate of taxa
tion In each township And city in the coun
ty. In one township it was $2 55 on every
lOOOO of property, or over 2- per eent. &
in another it was about 2) per cent. I sup
pose the rates of taxation will not be very
different in this county from what they are
in Champaign. The taxes then on the farm
worth $10,000. will not be far from $200 00
a year, and this the farmer will have to
Day.-'Hienelghbor who has the same amonnt-
ln vested In bonds, rides over the same -
roads, sends his children to the same school,
receives the same protection and advan
tages from the' Governments, and on his ten t
thousand dollars pays no taxes at all.
Take the case of .a merchant, mechanic
or professional man living in town who
owns the store, shop or omce in wnien ne
carries on business and the house in which
he lives. - He must pay taxes, on them to
the State, and also to the town or city, for
the expenses of police, the ' fire .depart
ment, the lighting of the streets, and other
similar purposes. But the law exempts
bonds from all State, county, and munici
pal taxes, and enables-their owner toenjy
these advantages free of charge. .- This in.
equality manifests itself in all conditions
of society. Suppose a .lady of limited
means jhasv five' thousand dollars the
amount, Derhaps, of a life insurance policy
invested in notes or mortgages for
everybody can't hold Government bonds.
The income from it . at six. per cent.
(which is .all she can legally collect) will
be $300 per year in paper, and of this she
will have to pay annually for taxes to the
State from $50 to $150; depending on the
rate of taxation in the locality where she
lives. But her; neighbor,-: whose invest
ment is In bonds, may own double the
amount of her estate and draw six per
cent.-interest" In "gold equal to eight of
nine per cent. In paper and pay no taxes
at all.
Again : suppose the guardian of orphan
children has -t their property invested say
before trie war on a long loan at legal in
terest. From one-fourth to one-half of the
amount (according" to the rate of local '
taxation) intended for their support and
education must be paid yearly to the State
for taxes, v - - " '-----
And this is a matter in which we are all
interested. -Tne poor man's house how
ever poor, Is taxed ; his horse, his cow, his
furniture, his tools, and impliments, the
means of bis own and children's livelihood
if they exceed $50 in value, all are taxed.
How much they are taxed, depends on the
amount of the local taxation of the place of
his residence it varies, as I have said, in
different places and at . different times..
xne ' rate vanes irom one per cent,
or a little less, which is the mini
mum, to 3V3 per .cent, and .some times
more. The' average rate will notk vary
much from two per cent; that Is, for every"
$100 worth of property you have you
must pay an average of $2. If you have
a horse worth $100, the taxes on him, for
instance, would be about $2 a year. But
the bondholder, so tar as his bonds are con
cerned, is altogether independent of the
local taxation ot the county. ' It makes no -
difference to him whether the taxes are one
per cent.or three per cent. His bonds are
exempt by law from State or municipal
taxation.
But I anticipate the answer of my Re
publican friend. - He will say that the law
under which the bonds were issued pro
vided, that they should be exempt from
taxation, and that to tax them now would
be a breach of faith. But this is a mistake.
The htw-never- provided thatrthey should
be exempt from taxation.' .What the law
did provide was,' that they should bs ex
empt from State and municipal taxation.
And they could qpt have been so taxed if
the law -had . not so -enacted.- - The States
cannot tax the bonds of the United States,
becausi it they could they might tax them
to such an extent as to impair their -value
and destroy the constitutional power of the
United States to borrow money.' The Su-'
preme Court of the United States has deci
ded this point, and the provision of the law
was merely cumulative; merely affirmed;
what had been established by judicial de
cision. But the law nowhere provides that
the bonds shall not be taxed by Congress;
and Congress has twice exercised the pow
er of taxing them : First, in levying an
income tax of 3 per cent, on the income
derived from interest on United States se
curities (when income from, all -other
sources bore a tax of 5 per cent.), and sec
ond, when they raised that tax to 5 per
cent., in common with other incomes, or to
10 per cent.il the income exceeds ten'
thousand dollars a year. - The only diffi
culty is,' that ' Congress, ' legislating in
the -interest of the bondholders, has
laid upon the bonds (where they are taxed
at all) a tax so trifling in amount as to make
the taxation grossly unequal and unjust.
Let me explain. The rate of State and mu
nicipal taxation will average,as I remarked, .
about 1 to 2 per cent, on the capital or
principal of a person's property. - It you:
hold the note of a private individual for
$1,000, the Interest you will receive on it at
the legal rate of 6 per cent; will - be $60 00
a year, and of this yon will - have to pay
for taxes $15 to $20 a year, which is to
2 per cent, on the amount of the note" One-
thira or one-iourtu 01 your income men, or
25 to 33 per cent, goes for tax. But the,
holder ' of United States' bonds pays no ;
taxes upon them at all. unless .-the interest
from them amounts to $1,000 a year.or forms
part of an income of $1,000 a year, and
even then he only pays a tax of 5 per cent:
of the income, while your securities, subject ;
to State taxation, pay 20 to 3d per cent
While you pay one-third or one-fourth of
your income from such sources for taxes,
the bondholder (if be pays any at all) pays
one-twentieth ei his. It his income is less
than $10,000 a year, and If it is more than
that he only pays 10 per cent-, or one-tenth
of his income, while you. though your in-
cemB-msy not exceed $800 a year; pay one--"?
thira or yours.- ij- t: .'-
Is this equality before-the-law? 'Yet
this is the system you are asked to sustain
In voting the Republican ticket.- The posl--tloh-of
the two parties on this subject is'
substantially this : The Republican party
propose that one class of the people shall
bold the securities and draw the interest,
while another class pays the interest and
the taxes. '. The Democratic party propose -that
all men shall be taxed alike on what
thev own. "The very head and lro'nt of
our offending," in demanding equal taxa
tion for which we are so nercely denounced,
"hath tnis extent ; no more." . .
i So much for our State taxes and the way
In which they are affected by the exempt
ion of the Ualted States bonds from taxa
tion. -Now as to the, taxes which we pay
to the United States :
These taxes are mostly paid indirectly
and are of several kinds. And fiist duties
on imports. Before any kind of imported
goods or manufactures can be landed in this
country, they are required to pay at the
Custom House a duty in gold.-. This duty
is sometimes specific, as when a tax of so
much per pound, or per ton, is laid on cer
tain articles, but is generally a percentage
on the value of the imported fabrics, or,,
sometimes, both duties are laid on the
same article. For instance, imported
screws, such as yon buy at the hardware
stores, are required to pay aduty of eleven
cents per pound ; imported boots and shoes
pay a duty of 40 per cent, on their value.
On every pound ot tea imported, a tax of
25 costs U levied ; on every pound of su-jar
from 3 to 5 cents; on every gallon of
molasses 8 cents; on every spool of thread
a tax of about 51 percent, on its value,
and so on. I mention these merely as in-
stances of the duties on some of the most
com n:on articles ot dally nse. Now wh at
is the practical operation of these duties?
Hnw do thev affect the people ? Take lor
instance the' very common article of
1 tea.
The duty upon u -is zo cents
a pound, payable In gold. ' Who pays this
tax? The importer, In the first place, before
be can remove the goods from the custom
house. But does he pay this twenty-five
cents a pound out of his own' pocket and
sell the pound ot tea for the same as if he
had hot been required to pay anything? Of
uuu iuu uiignt as wen ex pee l mm
to pay the freight across the water without
getting it back. It simply adds that much
to the price of the tea Now when your
wholesale grocer goes to New Tork to buy
groceries,-.what will the Importer charge
him for tea?. First, the cost of the article
abroad; next, the freight and other ex
penses of importation, including his profits,
and third, the twenty-five cents duty in
gold, equivalent to at least thirty-five cents
In paper. The retail dealer pays the same
price to the wholesale dealer, with the ad
dition ot another profit, and when you go
Co the store to buv a pound of tea you pay
it all together. Now. what do you pay for
tea? From $125 to $2 00 per pound. Then
aboat one-fourth or one-filth of the price
you pay for every pound ot tea is tax to
the Government So with sugar. What
do you pay for sugar? " The cheapest you
can buy is i cents a pound; the best
about "0 cents. -
Well, if von turn to the" U. S. Statutes at
large, vol. 13, page 202, you will find that
the duty on sugar ranges from 3 to 5 cents
per pound in gold, according to its quality,
or from 411 to 7J cents per pound in paper
currency. Well, 4 cents, the lowest duty,
is more than one-tuird of the price of the
lowest priced article you can buy, and 1
cents, the highest duty, considerably more
than a third of what you pay for the high
est priced article. So on every pound ot
sugar you buy, whether cheap or dear, you
pay more than one-third ot Its price to the
Government for tax.
And it is one ot the peculiar beauties of
this system ot taxation devised by the Rad
ical party in Congress, that on many arti
cles the poorer a man is, the more he seeks
to economise and the cheaper the article he
buys, the more tax he has to pay In pro-
f onion. Take the article of tea, of which
just spoke. The retail price varies from
$1 25 to $2.00 per pound. The tax on all
kindsof tea is 25 cents in. gold, or about 36
cents in paper. If you buy tea at $2 00 the
tax is about 18 per cent.or its value, or
nearly 01 e-fiftb ; but if you buy a cheaper
tea at $1 25. the tax is about 30 per cent., or
nearly one-third.; - .
Coffee, tea and molasses, and pepper and
other articles of every day us in every
household, which in our state of society
have come to be regarded as among the ordinary-
necessaries of life,- are, taxed
through these import duties in the same
way. And these,- you will observe, are all
articles ot foreign growth or production
exclusively, for the only ones of those 1
have mentioned we ever produced, were
sugar and molasses, and that production
hnsibeen virtually destroyed by the war.
We have no choice but to import them and
pay these enormous duties, or to go with
out; we cannot produce them here. But
how is it with articles produced Doth at
home and abroad, such as manufactures?
Does not the tariff raise the price of the
domestic article as well as of the fureign?
The domestic manufacturer is relieved
from competition and can raise bH prices
as high as those at which the importer is
compelled by the duties to sell imported
goods. 11 a JNew England shoe manufac
turer knows that merchants cannot import
and sell shoes tor less than $2 25 per pair,
which they might, if the duties. were low,
import and sell for $1 50 per pair, he will
put tne pnee 01 nis snoes up to 92.20 per
pair. Many of these duties imposed, as
they nearly all are, with an eye sfugle to
the interests of the New England manu
facturer, are simply pronioitory and Dring
no revenue to the treasury, but operate
solely for the benefit of- the manufacturers
of the ' East. Let me give you
an example related - by -a promin
ent wholesale hardware merchant
in Cincinnati an intelligent and
reliable man and a member of the Repub
llcan party. The American Screw Com
puny, located somewhere In New England,
enjoys almost a monopoly of the manutac
ture of screws by holding most of the
patents under which they are made. It had
a capital of one million of dollars. My
friend ascertained during a vist to Eng
land that he could get them vastly cheaper
there, and belieye tried the importation
of a small amount. But Congress at the
instance, doubtless, of some loyal gentle
man from New England, seconded by such
vigilant guardians ot Western interests as
Mr. Sheliabarger and Judge -Lawrence
imposed a duty of 8 and 11 cents per pound
on imported screws which is 112 per cent,.,
on their value. This, of course, simply
prohibited importation, and the Govern
ment got nothing from the duty. But how
was it with the company? In the year
1S61, it declared a dividend of one million
ot dollars or 100 per cent.: in 1865 it declar
ed a dividend of $1,200 000 or 120 percent..
making a profit on its capital of 220 per
cent, in two years, or 110 per cent, -a year,
Men out here think they make a pretty
good profit if they make 10 per cent, on
their investments. But these gentlemen,
the special wards of Congress, are enabled
to make a profit of 110 per cent, and you,
gentlemen, when you go to the hardware
Btoree, pay, the bill. . -
How is it with the clothing you wear?
What are. your shirts made ot? -Cotton
flotb. What do you pay for the cotton ?.
From 18 to 25 cents per yard. ' Well, the
duty on such goods, as you will find by
turning to page vol. 14 ot tne U. s.
statutes at larite, is 5 or 5 cents in gold
per yard, according as you buy . bleached
or unbleached goods, which is equal to
1M. to 8 cents in greenbacks. So justabout
hue- third of the price of the cotton lor yonr
shirt is tax.
; But most of your shirts have linen bos
oms. What about linens? They, as you
know, are imported generally from Ire
land.-' The duty on them Is 35 and 40 per
cent-, according, to quality. This takes
between a third and a half, of the price of
the linen for tax. And on the spool cotton
with which the garment is sewed, the tax
amounts, to over 50 per cent. So you see
that overone-tbird of the price of the ma
terial In every shirt you wear is tax. :-
How is it with. the outer clothing which
vou will be buvintr as the cold weather ap
proaches. It will be almost universally of
some kind ot woolen goods. Now Congress
last year passed a new law laying increased
duties on. woolen goods of every descrip
tion. If you turn to the Statutes at large,
vol. 14, pace 561, you will find these duties
laid down: ua nanneis, Dianaets, wool
hats,' knit goods,' woolen cloths, woolen
Shawls,-and all manufactures ot wool of
every description, a duty of 35 per cent, on
their value,' and in addition thereto a spe
cific duty ot 20 to 00 cents per pound
weight in gold, equal to about 30 to 75
cents in paper; for gold is near 100 pre-
mium. To ascertaiu the taxes you pay on
woolen goods ot foreign Importation which
you buy, then, It Is Only necessary to weigh
the article, and then turning to the law,
see what the duty perpound is on that par
ticular class of goods, and count from 30 to
75 cents lor each pound weight, and then
add to that 35 percent- or a little over one-
third of the original price of the article,
and you have about tne portion 01 tne
price wnich is tax.
For instance, suppose a laboring ma i
wants to buv a shawl for his wife, worth,
say, $5 00. Such a shawl, I am informed,
will weigh aoout one anu a nan or two
pounds. Suppose it weighs one and a naif
nounds. The tax on such articles is fifty
cents per pound in gold, or about seventy-
five in paper, so tnere is l.tz ot the
price of the shawl, and in addition to this
. . 1 L o . r- . . .
there is a tax ui 00 per cent. 01 tne value
ol the shawl before St left the ship, which
would bring the tax up to about $1.75, or
over one-tuird ot the price ol the shawl.
And this reminds me that if vou look
through the tariff laws you will find duties
laid in tne same proportion on tne various
fabrics for ladies' and children's wear. And
so with hundreds of other articles, of less
universal use than those 1 have mentioned,
but still entering constantly into the cata
logue of necessary wants of the people, and
which it would be impossible to enumerate,
lhave merely referred to a few examples
among articles of the most common necessi
ty. I have done so for the purpose of show
ing you how these taxes press upon the
consumer, the people. From the crown of
your hat to the sole of your shoes, there is
not an article you wear, the price of which
is not enhanced by these duties. For when
you go to a store to purchase, you must
either buy foreign or domestic goods. If
you buy imported goods you pay the du
ties on them; and if you buy domestic
goods, you will find the price of them
raised by the absence of the foreign compe
tition ; pot, perhaps, In all casts to the full
price of the foreign article, with duties ad
ded, but it may be raised t this point with
out fear of foreign competition, and will
be so raised whenever there is not so much
domestic competition as to keep down the
price. -
, But we will be told that this is to pro
tect American Industry. Does it protect
American industry to-impose these enor
mous duties on tea, and coffee, and . sugar,
and pepper, things which .are not pro
duced on American soil (except sugar to a
trilling extent) and can't be ? Does it pro
tect American labor to tax Irish linens and
other fabrics of foreign production? But
even in the case ot manufactures, what
claim have the manufacturers of the East
to be built up at such enormous expense to
us? Why do they need so much more
protection now than in I860, whenthe du
ties on the most protected manufactures
would average 50 per cent, less than now.
Now I do not object to a reasonable amount
of protection. - But it should be merely in
cidental. The tariff should be merely suf
ficient to raise -what is needed for an
economical administration of the Govern
ment, and within this limit if you -wish to
discriminate in favor ol domestic manu
factures, to a reasonable extent,. I have
nothing to say. But the tariff we have
now is simply a piece of extortion in the
interest of certain manufacturers in New
England. - And just here you can
see one strong reason -for the opposi
tion - to . the. admission ot Southern
members. The Sooth, like the West's
mainly an agricultural and producing sec
tion.- Their interests in such matters would
be almost identical with our own. If they
were allowed to be represented by men
Identified with the interests of their States,
they would join the West in demanding the
repeal or modification of .these duties. So
it was sought to deprive theffcpf all repre
sentation, and .when this wm no longer
practicable, they now seek, by these recon
struction measures, to place the elections of
the Congressional delegations ot those
States in the hands of the negroes lust re
leased from slavery who are Ignorant and
who can be controlled by a lew adroit
managers, and made to return as members
of Congress, men from the North who
neither know nor care anything about the
interests of their States, and who will be
underthe control of Eastern capitalists, who
will thus be enabled, as the West wakes up
and sends men to Congress who will no
longer ignore the interests or their section
to overbalance their votes, and thus con
tinue to draw from our pockets and
direct into theirs the golden stream which
now enriches tnem.
This, then, is a brief stance at the tariff.
It is the great unseen tax-gatherer which
is at work every time you so to the store.
drawing from your pockets, unawares, a
large portion ot your snostance. Ten
f ears ago under a Democratic administra
lon we had no such tariff. Then our tea and
cjffee came in free of any duty whatever.
along wicn many other things now taxed,
and the duties which were levied were
much lower. The highest duty known was
30 per cent, and that on a short list of ar
ticles, none of them articles ot daily ne
cessity, while duties on other articles
ranged from 24 percent, downwards.
Now I do not mean to say that it the
Democratic party were placed in power
there would 110 longer be any duties on im
ports. ' It is the most convenient mode of
meeting - the necessary expenses of the
Government, and the one which has al
ways been In use under every party. But
I do mean to say that under an econnmical
administration of the Government, such as
the Democratic party is pledged to; under
such an administration of tt as they gave
us when last they were in power, and
which I propose to refer to presently, the
amount of these duties would be vastly re
duced, and the prices of articles to the peo
ple reduced In proportion.
But the duties on imported goods are by
no means the only taxes we pay to the
United States. A few years ago they were
the only ones. A few years ago almost the
only U. S. officer the people knew was the
postmaster, and be was only known as
bringing to them the advantage of com
munication with absent lriends. But now
we have grown upramong us a vast system
of taxation known as the Internal Reve
nue, having its head In Washington in the
person of the Commissioner, with a salary
of four thousand dollars, and more power
than any Cabinet minister formerly had
with deputy Commissioners, and a Cashier,
and a Soiicitor, and Clerks, and Revenue
Agents under him, and in each Congres
sional District a Collector and an Assessor
of Internal Revenue, and in nearly every
county an Assistant and Collector, besides
Inspectors, and Detectives, and whisky
and tobacco Inepectors a vast army of
oinciais drawing salaries irom the public
purse and for what ? To collect these new
taxes from the people. And what are these
taxes? They are various. In the- first
place stamps. If you sell your farm or
your house and lot In town, and make a
deed for it, you have to buy a stamp to put
upon it, ranging in price from 50 cents up
wards, aceording to the value of the prop
erty ; the law considerately providing that
not more than $10,000 of stamps shall ever
be required on any one deed. If you have
occasion to borrow money or purchase
property, and in so doing give your note,
you must put a stamp upon it; if to secure
the payment of it you give-a mortgage,
you must stamp It. If you receive money
to the amount ot twenty dollars or (to
wards, and are required to give a receipt
for it, you you must affix a stamp to the
receipt. If a merchant renders an ac
count and receipts it on payment, it re
quires a stamp. If you keep an acoount
at a bank, every check you draw requires
a stamp. And so with nearly every writ
ten instrument used in the business of so
ciety. ! But it Is not only papers which require
to De stamped. Tax is levied in this lorm
on many artl les ot commerce. If you
have your photograph taken you will find
a stamp on the back of it, for . which, of
course, you pay. On so common an arti
cle of daily use as matches, stamps are re
quired. I beard during a recent visit to
Cleveland of a rather forcible argument
made use of by a workman em
ployed - in one of the manufacto
ries of that - city, in a conversa
tion with the foreman of the establishment
The foreman was a Republican, and hav-
in2 heard probably an argument to that
effect fion Judge Lawrence, or some of
his colleagues, was endeavoring to per
suade the workman that the complaints
of the Democracy about the taxes were
' without any foundation ; that the taxes did
not amount to much after all, as they fell
only on a few who were able to pay. The
man in reply drew from bis pocket a box
ot matches. . "l lust oought this at tne
grocery," he said: "ten years ago the price
was one cent. Now I pay three cents for
it and there is a one cent stamp upon it
which is one-third of the price gone for
taxes." Is it only one man in thirty
In- Madison county who ever buys a box
of matches? Well, every time you buy a
box of matches you pay a stamp tax to the
Government
Then,agaln, before you can engage in al
most any business or profession, - which
men follow for a livelihood, you must pay
a special tax for the privilege of following
it The lawyer, the doctor, the dentist the
druggist the land agent the cattle dealer,
the photographer all must procure a li
cense and pay for tt every year. Merchants
and dealers, besides a fixed yearly sum;
must pay a per centage on sales above a
certain amount All these taxes are di
rectly on the industry of the country.
Then there is the income tax. This, it Is
said, only affects the rich; that all Incomes
less than $1,000 are exempt Well. It Is
true that only incomes of over $1,000 are
taxed. But does the tax only affect those
who nav it directly ? A very apt illustra
tion of the operation of the tax was given
by General Gary, in a recent speech deliv
ered at Springfield, in your District He
said that he had an income on which he
paid an income tax, derived from rent of
houses in Cincinnati. But when he paid
$5 on every $100 of bis rents, he simply
added it to the rent of the house, and the
tenant paid it. '
It Is so with the whole system of Federal
taxation. The great weight ot its burdens
rests - ultimately on the shoulders ot the
people, the laboring masses of the country.
Take the tax upon railroads. They are re
quired to pay a tax of 2 percent on their
gross receipts, besides the taxes they pay
in the increased price of everything they
buy. There is an import duty ot $2 in
gold, or about $3 in currency, on every ton
of railroad iron imported. These taxes ot
course simply add to the price the publio
pays for freight or passage over the roads.
So with steamboat transportation, which
is also taxed. So with telegraph and ex
press companies; they are taxed 3 percent
on their receipts. It simply adds to their
charges to the publio. So with Insurance
companies. So with gascompanies. They
are expressly authorized by the law to add
their tax to ihe price charged consumers,
and they would do it of -course, anyway.
The law of Congress merely. re-enacts the
the law of trade.- If you go to Cinclunati
and ride in the street cars, you will see
notice posted in each car, that the price ot
tickets by package (formerly one dollar) Is
one dollar and three cents. The three cents
Is the tax. In all these, and similar cases
the railroad companies, the express com
panies, the gas companies, the merchants,
wholesale or retail, are merely constituted
tax collectors by the Government The
tax-payers are the consumers the people.
1 This, then, is a brief view of how we
are taxed.. Now in all these various ways
how much is annually drawn from us and
for what is it expended? From statements
in a recent speech of Edward-Atkinson, ol
Boston, and published in the Cincinnati
Gazett,, which will certainly be regarded
as good Republican authority, and on the
principle ol admissions, may be held good
against them, and which he says are fur
Dished by David A. Wells, .Commissioner
of the Revenue, I find that there were
collected by the United States Government
for the fiscal year -ending June 30, 1868,
as follows : .
From Duties on Imports (gold). fies.soo.ooo
From Intamftl Re re hub 193,(MXJ.0U0
From Mi-eellanaons Sources (sales of
property, te.) 4S.800.000
' Total C406,300,000
Or, converting the whole into Curren
cy (435,000.000
The total expenses of the Government in
I860, the last year ot a Democratic admin,
istration, for all purposes, except payment
of principal of public debt were thirty
three millions of dollars, or in paper about
ninety-two millions ot dollars about one
fourth or one-fifth of what they .are now.
The expenses of the Government lu 1863.
in a time of profound peace, more than
four times as great as they were in I860 !
What makes this vast Increase? : How is
the money spent?
, In the first place for interest on- the Na
tional debt W e have a debt of about
2,600 millions of dollars, the great bulk of
wbich is In bonds bearing Interest. The
amount of this interest is about 130 millions
ot dollars per year iu gold, or In curreucy
about ISO millions. A portion, of the
bonds, those known as the 10 40 bonds, are
payable both principal and interest in gold.
About this there is, I believe, no contro
versy. It is admitted by both parties. -These,
however, constitute but a small part
of the bonds, only about 175 millions. The
great bulk of them are what are known as
5-20 bonds and these are payable in green
backs. Neither the bonds themselves, nor
the law under which they were issued re
quire anything else. This, I believe, was
admitted by Attorney General West In his
speech here a tew days ago, and it is now
generally conceded. . Tne amount of these
bonds is, iu round numbers, about 1,550
millions ot dollars. The rest ot the debt
is made up of the United States notes or
greenbacks and fractional currency, in cir
culation to the amount of over 400 millions
ot dollars and of bonds and securities ol
other forms not necessary to explain in
detail. You will remember that the great
bulk of our interest bearing debt more than
two-thirds of it is in the form of 5 20
bonds and payable in greenbacks. Now
what In brief, Is the plan proposed by each
of the two great parties tor dealing with
this debt. . .
: The Democratic party propose to pay
these bonds as fast as they become due, and
as last as it can be done without injury to
tho financial interests ot the country, in
greenbacks the ordinary currency of the
country, and that for which they were or
iginally sold. What does the Radical party
propose to dor
Just before its last adjournment, Con
gress passed a bill known as the funding
bill. By the provisions ot this bill, new
bonds were to De issued to an amount sut-
ficient to redeem all the present 5-20 bonds
and bearing Interest at 4 and 4 per
cent. These new bonds are to run for
thirtv and forty years, to be payable, prlu
cipal and interest, in gold, and be exempt
from all taxation, either by the State or
United States Government except such
trifling income tax as I have described.' In
other words, seeing the utter impossibility
of paving this enormous debt in gold, they
propose to simply postpone the payment of
It or, as the Kadieal speakers nave it turn
it over to posterity. Now how will this
plan operate ? Suppose the 1,550 millions
ot 5-20 bonds converted into these new
bonds, the annual interest on them would
be from 62 millions to 70 millions ot dol
lars in gold, according as the interest was
at 4 or 4J4- per cent- say 66. millions
Then in ten years we will have paid 660
millions In erold for interest: in twenty
years we will have paid 1,320 millions, in
thirty years l.aso millions, ana in xorty
years, supposing half the bonds to continue
unpaid that louir. I 300 millions ot dollars
in gold, or more than one and a half times
the entire principal ot the 5 M Donds, pain
in gold for interest upon them (besides the
interest yearly paid on the rest ot the pub
lic debt), and still the principal of the
bonds unpaid, and confronting us as large
as ever, and payable in sold ? What then?
Will It be any easier to pay it then, after
pavlnz interest on it lor forty years, tnan
it is now? Will posterity bo any better
able to pay It than we are? How do we
know what posterity can do. Who can
look into the future for forty years and tell
what then will , be the condition
of the country. " Posterity will
have - debts of its - own to pay.
A little over a hundred years ago Eogiaud
finished a long war-and entered into a
treaty wbich promised, historians tell us,
a peace of long duration.. Yet forty years
from that time found Englaud engaged In
the struggle with Napoleon tne most gi
srantic contest of arms the modern world
had seen: her debt vastly Increased and
constantly growing, so that now it has
become a permanent incubus upon her a
load ot debt never to he paid, nor liitea
irom tne snouiaers or tne people. Ana
this Is exactly what the Radical party by
this funding bill propose to make of our
debt - And they propose to do this with
out the slightest necessity or obligation to
. doit.' Good faith does not require it
Justice does not require it Neither the
bonds themselves nor the law under which
they were Issued require it It Is simply
for the interest and benefit ot the bond
holder, and with my consent It never shall
be done. I don't propose to place this
burden upon posterity, I havechildren of
my. own at home and whatever else I may
be able to leave them, I do not intend
that by any act of mine they shall receive a
legacy of debt and taxation.
! Nor is there any necessity for it. It
would, on the other hand, be a gross injus
tice to the people to pty these bonds in gold.
We have a great outcry against paying the
public creditors in a depreciated currency.'
But was not the debt contracted in the
same depreciated cu rrency. Did we receive
gold for these bonds? Did the men who
bought a hundred dollar bond in 18G3 give
us one hundred dollars in gold for it that
he should now ask to- he paid a hundred
dollars in gold? Did the-tlollander who
sent over and bought a hundred dollar bond,
send us over a hundred dollars in gold for
it? By no means. This was the operation :
These bonds were sold, the most of them
ia 1863 and 1864, when gold was at a hinh
premium, ranging as high - as 200
and even up to 200. In other words,
you could get for a gold dollar two dollars
or two dollars and a half, or more, in pa
per money, and it was for paper money
that the bonds were sold. Now, suppose a
man had one hundred dollars in gold which
he proposed to invest in bonds, when gold
was at 200. He would first convert his
gold into greenbacks, which would give
him $200. With this he would buy two
one hundred dollar bonds. On each of
them he receives 6 per cent, interest in
gold. Now, up to the present time, what
has he received for five years' use of his
hundred dollars In gold. 'On his two hun
dred dollars in bonds be has received
6 per cent, every year, which is $12 00 a year
in gold. He has been exempt from all
State taxation, which is equivalent to at
least 1 to 1 per cent, more, or $3.00 more
per annum. He has then - been receiving
for the last five years at the rate of 14 or 15
percent, interest for bis money. If he
bought his bonds when gold was at 200
he has for five years' use of his hundred
dollars in gold, recovered back sixty dol
lars in gold and been exempt from taxa
tion. If be bought when gold was at $2 50
he has received or will have received for
five yews' use of his hundred dollars, seventy-five
dollars back in gold, and been ex
empt from taxation. And if be bought
when gold was at the hishest . Doint ot
290, he will have been getting Interest
at the rate of about 20 per cent, ner annum
and will have received back at the end of
live years, about ninety dollars in gold, and
been exempt from taxation. And still this
Congress proposes to go on paying him In
terest in gold at 4 or 414 per cent, and
exempting him from taxation for thirty or
lorty years longer, and then paying him or
ins ucirs 1113 principal in fcoiu wnen ce
gave us paper. How will the account stand
(lien?:! .. .! 1. .:.;:
He invests one hundred dollars in crold.
Suppose be bought when gold was at $2 00.
(and It was higher than this a great part of
tne time;.
At the end of fire years he baa received beck ' T -'
in nold , .$ 00 00
He then converts his bonds into new bonds, '
1- at 4X percent .parable m thirty year;
b us nin Ktve 9, ou on eacn nunareaaoi ar - . .
bond, or 9 00 on his S200 00 of bonds,' ' '
I , wuicn ne got lor nis sioo 00 in cold, mak-
ins in thirtv VAitra VTli OA
S-t the end ef thirty years be re-elves, be- -
sides bis original hundred dol: ars. an- ,
other hundred dollars for the principal of "
his bonds., ............. 100 00
llakinia total, for the thirty-five -years' nse -.,
of bis hundred dollars, of.. ...... ........ S43S 00
In gold, or, about $12 28 a year, and ha bas
been exempt from all State taxes, equiva
lent to at least 4, per cent, more making
In all $13 78 per year, or nearly 14 per cent,
that the Government has been ' paying for.
money. The interest paid by England on
her national debt is 3 or 4 Per cent. These
are simple calculations, which you can all
worK out ior yourselves. -- ..!.-,
JNow, what is this but simply the -most
outrageous usury and extortion? What
would be thought of such a claim if nre-
ferred by a private individual in court?
Suppose a soldier on starting to the war
six or seven years ago, had. found it neces
sary to borrow a hundred dollars to re
move a lien, perhaps, from his house, that
be might leave a home tor his family. Sup
pose his creditor azreed to lend him a hun
dred dollars, if he would give him his note
ior zuu ana pay nttn 15 per cent per an
num on the $100 lent him, and secure the
whole by a mortgage on his house..- The
soldier comes back from the war after four
years and is unable to pay the note, and the
creditor, finding some Informality In his
mortgage, goes Into court to have his
mortgage reformed and made effectual.
He says in his plead inzs that he lent the
man $100 and took his note at five years
for $200; that the man has paid him inter
est every year at the rate of 15 per cent.,
buthe is unable to pay the note of $200.andl
want my mortgage reformed so that I can
continue to hold him to the payment of the
interest and the $200 note. ; Did any "court
ever sit in Madison county that would give
mm a decree? uouid a jury or. twelve
men be found to give him a verdict ? And
yet the claim now made In behalf of the
bondholder is precisely similar. Soldiers
by the, hundred thousand have returned
from the field to earn their living In the
occupations of civil lite. The country is
staggering under a load of debt. And at
this juncture the bondholder, who bas been
receiving lo per cent, on bis investment
comes and asks to be paid two dollars for
every one -ne lent And It we protest
against this extortion they raise the cry ot
repudiation. - -'
I can recall cases where they have not
been so sensitive. My friend Col. Squires,
who occupies the chair, will remember that
when the paymaster first came 'round to
us in Virginia in the latter part ot the year
1 sut, that he paid us partly in gold and sil
ver; that while the bulk ot the men's nav
was paid in treasury notes, the,' fractional
portions less than live dollars were paid in
gold dollars and silver change. The fact
marks the relative, value of the two cur
rencies at that time that there was but
little difference between them. Within the
next three years the premium on gold rose
to near 300. Ttie soldier who entered tne
army in 1861 at $13 a month, with the ex
pectation that that would suffice to support
his family at home, found the purchasing
value ot the dollar decreased from one-
hiilt to one-third of what it was when be
entered the service. It is true that towards
the latter part of the war bis pay was rais
ed to $16, and in some localities aid extend
ed to his family If needed,' but not to an
extent equal to the depreciation of the cur
rency. But we hear no Republican. speak
ers talking about this repudiation this de
preciation of the currency. -
1 But what do the Democracy'- propose to
do? we are a-ked. Would you flood the
country with a new issue of greenbacks
until they become so depreciated that all
values are unsettled. By no means. The
Democratic party propose to do nothing of
tne Kind, ihe o-zu bonds comprising the
great bulk of our interest bearing debt-
can be paid off and rapidly paid off", with-
outany undue inflation of the currency of
the country whatever. About 350 millions
of these bonds are beld by the- National
Banks, scattered over the . country to the
number of 1,600 and over, as a basis for
their circulating notes, which to-day form
a large part of the currency of the coun
try and the Government or rather the
people are actually, paying - these banks
the sum. in round numbers, of twenty mil
lions ot dollars a year. In gold, for the priv
ilege of indorsing and giving value to their
circulating notes. Now, the Government
can a treat deal better furnish this much
circulating medium itself by issuing green
backs in place of the National Bank notes,
and by so doing we will save the twenty
millions a year gold interest and - pay off
the 338 millionsof bonds held by the bauks
as the basis of their circulation. Here
would be near 350 millions of the debt paid
at one stroke, without increasing the cur
rency of the country a dollar.
But the currency will bear some expan
sion. It needs some. It has been con
tracted since the close of the war, and the
present financial stringency is largely
owing to this contraction. I am not pre
pared to state the exact amount of this
contraction, I have heard it stated at 500
millions. It is safe to say, however, that
with the whole of the Southern States
using our money as they did not during
the war and with the present hard times
and scarcity ot money at the west, that the
currency can be increased by two or three
hundred millions without the least-injury
to the business of the country. Say you
increase it 250 millions; 'this added to the
350 millions held by the national banks,
will make 600 millions of the debt more
than one third of the 5-20 bonds paid off,
and more than a third of the interest on
them saved annually.
But this 18 not an. Tne present immense
expenditures of the Government can be,
and must be, largely reduced. Look at
them:
For the year ending June 30, 186S, we
have seen that they are $435,000,000. De
ducting the interest on the public debt,
which in currency isabout$180,000 OOO.and
we have $255,000,000 for the annual ordi
nary expenditures ot the Government.
; In 1860, under a Democratic administra
tion, the total expenses of the Govern
ment exclusive of interest on the public
debt (which was ouly about $3,000,000)
were in round numbers $60,000,000 of dol
lars in gold or about $90,000 000 in cur
rency about one-third what they are
now.- - : i :. :'-.': . - - - '
In I860 our army numbered about twelve
or til teen thousand men and cost about
sixteen millons of dollars.' Our territory
was just as large then as now; our popu
lation about the same, for immigration has
not more than replaced the waste ot . war;
yet the army ot 15.000 men protected our
Indian frontier, garrisoned our seaboard
forts and performed all the services for
which we need an army. ; Now we have
an army ot fifty-five thousand men fitty
tive regiments of infantry, six of cavalry
and five of artillery with a numerous staff
of Brigadier and Major Generals, with
General Grant at their head with a salary
of twenty thousand dollars a year. .,
The cost of this army is officially esti
mated for the current fiscal year to be
$94,000,000. Now does any man in' this
house believe that there is , any necessity
tor such an army at such a cost We are
at peace with all the world. There is not
even any threatened trouble, foreign or
domestic Does any sane man believe there
is any danger of a renewal of the rebellion
at the South. Distrust their loyal ty as you
will, have the people there any power to
renew the contest If they should be ever
so much disposed ? Did they not fight till
they were wholly exhausted before giving
it up before? And will any man contend
that With the country full of veteran sol
diers, who could be had by the hundred
thousand at the appearance of danger from
any foe, foreign or domestic there is any
necessity for keeping up this great stand
ing army in a time ot profound peace and
when the country is laboring under such a
Jisd of. debts and taxes. "There 1s no ne-
cessity for it. Itls kept up simply for the?"
purpose of forcing upon the peopiefbM
Southern States new Governments based
on the very thing that has been rejected in
every Northern State In which it has recent
ly been sul mi ted to the people negro suf
frage. And what are these new Govern
ments which you are paying, to establish?
What Is the character of their Constitu
tions? i In Alabama they" hive a Constitu
tion under which the great majority of the
people of Ohio1 would, if they went there,
be disfranchised; forthe people of Ohio
voted by a majority" of 50,000 last v fall
against conlerrlng the right of suffrage on,
negroes, but iu Alabama no one is allowed;
to vote without taking.' -an- oath that
he accepts and always will uphold the civil
and political equality of all men; -So' any
one of the fifty thousand Republlcanawhd
defeated negro suffrage In Ohio last year
(I say Republicans, because while the
amendment was defeated the Republican
elected their State ticket), if he should gd
to Alabama, would bedisfranchised, though
be served in the Union army all through'
the war. In many of the new Southern;"
Constitutions nearly all, I believe I re-,
member certainly as to Arkansas and tber
Carolina,! and I think Alabama also a'
system of schools is established open to.!
both white and colored children, Attend-i
ance on which is compulsory. Every man
is to be compelled by law-to send bis chil
dren to these schools, nnless he Is able to
educate them at his own expense. Is this
the kind ot State Governments yoa 'want
to pay for keeping up? It was one of the
strong arguments ued in favor ef the war,
that we had an Interest in the territory -of
the Southern States, and had a right to em
igrate to them if we wished.- Are thet e the
Governments you wish to emigrate to and 4
live ni derf . ? i- - -- . ,
A similar saving of expense might be ef
fected in the N aw Department. .1 hazard
nothing in saying that- with pnpw
economy, - a saving ,of . .-nearly ai
hundred millions of dollar, , mluut -be
made, annually ln " the "War
and Navy Departments' alone.'- And like
retrenchments might be made in the ex
travagant expenditures ot other branches .
of the Government iiow. we have seen:1
that the total expenses of the Government
for the past year were 435 millions (in cur
rency), of which about 180 millions was In
terest on the public debt But if 600 mil
lions of the 5-20 bonds were paid off in the
manner I have referred to, this iuteresft t
would be reduced to about 125 millions a
year (stated in currency.) Then, as to the
; other expenses of Government they should;o
! not exceed 125 millions at the most. The
;only legitimate item ot Increase of anyirn
portar.ee since the administration of Mr
; Buchanan (when the expenses, as we have
' seen, were 60 millions In gold, or less tban J
; 90 millions in paper)71s the pension list of
I the late war, and that was reported) about
a -year ago at only about 15 millions. The
total expenses ot the Government then,..
. IiiAliirlinir Infamct chrtftM nnf 0Vfpfrl
250
millions
year.!v ''Soppesersl
we raised in' addition? 10U millions more
each year and applied it-to the redemption'
in legal tender'nbtes ot the 6-20 bauds. Iar
Lless than ten year they would all be. .paid
'and the immense amount of gold .interest '
upon them stopped, and still our expendi
tures would be 85 millions less than tht
are now. The debt would then be reduced; 3
to such a small compass that its payment,
in a very few years even those portions of
it which are payable' In coin would be 1
easily managed. And as the Interest by j
these successive payments would bs,,ds- ,
creasing every year, the amount paid on the"
debt might be increased, or the taxes di- ,
tninished, as might be thought best.J Now,"'
which Is the better course to pay. off in,!
this way these 5-20 bonds now, as rapidly,
as possible, or to go on paying interest in
gold for thirty and forty years, and then,
pay two dollars In gold where we received
;one.' ;'i'i -vji- . i:n i u ;--,-;: .f y
: I have thus attempted to give you, gentle- s
men, a brief outline of the financial ques
tions before us. The details and figures
may be dry, but the facts " are -worthy of
our serious consideration. As I remarked :
in opening, the matter is. entirely in your,j
own hands. It you wish to perpetuate the
present high taxes and extravagant expei
ditures, you can do it If you wish'toconwJi
tinue to pay taxes, as I have endeavored to i
describe, on the clothing you wear and the
tea and coffee you drink ; if you want to J
continue. to give every third pound of su-'-'
gar you buy for tax s, you ean do so by )
yonr votes. Judge Winans and General, ,
Grant if elected, will continue in substance 7
the policy of the party now in power. But
it you wish sometime' to see an end of this "
oppressive taxation ; if you don't 'want toh
have this debt entailed on yoa and your
children, go up to the polls . this fall audr
elect a Democratic Congress, and Horatio"
Seymeur to be ' President of the United I
State. - ; 1 " v r-t
J
1 '---'. MISCELLANEOUS. rn.r-
A New Article of. Food,;
tll.i--iO:V
' " f Trantlatton.1 5 u i f si
' It was M. BriVat Savarinv the celebrate! Frenelnd
Gastronome, who ntsaid .that "the man whoin-.
eotj a new dish doe3 more tor Society than the i
man who disooveis a Planet." Tb;.'. );)o.v ,r
, C ACIO 1)1 M lCCARoAl '
or Italian prepared Cheese MaoesronK-iS now of
fared as a most delicious, wholesome aad eiqa&nt
comestible (convenient lunch) for the use of Fam--ilie?.
Bachelors, Excursions (Pionics), Travelers',
and for use in Beer 8 loons. Bar or Sample .Rooms, o
It is eaten on Bread. Biscuit or Toast. . .
It is ruitablefor Sandwiches Clnglese "28 ef
tine di pane condentro." Especially is tt adapted
for those climates where the article of eheese can-'-i
not be kept in a sound eondition for anv length of w
time - - . .: f . ,
It ma; be used as a seasoning for Soups, Hash or
Stews and warmed upon a stove, after the aa
bas been opened, it makes, without further prep-s I
paration, a Delicious Welsh Raribit. - . - v(
For Travelers and others, it is far more oo&otn-;.
ical and convenient than Sardines, Deviled or Pot- .
ted Meats. ----- --.
The proprietors and Patentee cannot bat ask for
it a trial. - ., ?
Send as for s nurLX dozen a lb Cans, and rich
ly gilded show oard, securely packed, an.l ship
ped per express to any aidress.. liberal discount
made to the trade. ,
H. B. The Oaciodi Macearoni hi put- up in i
boxes, and packed in cases of two doien at (8 per 3
ease, net cash.
For sale by all respectable Grocers and at the
Fruit Stores. - .-..
; Re-ponsible agents wanted everywhere. fBJ
' All orders aud communications should be ad- .f
dressed to ' J.
THE LIVINGSTON CACIO COMPANY; 0 -7
88 Liberty Street, Haw York,
: VNT-sp29-deod6mos ... ..i.a
, 3 - ..'.-.-!:- 1 : -. 1 -t " ' i-j
-- - . .K;.V.
atrona Saleratus?
A. WORD .WITH YOinJ
BRFAD II THE STtFF OF LIFE-''
your most important artioleof diet. The health ;t
of your family largely depends upon its being f j
LICHT AND WHOLESOME.' -
Vonld yon have it so?. Then nse only s -J
NATRONA , S ALER A JUS ! J
3-IT IS ABSOLUTELY PORK. "S 1
Whiter ' than snow : makes Bread always light
white and beautiful. Take a pound home
to your wife to-night. She will be ,,,CT
. , . delighted with it. , . 1. . n ,0 -.
Buyers of Soda should try our -,
BI-CARBOMTE OF SODA. ;
-Ve guarantee it rot only fsr superior to anrotber '
Amerioan make, but even purer than the best Aesria
CasUe or English Soda. '- snn.,iH
j " MANUFACTURED BY THB .. ,
epiimi Mail- BSAkiiirin 'nrt'lj
rtnrvA oft!., mnnur ij :1vu.f
(
PITTSBURGH, PA.- iJd
vNT-auglO-eodly-r ,'.V '"
i - Tha : $ldMi: f fi Man's :;l
OF THE SFRINGS, KECENTt OF '
Somerset, Perrr oounty. will open tbeu? large
..j : - fn tfc retention of DOOMS on
. IUWIUIUW ,11. UV ,
WL. ROSE. BapX ;ua
partmentef the pupil
- Address oox ia.
t'V .-- ?&
i Ii--i ;,it; .r--:v- Hi "ttt l.-9-ut
i '-, ITOXl SA-IE. -
A PAIR OF "JOE GOD WIS" COLTS. FIVE ,
and six tears' old. very handsome, kind and '
(N
.x - -
1

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