Newspaper Page Text
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1 in tmcs
ESTABLISHED A. D. 1826.
MILLERSBUIIG, OHIO, THURSDAY MORNING,
DECEMBER 13, 18G0.
NEW SERIES-VOL. 22-NO. 43.
fflli MED. U II. CfttTCIINILD.
ItEED & cniTCUPII'M).
A TTORNEYS AT LAW, Millcrsburg, Ohio.
XX. OOIc Up Btatra In Crftchficld'a Corner
Block, opposite tbo, Court-house. n20tl
1). B. DHL,
ATTORNEY AT LAW, Millersburg, Ohio.
Office In Mayer's building, over the Book
WM. S. TANNEYIIIM.
ATTORNEY AND COUNSELLOR AT
LAW, Millcrsburg, Ohio. Ofllce Two
doors east of the Bank, up stairs. n20tf
J. V. ALDAN,
DENTIST, Millcrsburg, Ohio, Artificial Teeth
inserted, from one to an entire set, on gold,
Uver or; vulcanlto base All operations skilfully
performed. Satisfaction' warranted.
0Rooms In the Ellison Itousa. n4l.
J. E. ATKINSON,
D- ENTIST, Millcrsburg, Ohio, tenders bis
professional services to all who may need
anything In tho way of Teeth operations, consist
in Filling, Extracting and Incertlug from one to
an entire set. u41.
J. G. niGIIAM, M. D.
PHYSICIAN & SURGEON, Fredericksburg,
Ohio. Respectfully announces his readiness
to give prompt attention to all professional nails.
He Is permitted to refer to tho Medical Faculty
of the University of Michigan and to tho Faculty
of Medicine of tho University ol New York city.
Sept. 27, 16G0. n32mG
DR. S. D. UICHAKDS,
HAS Located In Berlin, Holmes County. Ohio,
Ho will attend to all calls proper to his
profession. Especial attention to diseases of tho
DIl. G. W. KAMAOE,
PHYSICIAN & SURGEON, Would respect
fully Inform tho citizens of Holmcsville and
vicinity that he has located himself In s.tid place
for the practice of hia profession. Office four
doors west of Reed's Corner.
DH. T. G. V. DOLING.
PHYSICIAN It SURGEON, Millcrsburg, 0.
Office on Main street, formerly occupied by
Dr. Irvine. n20tf
MILLERSBUIIG, 0. Office on Jackson st.
nearly opposite tho Emplro House. Resi
dence on Clay street., opposite tho Presbyterian
DR. A. A. CRUMP,
ERMAN tt ENGLISH Botanio Physician,
TMllIersburir. O. Office on tho East end of
Main street, four doors above tho Public square.
A. R. FItY,
WATCH MAKER & JEWELER, Main
Street, opposite Court House, Millersburg,
JAS. HEBRON As SON,
TPvEALERS IN Enslish. German and Amcri
XJ can Hardware, Cutlery, Oils, Paints, Olass,
Sash, Fine Doors saddlery, anu oacu inm
T7LLIS0N & DeSILVA Proprietors, Jackson
XU Street, Wlllcrsburg. unto, n'att.
THOXWORTn, Proprietor, west end of Main
. street. Millcrsburc. 0. ICTStusc Ollicc
Dally Lino of Coaches to Coshocton. n20tf
fOnN SIMS, Proprietor, Sandusky Avenue,
' Bucyrus, Ohio. mil
D.J0I1NS0N, Proprietor, Public Square'
Bucyrus Ulilo. nai
A. J. HELL,
COUNTY RECORDER AND NOTARY
PUDLIC. Millersburc Ohio.- Ho Is at all
times rcadv to furnish, fill up, and take acknowl
edgments of all kinds of Deeds, Conveyances,
mnrtf.irrea. and Dowers of Attomovs. and Record
the same, take Dcposititons to boused in any of
the courts ot this state. Also, rroiesi notes, inns
of exchange, &c. HJ"His offico is in the County
Recorder's office. n2tf.
BAKER Sc WIIOIiF,
Forwarding and Commission Merchants,
AM) DALKnS IX
BALT, FISH, PL AST ICR, WHITE A WATEB LIME,
Flour, Wheat. Rye. (lorn and oats
CLO VER AA'J) TIMOTHY SEED.
HDttBlt. EOOS, LARD, TALLOW
" And all kinds oUJUIED FRUITS.
nlO WAREHOUSE MILLER9BUB0, OHIO.
winisa a tTitaoicuta,
icil a TAVLOX,
E. STEINBACIIER & CO
Produce aud Commission merchants,
FLOUR, GRAIN', HULL STUFFS,
SALT, FISH, WHITE 4- WJiTER LIME, do. do,
axo rcacnitias or
WheatrRye, Corn, Oats, Wool,
SEEDS. DRIED FRUIT, BUTTER. EOOS Ac, Ac.
jT f M. M, Sl'KIOLE, Agent,
June 116(9. Millersburg, Ohio.
4IANG0PK CAMP & CO.,
Prbdace & General Commission Merchants
DO. r, xoara WATER STREET, miow ARCH
' PHILADELPHIA, PA.
TT"?r!m.tirnnintftf Western Produce rffloeotfal
lr. allotted,' Quiolc sales and immediate returns
S. AVEIKICH & BRO.,
' PBALERR IN
IRON, STEEL, NAILS,
wiJvno ir sash, noons,
.MECHANICS' T00L8, d-c
OILS. .WHITE LEAD, SADDLERT,
nKtf MILLERSBUJIO. OHIO,
T8 osrrrlnt en the tailoring business In all 1U various
. ju waaenee in uoorat over
His crparlanoe and taste entbletblmto render general
jtUtrMtlto to thoa tor trhoin he does work, and lie hones
ky Industry itd cloj application to butlDstt to rtctlve
Ftiiprai,s9 i pasronag e.,
ALL WORK IS WARRANTED.
;Tlls prteai in as lowat It It poulble tor a man to live at,
QODntET IINER haa removed his
Grocery and Provision Store
To. tSt Jloomtformirly occupied ly
YRV'S Jewelry 3tore.
Bit goods a,ra ot the very best quality, carefully teteetad
and will be told on Short rroflti.
All who want to buy tho best quality o
ArUW.tKO, O. ITNZB,
Timo of Holding Common Fleas
and District Court
Holmes County, Ohio, for tho Year 1861.
State of hlo, si,
To the Cltrli qfVtt Court rt Common Vita of Itelmti
IT I, ordered by the Jadftt of the Court of Common
Pleat or the sixth Judicial District or the State of
Ohio, that the time for holding the District Court and
the Court of Common Pleai,ln each of the Counties
cotDprlalng (aid Dlitrlct for the fear 1881, be died and
prescribed at follow!, to wit:
In the county of Licking, on Monday, June lOlh.
In the count of Coihocton, on Friday, June Slit.
In Uie Count of llolmei, on Monday, June itth.
In thecountr or Wayne, on Turiday, June SSlh
In the county of Ashland, on Monday, July 1st,
In the county or Richland on Tuesday, July 2nd.
In the county or Morrow, on Monday, July 8th.
In the county of Delaware, ml Monday. July 1Mb.
In the county of Knox, on Monday, July, sled,
corjaror cnWMOX PLUS.
And It 1 farther ordered that the Terms of the Court of
Coraroou l'leas shall be held In said countlea la the laid
year, commencing- aa rollout, to wit: " v.
In the oountv or Knox, on Monday, February lllh,
Monday, May 13th and Monday, September Kith.
fin the county ot LIcMn;, on Monday, March 11th,
Monday, August 13th. and Monday, November 25th.
In the county or llelewnre, Tuesday, February 12th,
Tuesday, April Ith, and Monday, September 0th.
In the county or Coshocton, on Tuesday, March ttli,
Monday, August, 12th: find Monday, November 4th.
In the county or Warn, on Tuesdav, March 6th,
Monday. September Bth. Monday. November 85th.
In tho county ot Holmes, on Tuesday, February Ulh,
Tuesday, May, 7th, and Tuesday, November tth
In the county, or Ashland, on Tuesday, February 18th,
Tuesday, April, S3rl. and Tuesla J, October 15th.
In the oountv or Morrow, on Tuesday, February, SOlh,
is.iu.ji ft, . , in. am luciaij, ueinuer lain.
in me county or luenienn. on Monday, March lsui,
uonaay, aepwmocr sou, anu nonTav rtovcrotieriin.
WM. GIVEN. V Judges.
um. t.u&uiua. )
The State of Ohio, I
llolmei County, tt. I
1, Erastus Beccher, Clerk ot the Court or Common
Pleas, within and for said county, hereby certify the
within and forgoing to he trulr taVen and copied from
the order of tho Judges of the Court of Common Tleas of
the sixth Judicial District or the Plate of Ohio.
In testimony whereof I nave hereunto aet mr hand and
faxed the seal of entd Court, at Millersburg. this SBth
uay-or norcroucr, loou.
norinii. miabil'S lH'.LUHLIl, Lr,
TVTOTlflE it' hereby lrtven thnt Iho fnllnwlnir nit.
1 mlnlstrntora and guardians have filed thoir
accounts In tho l'robito Court of Holmes County,
Ohio which will bo for hearing on Monday tho 3rd
av ot noccmoor, a, i. irou,
Vinnl aocount nf of Shorn Miller. fl.dmtnlstrn.tnr
of Christlnn Vodor.
second nocount it t Jnmd llockcnbcrry aduainls
trntnr of John M. Culloch. decerned.
Final Recount of Nloholas Ulrard, administrator
of John V. l.orln, deceased.
binal account or Uharlcs llonnet, administrato"
of Augustus J. Rollund, deceased.
Fifth ncoount of II. Honor, executor of S, S.
Insolvent r.ccountof John Huston, administrator
of A, 11. Smith, deceasod.
1-lnal account ot ltonry i eetors guardian or Hora
. lloall, William A. llcall and Italnh Bo.ill, minort.
Flnnl ncoount of Lidia McDowell, administrator
of John McDowell deceased.
final insolvent account ot John Unry jr. adminis
trator of tho estate nf Jacob Bordenhamer deo'ed.
Final account of Ephrnim Uteason, uuardian of
Sarah. I. Lilso.now S.trnh J. Carpenter.
Final account of Jacob Allcshotiso and Daniel
T.nvcncnod. ndminsstrators of Scins Alleshouso.
.Novembers. 1560. td.
The seven year ofthelunrlvRlled rucE attending the
' COSMOPOLITAN ART ASSOCIATION."
It-we in uie It a botmhold word, through every quarter of
Under the au-picca or mift popular institution, orar
inree nun area inoutaua name nunc it amen 10 annre
elate by beautiful works of artob their wall, and choice
in axure on tneir laoiei, iue great uemeuc aeuvea from
becoming r vubtcricer.
Subvciintions are now belntr rrcelrcd at a ratio un
paralleled Tvlththat of anypieTlousytar.
TRIfIS OF SUBSCRIPTION.
Any nrson can become a member bvBUbicrlbinn tArei
tfnlliirn. fitr lilch .mntlifV wilt rprplvB
lFt Tlie large and auperb steeMiigruvInff.saxSSinchet .
"FuLSTAFF MUSTERING HIS RECRUITS."
2nd One cony, one year, of that elegantly Illustrated
'THE COSMOPOLITAN ART JOURNAL"
8rd For QdmlcBtonR, during the soason.to the
Gallery of Paintings, 518 Broadway N. Y
In addition to the above hencflti, there will be clren
10 lubscrinera, as gratuitous premiums, over
Five Hundred Beautiful Works of Art!
comprising raluable paintings, marbles, parUns, oatllner,
Ac. forming a truly national bentflt.
Tn Sdpkhior Tnorivixo, which ercy subscriber wilt
receive, entUUI, "KAUtiFr Mlhtkiu,q m RncBclTS,"
i one oi tne most ueauiuui ana popular engravincs ever
issued In this country. It is done on steel. In tin a Hue
and etlpplc,a.nA in printed on heavy plate paper, 30 by 8S
inches, limiting a choice ornament, rulUMe for the walls
of either the library, parlor oronic. Its subject Is the
celebrated scene of Sir John Fal'tatT receiving, In Justice
Shallow' office, the recruits wblcli liare been gathered
for Ms "ragged regiment." it coma not be furnished by
the trade for lee than fire dollars.
The Art Journal la too well known to the who'e coun
try to need commendation. Ills n tnaenlflrently lllus-
trared magazine of Art, contanlogKisa.Storses,roems
Goifip. Ac, by tho very best writers In America.
The Encrevlntr is sent to any part of the country by
mall, with aafety, being packed In a ylendert postago
fiubtcrlntlona will be received until the Eveninr ot the
Slit of Jonuary. 1601, at which time the books will close
and the premiums piven to aubBcriners.
No perHon Is restricted to a single subset Iptlon Those
remitting $15 are entitled to memberships and to one
exfa Engraving for meir trouble.
Subscriptions from California, thecaosdas, and all
foreign Countries must be $3 W inttead of $3, In order
to aeiray extra postage, etc.
For further cartlcutars pend for a coDnr of the eleeant
1y illustrated irt Journal, prouounced ththantUomect
maffattn in Amrea, It conlaina Catalogue of Pre
miums, and numerou lunejb encravlocs. Recular price
tO cents per number. Specimen copies, however, will be
sent to thoe wishing to subscribe, on recelp) of 19 cents,
iu ioujp8 orcoia. Annresn,
u. i.. iMiHiii, Actuary,
640 IJroadwar. New York
N. It. Subscrlntlon recelred and forwarded bv T.
CASKY, agent for Millersburg and vicinity, where
specimen engravings ana Art Journals can be seen.
Piovftnifier o, iNJ i, npiiWii,
Sarah Gonter. Uavid Uontcr her husband. Jonns
Deote, Elizabeth Ilnlu r, and Doulns Baker tier
hueband, of Tuscnrawas county, Ohm; Margaret
Drets. Mary McOoslen. and John McCosIen Iter
her liutband, Holmes county Ohio; Melinds, Pfets,
Josiah Deets. Levi Dectn. minors. Holmes county,
Ohio; Elizabeth Dcets, widow of Jacob Deets, of
Holmes countv u no: uncliel mcuos in. and lien
ry McCoslin Iter husband, of Von Huron connty,
Iowa; Leah Steel, nnd George Steel her husband.
St. Josoph county Indiana, Catharine Gardner nnd
John Gardner her hnsband, Lydla Deets, and Ann
Ueets, lie Ivolb county lnalanna.
Will take notice that n potition was filed
against them on the 8tli day nf August A. D. IfiCO
in ma uouri oi untnmon rieas, wtttiin ann ior uie
county of Holmes, Ohio, by Daninl Deets and is
now pending wherein said Daniel Deets demands
nartition of the following real estate, to wit: The
northeast quarter of section thirteen, township
eight, and ranje live, situated in Holmes county,
Ohio, containing one hundred and sixty acres.
Also twelve acres in the nt.rih east corner of the
north-west quarter, of section thirteen, township
eight, and range five, situated in Holmes county,
Ohio, and that at the next lermof said court the
said Daniel Deets will apply for an order that par
tition may be made of said premires.
December 3, 1EC0. w7, pf$5,C0
Abraham Workman admr. 1 In Probate Curt of
01 oun iiinKis aoo.
Holmn. oounti'. O.
til Hlnkl'o et al.
(Petition to reUland,
, To Mary Williams and John Williams her but
bond. Abnirall JJojd and Llnyd Boyd her husband,
hli Jllnkle, heirs of John JHnkle deo. and Oatbar
InoHlnkle, Susannah Hlnklo. Henrietta lllnkle,
Lucetta. Hinkle, Mary E. lllnkle, William A. Hin
kle, James, ilinkle and nahlld whose name it un
known, hain or Peter Hlnklo deo.wbowas an heir
of John Hlnklo dee, and William Alot'arland.
You aro hereby informed that on the 31 tt day of
November 1 Oil, said administrator filed hit petition
in the Court ol Probate, of Holmes county, Ohio,
the objoot and praier ol which petition it to obtain
an order on thoS9ih day of Pooombor I860, for the
atsiffntnAnt of tha ilnwer nf Susannah lllnkle. wid
ow of said John Hinklodco, in and for the loloof
ti , ,UST rcal osmio (1 wuiou ma rant uuii
Uinkle died seised, to pay the debts of said decedent
to wit; Tho south-west quarter, of the south-west
quarter of section seventeen, in township eight, of
r-..v w uv.ui me unsppropnuica innus 111 vuo um
tary district, subject to sale at Zanetville, Ohio,
wmwmiin w eret more nr less.
a, . AIIHAHAM WORKMAN.
s4lw5prfH,50. ji&u, of jolm jjioJa,, dee,
18G0. December Appointments. 1800
Prove All Things
DR. II. W. WADSWOUTH, Ecloctlc
rVijslclnn nml Surgeon will be at
Cleveland, Johnson House, Dee. Ht'i A Sltt.
ltavenna, Collins House, I)ee. 13th & 10th.
II.IVII, l.t'lllllU ,IVH.( IEVI .'III.
Wooitcr, Crandall's Rxobange, Deo. 2ith,
Masstlnn. Amtirlenn Ilntal. Ilafl. IDth.
llllleridurg, Ellison llouse,Tuetlar,l)ooomber 18tb.
ttr CONSULTATION FIIEE.-W
THE MOPE OP ZXAHINXTIOM
I'nrsucd by Or. Wndiworth Is vory tlinple and
entirely now, br It diteato of any vt tho Internal
vital organs Ulna vory few ralnutot aetcetod with
facility and eortalntr without asklnff Hie n&tlenta
quoitlon or having lbs least previous knowledge of
Dr. AV. clros lila umllrldad attention to all forms
ofebronio disease, treating thousands of different
otttos every ear, a large mnjorltr ot wtiora Jiaro
tried most other inothoilauf euro In vain. Dr. V.
wishes it distinctly undorttood that be makes no
speciality of any one disease, but proretset to un
derstand the whole human Dttera, aod It constantly
demonstrating hit knowlodgo by describing to those
who oomultliTm tho location, nature and curability
bljneir uitonsei, witnouiaay quesiiont.
Those Buffering from Chronic Diseases,
any deteription, may ba assured that tbelr eases
wilt b troatcd fairly nnd candidly, and they will
be encouraged to take medicine without a ear
emondlnc nrosnect of benefit. Dr. YV. has visited
Cleveland and other places In Ohio and New York,
regulnrlr.for tbo latt four icars, and can furnish
latleuts with any amount of evldenco In regard to
lit skill nnd ijunllflcatlons as a physician.
x nose winning w vuu.uiv uj mu.r.iDa, uirectiu
Ilatvia, N. Y.,or to thocareof th Hotel at any of
H. W. WADSWOUTH. M. D.,
Kotidenca and Principle UQiee.
FRrmtntcEfrarnn. Waine t!n.. (1.. Jan..1EOO
Dr. H. W.Wadtworth. Dear Hlr: Kor two iinn
pist I bare tutfered from tovornl teriuus difflcultios
tucnas enlargement nnu aropsy oi tno ncart, indi
eeatidu causine flatulence, burning and acidity
bloatlnir of the stomach, bowelt costive, uuequal
and bad circulation of tho blood. The least exer
cise causod palpitation of (tie heart, rush or blood
tho bead and the face would be covered with red
and fiery blotchen, My kidneys were diseased, from
which I suffered much. 1 also had a severe cough
accompanied with wheeling and rattling In the
lungs nnd sensations of oppression about the heart
and lungs, as though water bad collected there, I
might enumerate many other s raptoms from which
suffered, but tho abovo will glvo a general Idea of
my oho. I had taken much medicino and tried
several doctors withoutmuoh benefit and was told
that my cuso was incurable disease nf the heart. I
bavo now taken jour rcioidiesabouta month", with
gradual and deoidod improvement from iho first
and now feel quite well nnd more like living again.
uoctor you nave my nest witnes ana my recommend
toothers. Yours Itespeotfully,
Uov. o, 1S011. n3atf JU11N IMOWNFIELiU.
MARRIAGE GUIDE Blng prlvateln
itructor tur inarnuu jcrsoi.t, or those atiou
to be married, both male an i female, In
every tlilna concerning the chvsoloirr and
relations of our sexual system and the production or
lirevelitatlon of orfjprlnglncludlngAll the newdi'coTerles
never before glrvn In the English languape, by WM
vuunu M. D. inn is really a vaiuaole and interesting
work. It Is written In Dlaln lineuaae for the ceneral
reader, and Is Illustrated vrltli numerous Engravings.
Allyoung married people, or those eontempiatirg mar
riage, and having the least Impediment to married life,
should read this, book. It discloses aecreta that every
ono should be acquainted Tilth; still It Is a book tint
must be locW up, and tint lie about tho house. It will
sent to any one on therecelDtof twentr-flve sents.
specie or postage stamps. Address DIt. WM. YOUKQ,
ro. 4io M'uuuiw sc., auove 4'n. rnuaatipiua. ra
137" AFFLICTED AND UNFORTUNATE. No matter
what mny be your disease, before you place yourself un
der the care of any one of the numerous Quacks native
or foreign aho adTertlse in this or auv other taper,
git a ropy of either of Dr, Young's Uonks' and read It
carefully. It will be tho roeana of saving )ou mauy a
dollar, vour health and poftdbly your life.
im. vuumi cin ue consulted on nay or tne diseases
described In Ms publications, at his Ooice, No. 416 Spruce
street, above rourtn. miyism
TllH subscriber takes this method to Inform the public
generally thathe has again commenced opperatlons
his Old rltand, such as Wool Carding Rolls, Sptnlng
Into Yarn, Doubling and T luting and Ruling Oiverlct,
Carpet and Sloe lng Yarn; Dlng Yarn foi-Flannel, Gar.
pets or Coverlets. Manufacturing Wool Into lllankets,
Flannels, Clo'hs, Casmcre, Casenett, Ac, Ac.
Work will be done ou Uie shortest notice and at as
mrderate charges as at any other establishment lu this
vl:lnlty for cash or on shares, and all Mork entrusted to
Ills ctre v.111 be warranted and as lie lias went to great
expense in putting his works In comp ete working order he
hopes by strict attention to buslnets to recolve a full
and liberal share of the public patronage.
ireuoricktim'gu June nil ou.
J01IK J. N. DEATRIf K.
BY command, of an execution commonly
called a vendi issued Irom tho Court ol Com
mon Fleai of Knox county Ohio, I shall expose to
public sale at the door of thn Court House tn the
town of Millersburg, in Holmes county Ohio
On Tuttday the IBth day ofDcccmbtr, A. D. 1860
between the hours of 10 o'clock A. M. and 4 o'clock
I'. M. ol said nay the following goods and chatties
to wit: Ono maro seven yoars old. one three vear
old, two colts one year each, four milch cows, two
year old heifers, 6 one year old calves, 13 sheep,
twelve acres of whoat in the ground, nine acres ol
oais in tho ground, and eight acres of corn in the
ground, also one inira oi a new ol corn in tho
ground, all of said grain growing on the farm of
said Daniel Sigafuns.
Lovied upon aa the property of Daniel Sigafoos
at the suit of the Knox county Dank of Mt. Ver
non against Asberry Waddle et al.
fiherlfl of Holmes county.
December 3, 18CO.pf$2,40.
BY command of an execution commonly
called n vendi issued Irom the Court of Com
mon l'leas of Holmes county Ohio, Ihall expose
to public sale on the premises of Kdward Hall in
Berlin township, In said Holmes county, on
Monday the idth day of December, A. D. 18C0.
betwoen the hours of 10 o'clock A. M. and 4 o'clock
I'.M. of said day, tho following goods ond chatties
lowitsTwo yoke of cattle, four headof milchcowB,
eight head of young cattle, two waggons, one bug
gy, three stacks nf hay, four acres of wheat in the
around on the' farm of Edward Hall, and one two
year old colt, and one corn crusher.' levied on as
tho property of K J word Hall at the eultof William
Ualguel against Baid Edward Hall and John Hall.
Sheriff ol Holmes county.
December 3, 13S0. pf$2.
BYeommand of an order of tale from the Court o
Conmon l'leas of Holmes county, Ohio, I thai'
expose topublio sale, at the north door of the Court
Uaute, la the town of Millertbrrc, in said county,
Oa the '24th day ot December, A, S. 1860,
At J o'clock, P. M. of said day, tbo folio wins; describ
ed real cstato to nlt: In lot number one hundred
nnd eighteen, lolhe town of Millersburg, In said
Holmes county, tubjeot te the doner interest there
in of Eleanor Smith being an annual rent of 8,fl4,
ordero'ltubo sold us tho property or Asa (J. Dim
mock, ot tho suit of the State of Ohio against said
Asa (J. Dimmock and others.
Sheriff nf Holmes county, Ohio.
November 22, K6). n33w3pf3,0.
Farm For Sale.
rpilE undersigned wishes to dispose, of the Farm
J. nn wlifoh hn nnw rasiiios. tnran miles North
West of JlilUrsburtrand two miles South-Wett
Uomesville. It eontaint lOv! noros or the boat
nf land, well watered, a tuffioleney nf timber. an
a cood new Ham. Also a tenable House, Terms
easy, i-or further particulars apply to the tubsorl
brr. SAMUE CIIAWFOUD.
SELLING QFF AT COST!
Now Is jour Timo to Secure Bargains!
TO DE GIVEN AWAY AT COST
Prices for the Next 00 Days.
IN order to make room for an extensive, stock of New
lioodt for the fall tradt we now offer to tbe pobllo
the nett So days the remaladsr of our Sumrntr Goods
uuai I'ltlUbo. All are iNTiica w ii wo.
UNITED STATES OLOTHIMO BTOEE
AT TUX SiaN OFTHB WTTtR OUNT
To get ood bargains In Heady Made Clothing and Oen
uemen jurauniDicoout. .....
Hlllersbarg 1C61. nil.
A IRES II BDPPLY JCSTB rOUTED Ti. TDl
nltml, PoOK SrORA.
THE PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE.
Fellow Citizen of ke Brnatt
nna fjoute oj itrprtMntalirett
Throughout tho mr since our last mectloir. the
country has been 4!hcntlr prosperous lu All Its
m&tcnai interests. 4111" general health lias been
excellent, our harrst hare been abundant, and
plenty smiles throughout the land. Our commerce
and manufactures ntre been prosecuted with r n
cigy anu industry, aU litveileldcd fair and nmplo
returns. In short, no nation in the tide of time has
ever presented a spectacle ol greater mjtcri.il
prosperity than wo have done unSl a very recent
Why Is It, then, IhfUdtscontcnt now so extensive
lv prevails; and the Union of the States which it
tlie source Of all these bleuingi.ii threatened nlth
destruction? Tho Icing continued and intemperate
Interference of the Northern people with tbeques
tlort or slaver in thoSoathern States ls at length
produced Its nalurat cfiects. Tho different sect
ions or the Union ore now arrayed against each
other, and tho time has arrived, so much dreaded by
,1. ,11. f, . . , , ...
ruiiicrui iiia ouniry, wncn nosuie pcograpn
ical pu;ties ha vo beerf formed. I hare long fore
seen and often forewarned my countrymen of the
now Impending danger. This docs not proceed
soiciv iromino claim on Uie part nf Congress or
the Territorial legislature to exclude slavery from
the Tcnltorlcj, nor from tho effort of different
states to defeat the execution of the fugitive slave
law. All or nny of these evils might have been
endured by the South without danger to the Uni
on, (as others havo been) in tho hope tint time
and reflection mlcht apply the remedy. The lai-
mediate peril arises not so much from these causes
as from tho fact ttrat Incessant and violent agita
tion of the slavery nucstion throughout the North
for tho last ffuaitcr nf a century, has at length
produced Its malign Influenco on the Blares, and
Inspired them with vague notions of freedom.
Ilonce a sense ofsecurltv no longer exUta around
the family ul'ar. Ill's feeling ul peace at hoiuo
has give place to apprehensions of servile insurrec
tion. Many a matruotliroughouttho South retires
ut bight in dread of What may befall herself and
her children before tho motnlne. Should this an-
prehension of domestic danger, whether real or
imaginary, extend and intensify itself until it shall
pervade the mcssas of the bouthern pcoplef then
disunion wilf become Inevitable. Sclfpreserva-
tiun Is the first law ofnaturc. and has been Imnlau-
ted In the heart of man by his Creator for the
wisest purpose, and no political union, however
fraught with blessings nnd benefits in all other
respects, can long continue, it the necessary con
sequences bo to render tho homos and the firesides
or nearly bait the parties to it habitually and hope
lessly insecuie. Sooner or later the bonds of such
n Union must be severed. It is mv conviction
that this ratal pctiod has not vet arrived; and mv
prayer to God is that He mould preserve the con
stitution and the Union throughout nil generations.
isui let us t.iKo warning 11 time, nnd remove tho
cause of danger.- It cnuuot bo denied that, for
five- nnd twenty cars. thenclt.'Uulioiintthe, North'
against slavery jn tho South has been incessant.
In loiti pictorial hand bills and inlhimitory appeals
were circulated extensively throughout the South,
of a character to excite thopas3ions of.the slaves;
and, In the language of General Jackson, "to stim
ulate) them to Insurrection nnd produce all tho hor
rors of a servile war." This agitation has ever
since been continued by the public pre.si, by the
proceedings of State and county conventions', and
by abolition sermons nnd lectures. The time of
Congress has been occupied in violent speeches on
tlds never ending subject; and appeals in pamphlet
nnd other forms, endorsed by distinguished names
havo been sent forth from this central point, and
spread broadcast over the Union.
JIow easy would It be for tho American people
to settle the slavery question forever, nnd to res
tore peace and harmony to thta distracted country.
They, and they alorj can do It: All that it
necessary so accomplish the object, nnd all for
wmcn tno slave states have ever contenaen.is to ue
let alone nnd permitted to manage their domestic
Institutions in their own way. As sovereign States
flier, and they alone, are responsible beforo God
and tho world for slavery existing nmoug them.
For this, the people of the North arc not more res
ponsible and have no more right to interfere than
with similar institutions In Russia or Brazil, Ud
on their good sense and patriotic forbearance I
confess I still greatly rely. Without their aid it
is beyond tho power of any President, no matter
what may be hist political proclivities, to restore
peace and harmony among tho States. Wisely
limited nnd restrained ns is power, under our con
stitution and laws, he alone can accomplish but
little, for good or evil, on such a momentous ques
tion. And this bring mc to observe that tho election
of any ono of our fellow-citizens to the office of
President does not of itself afford jiut cuso for
dissolt lng the Union. Tlilsis'moro especially true
if hW election has been effected by a mere plural
ity nnd not a majority of the people, and ha3 resul
ted from trancicnt nnd temporary causes, which
may probably never again occur. In order to jus
tify a resort to revolutionary resistance, the federal
covcrnment must be cnllty of a deliberate, palpa
ble nnd dangerous exercise of powers not granted
by the Constitution. The late Presidential elect
ion, however, has been in strict conformity with its
provisions. How, then, can the result justify n
revolution to destroy this very Constitution? Rea
son, justice, a regard for the Constitution, all re
quire that we shall wait lor some overt and danger
ous acton tho part of tho President bcloro restoring
to sucn a remedy.
It is said, however, that the antecedents of the
Presdent elect liao been sufficient to justify the
fears of tho South that be will attempt to
Invade their constitutional rights, lial arc such
apprehensions of contingent dancer in tho futuro
sufficient to justify the immediate destruction of
the noblest system of government devised by mor
tals? From the very nature of his offlco.and Its
high responsibilities he must necessarily be con
servative. Tho stern duty of administering tho
vastnud complicated concerns of this government
affords In itself a guarantee that ha will not at
tempt any violation of a clear constitutional right.
After nil, ho is no moro than tho chief executive
officer of the government. His provlnco H not to
mako but to execute the laws; nnd It Is a remarka
ble fact in our history that, notwithstanding he re
peated efforts of the anti-slavery party, no single
act has ever passed Congress, unless we may pos
sibly except the Missouri Compromise, impairing
in the slightest degree the rights ot tho boutn to
their property In slaves. And it may also bc ob-
served! iudclnc from present indications that no
probability exists of the passage of such an act, by
a majority of both Houses, either in the present or
next Conrrcss. Surely, tinder these c!rcumanees
we ought to be rcstn'ped from present action by
tho precept of Him who epako as never man spoke,
that "sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof."
The day of evil may never 'como unless wo shall
rashly bring it upon ourselves.
It is nilcged nsnne cause ior imnienaio seces
sion that tho Southern States are denied equal
rights with the other States In the Territories.
Hut by what authority are tlieso denied t Mot by
Conirrcss. which haB never nnsscd, and I believe
novcr will pass any net to exclude slavery from
these, Territories; and certainly nor, Dy
tho Sunremo Court, which has solemnly docl-
ded that slaves are property, and, like all other
property, their owners nave a right to taite mem
into the common Territories, nnd hold them there
under tho protection of tho constitution.
So far, then, as Congress la concerned, the ob
lection is not to anything tbey have already done,
but to what they may do hereafter. It will surly
be admitted that tit apprenension o luture danger
Is no good reason for an immediate dissolution
tne union, jt is true tn-ti tne Territorial Legisla
ture of Kansas on the 23rd of February, 1660,
passed In great haste an act, over the veto of the
.Governor, declaring that slavery "Is, and sh ill be,
forever prohibited In this Territory Such an act,
however, plainly violating the rights of property
secured by tne constitution, win sureiy db aeciarea
void by the judiciary wnenover it anoii De presen
ted In n legal form. '
Only three years after my Inauguration, the
SuDrcme Court of the United States solemnly ad-
ludccd that this power did not exist in n Territori
al Legislature, Vet, such has been the factious
temper or tbe times, tnai tne eomctness oi inn
decision has been extensively Impugned before
the people, and the question has given rise to angry
political conflicts throughout tho country. Those
who hare appealed from this Judgment of onr
lllgnesi constitutional uiuuuat to popular naeuiu
bliss would. If they could. Invest a territorial leg
Islature with power to annul the sacred rights
property. This power uongrets is expressly ior
iiddin by tit fedeal coutltutien to sxerclss. Every
State Legislature In the Union Is forbidden by lu
own Constitution to exercise it. It cannot be ex
ercised In any bute except by the people In their
highest sovereign capacity when framing or
amending their State constitution. In like
manner it can only be exercised by people ofa
Territory represented In a convention of delegates
for the purpose of framing a constitution prepara
tory to admission as a State In tho Union. Then
and not until then, are they invested with power to
decide the rmcstlon whether slavery shall or shall
not exist within their limits. This Is an aet
sovereign authority and not of subordinate Ter.
torial legislation. Were It otherwise, then IndeiM
would the equality ol the Stales and Territories be
destroyed, end llio rlghbi of property In slaves
would depend, not upon tho guarantees of the
constitution, but upon the shifting majorities of an
Irresponsible Territ6rlal Legislature. Such a
doctrine, from Its intrinsic unsoundness, cannot
long Influence any considerable portion of our peo
ple, much less can It afford a good reason for a
dissolution of the Union.
The most palpable violations of constitution!
duty which have J et been committed consist In the
ocisoi atiifram state Legislatures todereat tho ex
ecution of the Fugitive .Slave Law. It ought to
be remembered, however, that for these acts nei
ther Congress nor any President can iustlr be held
responsible. Having been passed In violation of
the federal constitution, they are therefore, null
nnd void. All the courts both Stale and national,
before whom the question has arisen, has from the
beginning declared the Fugitive Slave Law to be
constitutional. Tho single exception is that of a
Stite court In Wisconsin, and this has not only
been reversed by tho proper appellato tribunaUit
has met with such universal reprobation that there
can be no danger from it as a precedent. The
validity of this law has been established over and
over sgaln by the Supreme Court of the United
States with perfect impunity. Ills foundedupon
an express provision or the constitution, requiring
mm iufiuv Biuti-a nuu encape irom Berncc 111
one State to another (hall be delivered up to their
masters. Without this provision it is a well
known liistoric.il fact that the constitution itelf
could never have been adopted by tho Convention.
In one form or other under the acts of 1793 and
1850, both being substantially'the same, the Fu
gitive Slave law has been the law of the land
Irom the days of Washington until the present
moment Here, then, a clear case is presented
in which It will be the duty of tho next President,
ns It has been my own, to act with vigor In execut
ing this supremo law against the conflicting en
actments of State Legislatures. Should he fall in
in the performance of this high duty he will then
have manifested a disregard of tho constitution
and the laws, to the great Injury of the pcopleof
nearly one-half or the States or the Union. Rut1
arc we to presume in advance that he will thus
violate his duty! This would be at war with ev
ery principle or justice and of Christian charity.
Let ui wait for the overt act. The Fugitive
Slavo law has been carried into execution in ev
ery contcscd case si.ice tho commencement of tho
present odministrationjthongli often it is regretted
with great loss and inconvenience to the master.
and with considerable expense to the government.
Let us trust that that tho State Legislatures will
repent thciruneonstitutional and obnoxious enact
ments. Unless this shall be done without un
necessary delay, it is impossible for any human
power to save the Union.
The Southern States, standing on thebasis of
inc constitution, nave a rigm to ucmana mis nci
of Justice from the States of tbe north. Should it
be refused then the constitution, to which all the
States arc pirtles, will have been wlfullj violated
by one portion of them in a prorisiun essential to
the domestic security nna nappmcssottno remain'
der. In that event, the injured States, after h&v
lng first used all peaceful nnd constitutional means
toobtain redress, would be justified inrevolutlona
rv res istance to the Government of the Union.
"'1 have purposely confined my remarks to rovo-
nitionar? resistance, oecausc it has been Claimed
within the last few years that any State whenever
it shall be its sovereign will and pleasure, may
secede from the Union, in accordance with the con
stitntion, and without any violation of the consti
tutional rights of the other members of the con
federacy. That as each became parties of the
Union br tho vote of its own people assembled in
convention, s.o any one of thera mty retire from
tne union in a similar manner by tne rote oi sucn
In order to justify secession as a constitutional
remedy it must be on the principle that the federal
coverracnt is n mere voluntary association of
States, to be dissolved at pleasure by any of the
contracting panes. If this be so, the eonledera
c) is a rope of sand, to bo penetrated and dissolved
by the first adverse wave ot opinion in any of the
States. In this manneronr thirty-three States may
resolvo themselves in as many petty, jarring nnd
hostile republics, eacli ono retiring from the Un
ion, without responsibility, whenever any sudden
excitement miclit impel them to ench a course.
By tills process the Union might be broken into
fragments In a few weeks, which cost our fore
f.itho's many years of toil, privation and blood to
Such a principle is wholly Inconsistent with the
history as well ns the character of the federal con
stitution. After it waa framed, with the greatest
deliberation and care, itwaseubmitted to conven
tions of the people of the several States for ratifi
cation. Its provisions were discussed at length In
these bodies, composed of tbo first men of the
country. Its opponenta contended that it conferred
powers upon the federal government dangerous to
tho right of the Stales, whilst its advocates main
tained that under a fair construction of the Instru
ment thcro was no foundation for such apprehen
sions. In that nil&htv atrurclc between tbe first
intellects of this or anv country, it never occurred
I n nn.. t..l:.!.l...l ! . nnMn..,,. A
iw tun iuui , IUIIIII, l!fclli:i uuiviif ilo wppuniika ui
advocates, to nsee't or even intimate that their el
forts were all vain labor, becauso tho moment
that any State felt herself ajarived she might se
cede from tho Union. What a crushing argu
ment would this hare proved against those who
dreaded that the rights of the States would be en
dangered by the con-titution. The truth is, that
it was not until many years after the origin of the
federal government that such a proposition was
first advanced. It was then met and refuted by
the conclusive arguments nf Ren. Jackson, who In
his meepago of Jan. lGth, 1K.13, transmitting the
nullifying ordinance nf South Carolina to Con
gress, employs tbe following language;
"Tho right of the people of a single State
to obsolvo thomselvos at will, and wl hotit
tho consent of the other States from their
most solemn obligations, and hatard the lib
erty and bapplness of the millions composing
tnts union, cannot bo acKnowieagca. sucn
authority is Iwlleved to be tittcily repugnant
both to tho principle upon which the general
government Is constituted and to tho objects
which it ws expressly formed to attain."
It Isnot pretended that any clausein the consti
tution pivca cnuntnnnnr-A In suoh a theory. It la
nltocothcr founded unon inferonre. not from any
language contained in the instrument itself but
Irom mo sovereign charncter ot the several Mates
by winch It was ratihed. nut It Is beyond tne
power of a State, liko an individual, to yield a
portion of its sovereign rights to secure ihe re
mainder. In thelangunga of Mr. Madison, who
has been called Ihe lather ol the constitution!
"It was formed by the States, acting in their high
est novereinn canacitv: and formed conseourntlr
by the same authority which formed the State
Nor is lha government ol the United States
created by the constitution, less a covernment in
the strict eenae of the term, wiihln Ihe sphere ot
hi powers, than the governments created by the
constitutions nt tne ntates are, within tnelr sever
al spheres. It Is, like (hem, organixed Into legis
lalive, judicltl end executive departments. It
operates, like them, directly on persons and things;
and like them, It has at command a physical force
lor executing tne powers committed to tt
It wis Intended to tie perpetual, and not to be
annulled at the pleasure or any one ef the con
tractine parties. Tha old articles of tha eonfeder
atiou were entitled "Atticles of Confederation
and Peri etual Union between tha States:" and by
the 13th article tt la expressly declared that 'trie
articles of thla cnnfedorotlon shall be inviolably
observed by every State, and the Union shall be
pnrpotual." The preamble to the constitution of
tha United Slates, having express reference to the
article of confederation, recite that it waa estab
lished "in order to form a more perfect onion."
Andyetitlcontendrd tht this "more perfect
union" does not include the essential attribute of
But that the Union wis designed to be perpetu
al appears vary eoncluiivsly from the very nature
and extent of tha powers conferred by the contti
tullon on the federal government. These powers
embrace the very highest attribute ol national
till'J?unA?,foTJ brh ,h V0"1
:!:3k,:,w!;;.',rdu,oj,nn;'.okl; ssg-s hr.ra
wnh forelin covernmenta. It la lnit,i will.
the power to coin money, and to regulate tlw value
thereof, and to regulate eoinmrtca with foreign
nations, and among the several State, lilt not
tie ternary to enumerate the other high Powers
which have been conferred upon tits Federtl (Jov
ernment. In order to carry the enumerated pow
er Into efPct, Congret pot sestet tho exclusive
right to lay and collect dntlrs on Imports, and in
common with tlx State to lay and collect all
Bui the Constitution has not only conferred
these high power upon Congress, but it Jim
adopted effectual mean to restrain tha State
from interfering with their exercise. Forthat
purpose it lias, in strong prohibitory language
expressly declared that "no Stale shall enter
into any treaty, nlllanco, er confederation-,
grant letters of marque and reprisal) coin
money) omit bill of credit, malce anything
but gold und silver a tender in oavment ol
debts, pas any bill ofaltalnder, ex post facto
law or jaw impairing tho obligation or con
tracts." Moreover, 'without tho consontof
Congres. no State shall lav any Imnottt of
doticson any Impor or exports, except what
may uo absolutely necessary for executing,!!
.ii.muu saws,-- ana 11 iney exceea inn am
ount, tba excess shall belong to tha United
And "no Stato shall, without the consent
of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep
troop, or slilps-of-war,in timo ol peace, en
ter into any agreement or compact with an
other State or viltb aforeizn powen or enrazo
in war, unless actually invadedtor in tuch im
minent danger a will not admit ofdelay.
In order still further In secure tho nnlnter-
rnptcd exercise al these high powers against
Stat- Interposition, It is provided "that this
constitution and (he laws of the United States
which shall be made in pursuance thereof,
and all treaties made or which shall bo make,
under the authority of the UnltedStatcs which
shall be ths supreme law of tho land) and tho
Judges In every State shall bo bound there
by, nnytbing In tbe constitution or law of
one State to to the contrary notwithstand
The solemn sanction of relizion ha been
superadded to the obligations of official duty
and all Senator and Representatives or the
United States, all members of State Legisla
tures, and all executive or judicial officers,
"Dotn or the United States and ofthe several
States, shall be bonnd by oath or affirmation
to snpport thla constitution."
JU order to carry Into cficct tlieso powers:
tho constitution baa ea ablished a perfect gov
ernment in all its forms, legislative, and ex
ecutive and judicial; and this government to
tne oxtcnt ot its powers, acts directly upon
the Individual citizens of every State, and
exercises its own decrees by tbe agency of
us own oincers. In this respect It diners en
tirely from the government nndcr the old con
federation, which was confined to making
requisitions on the States In their sovereign
charcler. This left it in the discretion of each
whether to obey or'refuse. and tbey declined
to comply with such requisitions. It thus be
came necessary for the purpose of removing
this barrier, aod "in order so form a more
perfect Union," to establish a government
which could act directly upon the people and
execute its own laws without the intermedi
ate ncy of tho States. This has been accom
plished by tbo constitution of tbe United
In short, the government created by the
constitution, and deriving lis authority fiom
the sovereign people of each of the aeveral
States ha precisely the same rights to ex
ercise its power over the people of alt these
States in tbe enumerated cases that each one
of them possesses over snbjeets not delegat
ed to the United States, bnt "reserved to tho
States, respectively, or to the people.'
To tho extent of tho delecatcd powers the
constitution of the United States is as much a
part rf tho constitution of each Stato, and Is
as binding upon its peoplo, as though it bad
been actually inserted therefn.
This government, therefore, is a great and
powerful government, Invested with all the at
tributes ol sovereignty over ths special sub
jects to which its authority extends. Its
Iramers never intended to implant in its bos
om the sceda of its own destruction, nor were
they at its creation guilty ofthe absurdity of
providing for its own dissolution. It was
not Intended by its framers to be the baseless
fobric of a vision which, at the touch of the
enchanter, would vamth into tbin air, but a
substantial and mighty fabric, capable of re
sisting the slow decay of time and of defying
tho stoims nt ages. Indeed, well may the
jealous patriots of that day havo indulged
tears that s government ofsnch nigh powers
might vioiato tho reserved rights of tbe States
and wisely did thry adopt the rule of a strict
construction of these powers to prevent tbe
dangerl Bni they did not fe-ar, nor had they
any reason to imagine, that tho constltntion
would ever be to interpreted as to enable any
State, by her own act, and without tho con
sent of her aister Statas, to discharge her peo
ple from all or any of tbeir federal obliga
It may be asked, aro tbe peoplo of the
States without redress against the tyrrany
and oppression ofthe federal government
By no means. The right of resistance on tho
part of the governed against the oppression of
their governments cannot bo denied. It ex
ists Independently of all constitutions, and
haa beun exercised at all periods of Iho world
history. Under it old governments have been
destroyed, and new ones havo taken their
place, it Is embodied in strong and express
language in our Declaration oflndepencence
But the distinction must ever bo observed,
that this is revolution against an established
government, and not a voluntary aooession
from it by virtue of an inherent constitution
al right. In short, lot us look the danger
fairly in the face: accession is neither more
nor lees than revolution. It may or it may
not ba ajuttiQable revolution, but still it is
What, in the meantime, is the responsibility
and true position of tho Executive? lie is
b iund by solemn oath before God and tho
country "to take care that the laws bo faith
fully execntod," and from thla obligation he
cannot be absolved by any human power.
But wbat if tho performance of this duty, in
who'.eor in part, has been rendered impracti
cable by events over which he conlrl have
exercised no control! Such, at the present
moment, Is tho case throughout tho Stato ol
boiith Carolina, bo far as the law of tha Uni
ted States to secure the admlnsatration
justice by means of tbo Federal Judiciary
aro concerned. AH tuo federal otflcers Trun
in Its limits, through whose ag'.ney alone
these laws can be carried into execution, have
already resigned. We no longer havo a DIs
trict Judge, a District Attorney or a Marshal
in South Carolina. In fact, the whole mach
inery o tho Federal Government, necessary
lor tho distribution of remedial Justice among
the people, has been demolished) and it will
be dlCBoult,lfnot impossible, to replace It.
The only act of Congres on the statute
liook bearing upon the subject, are those
tha 28th of February, 1795, and 3rd of March
1807. These authorized the President alter
he shall have ascertained that the Marshal,
with hi posse comltattis, is uoablo to exe
cute civil or criminal procesa In any particu
lar case, to call forth tho militia and employ
the army and nary to aid blm in performing
his tervioe, having first by proclamation com
manded the insurgent "to disperse and retlro
peaceably to tbeir respective abodes, within
limited time." Tblsduty cannot bypoislbll
ity be performed in a State whore no judlci
authority exists to issuo process, and where
there I no Martbal to execnta it, and
where, even if there were ub an officer
the entire population would constitute one,
solid combination to resist blm.
Tho bare enumeration of these) provisions
proves bow inadequate they am without fur
ther legislation to oveicome a united oppoii-
ndtln l 'Ingle State, not to ipeak ofotbet
. ., "'J'"""1"0 , Pw tone
cide whother tho present law can or cannot
be amended to a to carry out more effectu
ally the object ofthe constltntion, ,
The same Insaperablo obstacle do not lie
In the way of executing ihe law for the collec
tion ofthe Customs. The revenue (till con
tinues to bo collected, a heretofore, at tho
Custom House in Charleston, and should tbe
collector unfortunately resign, a tucceiaot
may Lo appointed to perform this duty,
Then in regard to property of tbo United
Stale In South Carolina. Tliit has been pur
chased for a fair equivalent, "by the cement
of the Legislature of the State," "for tbo
erection of forts, magazines, arsenals," &.O.,
and over those tho authority "to exercise ex
clusive legislation' has been expressly grant
ed by the constitution to Congress. It I not
believed that any attempt will be tnede to ex
pel tho United States from this property by
force, but If In this I should prove to be mis
taken, the officer in command of the fbrta
has received orders to act strictly on tho de
fensive. In such a contingency, the retbon-
ibillty for consequences would rlghiMlly rest
upon the heads ofthe assailants.
Apartfram the execution of the lawn, to
far as this may be practicable, the Executive
has no authority to decido what shall bo ths
relations between the federal gevornment and
South Carolina. Ue has been Invested with
no such discretion. He possesses no power
to change the relations between thorn, much
less to acknowledge the Independence of that
State. This would be to invest a mere Exec
utive officer with the power of recognizing
the dissolution ofthe confederacy among our
thirty-three sovereign States. It bear no re
scmblcnce to tbe recognition of a foreign de
facto government, involving no such ro (pons-
tunny. Any attempt to do that would on his
part, bo a naked act if usurpation. It is.
therefore, my duty to submit to Congress tha
whole question in all its boarlngs. The
course liferents ia so rapidly hastening for
ward, that toe emergency may soon arrive,
when you may be called upon to decide tho
momentous question whether you possess tha
power, by force of arms, to compel a State to
remain in the Union I should fuel my elr re
creant to my dnty wcro I n it to express an
opinion on this important subject.
Tho question fairly stated is: Has tbo
constitution delegated to Congress the power
to coerce a State Into submission which is at
tempting to withdraw or haa actually with
drawn from tho Conlodcracy? If answered
in tbe affirmative, it must be on tho principle
that tho power has been conferred upon Con
gress to declare and to make war against a
Stato. After much serlou reflection I havo
arrived ot the conclusion that nu such power
has blin delegated to Congress or to any
other department ol tho federal government.
It la manifest, upon inspection of the consti
tution, that this is not among the specific and
enumerated powers granted to Congress; and
it is equally apparent that its exercise is sot
necessary and proper for carrying Into execu
tion" any ona of these powers. So far from
this Dower havine been deleeated to Congress
it was eppressly refused by tbe convention
which framed the constitution.
It sppears from the proceedings of that body,
that on the 31st May, the clause "authorizing an
exertion of the turce of the whole against a delin
quent Slate," came up for consideration. Mr
Madison opposed itina brief bat poweiful speech,
from which I shall extract but a single sentence.
He observed! "The use nf force against a State
wratd look more like a declaration If war than
any infliction of punishment, and would probably
be considered Ty the perty attacked as a dissolu
tion of nil previous compacts by which it might be
bound." Upon his motion the clause was unani
mously postponed, and was never, I believe, again
presented. Soon afterwards, on the 8th June,
I7S7. when incidentally adverting to the subject,
h said: "Any government for the United States,
formed on the supposed practicability of using
fore against the unconstitutional proceedings of
the State, would prove as visionary and fallacious
as the governmeni of Congress" evidently mean
ing ihe then existing Congress of the old confed
eration. Without descending to particulars, It mty be
safely asserted shatthepoaertomakewarsgaintt
a Stole is at vnrlnnce with the whole spirit or the
consti ution. Suppose such a wsr should result in
ihe conquest of a State, how ere we tit govern it
afterwards I Shall we hold it as a province, and
govern it by despotic power! In the nature of
things we could not, by phyeicsl force, control tho
will of the people, and lompel them to elect Sena
tor and Representatives to Congrses and to per
form ali the other duties depending upon their
own violation, and required from the free citizens
of a free State as a constituent member of the con
federacy. Dot. 11 we possessed mis power, would it no
wise tn exercise it under existing 'circumstances?
The object would doubtless be to prrtervetho
Union. War would not only prevent the most if-
fectnal means of destroying It; but would banish
all hope of its peaceable reconstruction Beside,
in the fraternal conflict a vast amount of blood
and treasure would be expended, rendering future
reconciliation between the States impossible. In
the meantime, who can fortell what would be tha
sufferings and privations of the pe iple during its
The fact is that onr Union rests upon public
opinion andean never be cemented by the blood
of itscitinns in civil war. If it cannot live in
the affections of the people, it must one day perish.
Congress possesses many means of preserving it
by conciliation; but the sword was not placed in
tneir hand to preserve u uy lorce.
But I may be permitted solemnly to invoke mv
ciuntrymen to pause and deliberate before they
determine to destroy this, ihe grandeii temple
which has ever been dedicated to human freedom
since the world begon. It has beeit consecrated
by the bioooot our lathers, uv tne glories or tns
past and by the hopes of tho future. The Union
his already made us ihe most prosperous and, ere
long, win, u preserveu.renaerus uie most power
ful nation on the ftce of the earih, In every for
eign region of the globe the title of an American
citizen is held in the hiehest respect, and when
pronounced in a foreign land it reuws the hearts
of our countrymen to swell with honest pride.
Surely when we reach the brink of tbe yawning
abyss, we shatl recoil with horror from tbe last
fatal plunge. By such a dread catastrophe ths
hop" of the friends of freedom throughout the
world would he destroyed, end a long night of
leaden despotism would enshroud the nations.
Our example for more than eighty years would
not only be lost, but it would he quoted as aeon
elusive proof that man ia unfit for eelf-govetn-meM.
It is not every wrong nay. it is not every
grievous wrong which can justify a resort to
such a feaiful alternative. This ought to be the
last desperate remedy of a despairing people, after
every other constitutional mean of conciliation
has been exhausted We should reflect that un
der this free government there is an incessant ebb
and now in puaitc opinion i ne slavery question,
like everything human, will have il day. I
firmly believe that il has already reached and
passed the cn'minating point. But if, in the
midst of ihe existing excitement, the Union shall
nuriili, ihe evil may ihen become irreparable,.
Con u i ess can conlrihute much to avert it by pro
posing and recommending to thn legislature of the
several Slates the remedy for existing evils, which
the constitution has itsell provided for its own
preservation. This hat been tried at different
critical periods of our hlttory, and alway with
eminent success. It it to be found in the filth
ariicln providing for its own intendment. Under
ihitariicle nrrenimmt have been proposed by
two-thirds nf both hotiset of Congress, and have
been "r!ifi"d by the lejltlatnre of three fourth
of the several States," and have consequently be
come part of thn constitution. To this proceta
the country is Indebted for tha clause prohibiting
Congtett from patting any law respecting an es
tablished rnlljion or abridging the treidom of
speech or of the press, or of the right of petition.
To this we are, alto, Indebted for the Bill of
Rights, which secure th paople against any
abuse nf power by their federal government Such
were the apprehentlon jntly entertained by ths
friends of Slate rights al that period a to hive
rendered it extremely drubtful whether the con
atituilon could bar long survived without thtts
Agaliiths constltntion was amended by ths
tarns process t (tor Ihe eltetion of President Jefler
on by the Haute of Representative, in Febru
ary 1803 Till amendment wav rendered ne
nsttry to prevent a recurrence of (lis danger
which had Mrioutly threataned the existence of
ih government daring th pendency of that elec
tion . Ths article for it own unendment was in-