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irrived at a satisfactory smokeless powder
'or the ITt-caVilf'i cartridges, but no money,
diuugh asked for by the department, was ap
propriate! for the manufacture of a large
reserve supply. At the commencement of
oe-tilitics the private cartridge factories
were not prepared to use the smokeless
ponder id the ninnufactnre of cartridge,
nl u required time to make preparation.
Every resource of the powder manufactur
ers nas consumed in providing smokeless
powdr for the coast defense and the field
and siege artillery and to meet the demand
for tiii- ammunition for the time being it
tas abMiIuteJy necessary to furnish char
oni cartridge. The mannf Jcture of sinoke
,tfis powder. -15-caliber cartridges, was taken
ap a .'oon as possible, and. though an ample
uppi was provided later, it was notvtised
n aiiy ecga gcinent.
After the breaking out of hostilities the
Ordnance Department provided about
iglitv inillion s-m.ill arms cartridges of all
!'roItlint; the Artillery.
The l.ibor of providing the artillery was
tven more difficult. The armament and
equipment of all regular batteries were
incre.ied from four to six guns. The
volunteer batteries were armed and
equipped generally as fast as they were
ready to receive their guns, cartridges and
When the war began the only field and
iege artillery ammunition that appropria
tions had enabled the Department to have
on hand wn the small supply used annually
bv the regular army for artillery practice.
end a .mail reserve for emergency. This
bad Ieen manufactured prior to the adoption
of smokeless ponder, and for want of better
was immediately issued to the batteries that
weie hastened to the front, and was suffi
cient in quantity.
The manufacture of this ammunition with
smokeless powder in sufficient quantities for
n protracted wjir was commenced at once,
end every resource of the arsenals and pri
vate establishments throughout the coun
try was brought to lcar in providing a quan
tity more than required to meet the proba
ble demnnds of a protracted war.
All of the work of the Department was
performed by a corps of officers, claimed by
the Chief of Ordnance to be too small for
the regular army in time of peace-
llmiipcrt-d It Impossibility of Prer
Insr Mipplles at hhort N'otlce.
The Quartermaster's Department is the
great general supply department of the
army. Its administration touches every
branch nf army service. Upon this depart
ment by law is placed the duty and respon
sibility, among others, of supplying ovens
and cooking appliances, every article of
clothing, shelter and storage of all kinds,
cr.nip ground, water and drainage fa
cilities all isiv Irr. artillery and draught
horses, mules, harness, ambulances, wagons j
mid etrts. letcriuary service and supplies,
forage for animals and transportation not
only for its ow n but for the supplies of all
otner department. It builds wharfs and
dorks, charters ships and boats of every
character and executes contracts for rail
and n.'gon iran-iNirtntion.
Too Fe OKlccr.
At the beginning of the war this depart
ment umtained but fifty-seven officers, a
number below the needs of the regular
arinj. It has been necessary for jears
to supplement its strength by details of
officer frxni the line, the fime as in other
riep:!rtsi""it. The commissioned personnel
had :ilo to be increased.
Inutile to Prepare.
At its supply depots were sufficient sup
plies for the wants of an army of llw.000.
but no more. Congress hating for years
insisted upon economical appropriations in
I1 branches of public service, and the
Qasrsenua-ter's Department had at the
time of the blowing up of the Maine been
unable to make any advance preparations
whatsoever for war. On March 9. it re
ceived an allotment from the $50,000,000
appropriated for the National defense, but
the entire country was as little prepared
for war and the production of war materi
als as were the staff departments of the
Canvas for tents was unobtainable, ow
ing to the great demand to supply the Klon
dike: light materials for summer uniforms
had to be either woven or brought from
Europe. A nniform which afterward the
Quarternnster's Department bought for
from $3.50 to ?4. cot officers who wanted
them quickly from f20 to $,15. and they
were obliged to wait two weeks, or even a
month, before the tailors could produce
them. The wool for cloth uniforms had to
be dyed, spun and woten. Open market
purchases could only be made in limited
amounts on account of legal restrictions.
Department's Hands Tied.
Skilled employes could not be hired be
yond a fixed rate of pay. and in this way
the Department found Its hands tied and
otherwise hampered in the way of supply
ing service for a vastly increased force.
The limited appropriations made by Con
gress had deprived the T artment of
trained wngoumasters and packers. Pack
mules -ml saddles had to be obtained. For
service lieyond the sea transports had to
lc purchased and fitted out as Kst possible
in limited time for the transportation of
soldiers. The United States never having
engaged in foreien war. not a single troop
ship was available. The neiitralitv laws
prevented their purchase abroad. Xo -es-seis.
piccrt those of American build could
engage in the coastwise transportation
even though chartered by the Government
and Congress was averse to granting Amer
ican registry to foreign bcttr . forcing the
Department into the purchase of foreign
eplt for Haate.
What hid to bo done must be done quick
ly, lo hate waited for the proper fitting up
of the troopships would have kept the sol
diers wl,0 planted the Stars and Stripes over
Santiago and Manila in the United States
until the present time, for it will be October
10 before the first really modern troopship
iTii'iisiug io mo uniieu states irfll be off
the ways at Cramp's shipyards, and an
other will follow from the yards at Bath,
Me., the first week in November. In the
t-hort space of time occupied by hostilities
the Quartermaster's Department has per
formed it manifold duties with striking en
ergy, and besides improvising sufficient
transports has purchased the following for
the use of troops:
Blouses V. .'
Tents of all fciadsll"!!!
r leld nrpns
. - 26,476
Bread ovens II I II " 1 'l50
In many cage it was not what was de
fcired, or what was believed by experienced
officers to be requisite, bnt it was what
could be obtained. The old adage "any
cert ia a storm" snu toe .watchword, set
only wih this Department, but the entire
Fleatr of Sappllee la Balk Always oa
Haad far the Troops.
At the begiains; of the war the Subsist
ence Department, being compelled by law
to keep provisions for the army on a peace
basis only had thirty days supplies on
hand for the regular army, with, no reserve
stock, it not being in the interest of the sol
diers or the government to keep large sup
plies of food on hand for fear of deteriora
tion, and the appropriation for the fiscal
year had been almost entirely expended.
At no time has it been claimed that the
subsistence supplies in bulk were not pres
ent with the troops at all times and in am
ple quantities wherever they were found,
and weekly reports of quantities on hand
were rendered, to prevent a shortage, even
if requisitions failed to arrive.
Good Coolca Weeded.
The food needed only proper cooking.
Geu. Coppinger in his report says: "The
regulars lived well. The volunteers in too
many cases messed baJly, bnt this was
owing to the ignorance and inexperience
of the officers, who did not know how to
procure and care for the rations, and the
ignorance of the cooks, who did not know
how to cook them. I have been especially
impressed by the comfortable messing of
the regular soldiers close to my headquar
ters, while volunteer troops in the adjoin
ing field were subsisting on chunks of ill
cooked beef and vile -biscuit an excellent
field oven lying neglected and unused close
The War Department can furnish the
articles, but it cannot cook the food and
put it in the soldiers' months. The compo
nents of the ration are fixed by Congress,
and its suitability or unsuitability rests
with that body, and not with the Subsist
The rations are ample in qnnntity and
made up of staples which, by careful and
skillful use. enables the regular army al
ways to make a considerable saving, which
is sold for cash, and the money derived from
such sales expended in the purchase of such
varieties of food and delicacies as 'cannot
be kept on hand, as the company commander
may deem necessary to the health and con
tentment of his men. The volunteers might
have done the same with proper experience
Small Xnmber of OBcrri.
At the outbreak of hostilities the Subsist
ence Department had but twenty-two offi
cers, barely sufficient for the 25,000 men of
the regular army, and an increase in the
personnel w as necessary to supply army
corps, divisions, brigades, depots and trans
ports with commissary officers.
Of the thirty-six appointed, sixteen were
from the regular army, and to have made a
greater number would have stripped some
companies uf their officers and rendered
them inefficient; the new appointees, actin
under trained chiefs, it was thought would
soon gain experience in the special wotk
that was to be done, and the President took
the wise course of leaving the line of the
regular army with enough officers to render
Complaints In estimated.
Complaints received at the Department
were nearly all of a trivial character, but
nevertheless were subjected to investiga
tion, and in each casp shown to be untrue
and devoid of merit. Frequently it oc
curred that the men reported to have made
complaints denied them when confronted
with the evidence, and it was not infrequent
that men who made complniut of insuf
ficient food, when placed on the scales,
showed tint they had gained in weight
since their enlistment. Investigation shows
that men w ho subsisted upon the rations
had less sickness than the men who ate
indiscriminately of various articles for sale
by the hucksters, or of other food found in
The ?ppn .cannot be blamed for this in
discretion": they, did not know the danger
they ran, nor the necessities for precaution.
Sit months would have made a regular of
Complaints have been made of the dis
comforts and lack of food provision on
transports. Undoubtedly there is some basis
for this; but as stated before, it must be re
membered that such transports as were
wanted could nrtt be obtained, and many of
the sick returning from Santiago knew in
advance the hardships they would have to
endure ou some of the vessels; it was a
choice between remaining in fever-ridden
Cuba or returning to the United States.
Both alternatives presented great hardships,
and both tee Government nnd the men
chose the lesser to overcome the difficulty,
and reduce the danger of death.
The surgeons received CO cents per day
per man to buy articles of diet for the sick,
and in Santiago the amount allowed was 75
cents per day.
Faalt ivlth the Law.
By law the Subsistence Department pur
chases the food. It is transported from the
place of purchase to the place of issue by
the Quartermaster's Department, cooked on
stoves provided by the Quartermaster's De
partment, carried on the soldiers' persons
and conveyed to their mouths by equip
ments provided by the Ordnance Depart
ment: and these three departments must un
der the law make connection at the soldiers'
mouths. The fault, if any, exists with the
law. and sot the departments.
THE MEDICAL DEPARTMENT.
I'njaat Criticisms by Those L'aaccas
tomed to the Horrors of War.
The medical department of the army
seems to have come in for more than a just
share of criticism and blame.
Prior to the blowing up of the Maine it
had made no preparation for war, except to
place the supplies on hand, which were am
ple for the existing army, in condition for
ready issue; but immediately thereafter
prompt steps were taken to increase the en
listed personnel of the medical corps, and
to obtain supplies, espedaly those adapted
to field service.
Necessity was at once created for medical,
surgical, field and mess chert, utters and
litter-slings, medical instruments and var-1
ions otner articles, all of special pattern, not
in the market and the manufacture of which
Congress Failed to Act.
The act organizing the volunteer army
provided three hospital stewards to each
regiment. Oa April 23, the Surgeon-General
asked that twenty-five hospital corps
privates tie enlisted for each re-iment; and
for each' division, one steward "one acting
steward and fifty privates. Congress failed
to carry out this recommendation and it be
came necessary to Increase the number of
privates in the United States Hospital
Corps sufficiently to meet the needs of the
entire Tolnnteer army of two hundred and
Congress increased the number of hos
pital stewards to 300, and measures were at
once xaaea to recruit Toe hospital osrps aa
rapidljr aj possible, ilea were obtained by
transfers from the line and by enlistment
to the number of 7,000.
stores Specially Prepared.
Medical stores for use of an army in the
field are not such as can be purchased in
bulk ia wholesale drug bosses. They must
be specially prepared and specially packed
to economise space and withstand the dan
gers f traBSBortatios.to which they may
The number of medical officers allowed
by law is inadequate in time of peace. The
total naaber allowed is 192. " There are at
present thirteen vacancies. Of the num
ber allowed by law six are required in the
Surgeon-General's office and Army Medical
Museum. Eleven are on duty at medical
supply depots as chief surgeons of military
departments. One is st the Soldiers' Home,
while fifty-six are at general hospitals on
hospital ships as garrison posts; four are
disabled by sickness, and five are on duty
as chief surgeons of the Army Corps. This
leaves ninety-seven medical officers avail
able for duty with troops io the field. Of
these thirty-five have been appointed brig
ade surgeons of volunteers and distributed
among the various army corps. Since the
declaration of war there has been a loss of
two by death, and twenty-three are on sick
leave. This defielenrv in tIia nwnlir med
ical officers made it necessary to employ
more man 650 contract surgeons.
Volunteer Medleal Corps.
Steps were taken at once to organise the
Volunteer Medical Corps. All appoint
ments were made by the President, nnd
every one on the recommendation of the
Surgeon-General of the army and of other
medical men whose opinions were of value;
but the rapidity with which the volunteer
army was organized prevented many of the
contract surgeons from being subjected to
examination, the urgency being so great
that it was not practicable to have exam
ining boards pass upon their qualifications.
The Surgeon-General, however, endeavored
as far as possible to obtain satisfactory
professional indorsement before making a
contract with an applicant. Most of the
contract snrg?ons have displayed energy and
efficiency, though time -was insufficient for
them to master the peculiar duties and re
quirements of military surgery and camp
sanitation. One thing, however, was strict
ly enforced. If a contract surgeon, after
reaching his post, was found incompetent,
he was immediately discharged and his con
Fault with the Law.
The number of medical officers was fixed
by Congress, and, if inadequate, the fault
is with the law and not with the Depart
ment. True, deficiencies may be made up
by employing acting assistant surgeons,
but their ealary is but 5100 per month, nnd
men possessing the great ability required
of military surgeons cannot be expected to
enter the service in great numbers for such
Notwithstanding all these difficulties,
requisitions were promptly filled and stores
forwarded in abundance. In some cases
congested railway travel prevented prompt
delivery nnd early distribution.
Instructions for Camps.
The sanitary condition of eamp3 was
under the supervision of the Surgeon-General,
and the surgeons of the corps, di
visions and brigades. Four days after the
declaration of war the Surgeon-Genernl
issued a circular prescribing sanitary meas
ures to protect the troops in the field, es
pecially in tropical climates. The subject
was treated in detail, and instructions given
for the preservation of the health of troops;
nnd again ou August S attention was in
vited to the same subject. Camps were
constantly and bountifully supplied with
disinfectants, and if not used it was the
fault of the surgeons in the field. In view
of the fact that the army was hastily or
ganized, nnd the Men put into service with
the briefest possible delay, the difficulties
of providing for their medical wants,
coupled with a lack of special knowledge
of .newly appointed medical officers, the
rates of disease nnd death, as will be shown
by the statistics lelow, were kept nt a
inarvelously low figure. Delays and some
confusion were inseparable from existing
conditions. The machinery of the entire
War Department was working at high
pressure, and the human machine, like a
mechanical contrivance, will, when work
ing at its fullest speed for a long-continued
period, either break down or occasionally
produce imperfect results.
It is the history of all suddenly impro
vised armies that men suffer greatly from
disease incident to .their unaccustomed
mode of life. The prevalence of disease,
which, if occurring in civil life, would not
attract particular attention, under the
peculiar circumstances nnd the strong
light of public scrutiny, become matters of
criticism and comment.
Armies as hastily gathered together as
that which waged the war with Spain, in
a great many instances, bring the seeds of
disease with them to the camps, as was
evidenced in the cases of many men dying
in the State camps, before the regiments
were mustered in, and many others within
n week thereafter.
A Desperate Task.
The task of the Medical Department is
a desperate one. It is called tipon to deal
and come face to face with the horrors
of war, in such places that persons entirely
unacquainted with such sights and scenes
may visit and behold, but 'are helpless to
aid. It is no wonder that the sights of mu
tilation and carnage and the sounds of de
lirious moaning, shock the nerves and ap
pal the senses of those who have been
spared a view of the dreadful flow of hu
man blood and merciless mangling of hu
No more horrible place can be imagined
than the battlefield hospital, with its grue
some Dile of amputated feet and arms.
quivering, mangled and bloody, piled with
out. WaUe ice victims ivjiuiu uc groaning
finder anesthetics or wailing with pain in
their first awakening moments.
Sack Is war.
But such is war, and those who clamor
for it must expect nothing else. Possibly
after a great engagement men may lie
wounded for two or three days, or even
more, without aid. Suchcases occur after
every great battle. Men fall in hidden
places or crawl away to seek shelter from
missiles or to avoid capture. Sometimes
they are never found. Some of them may
die a lingering death of pain and starvation.
Read the long list of missing after every
battle and drop a tear and utter a prayer.
Such cases will occur bo matter what the
number or how great the ability of the
surgeons in attendance. With 10,000 lov
ing comrades searching for fallen heroes in
the thorny thickets surrounding Santiago,
forty-two men yet are missing. Is it a
wonder that with such diligent search a fe
might be found who had patiently lingered
for aid. and when recovered, 4s it not a case
for rejoicing rather than for wrath and
So Reason for Criticism.
If men were carried to hospitals denuded
of detain the mac fact should aot excite
criticises. The litter bearers perhaps wore
bat a shirt, trousers and shoes. If became
some wounded soldier gave his clothing for
bandages to save the life of a comrade in
greater danger, or if his clothing was torn,
from his weakened body by thieves, should
he be denied the immediate benefits of hos
pital or dressing station, or should be wait
until dotting caa be seat merely Io satisfy
The history of every army U that when
untrained men in large numbers are, gath
ered into large camps they are attacked by
disease; and no war has ever been waged
where disease was not vastly more deadly
than the bullet.
The deaths from all causes ia oar snay
from May l to date were 2,010 oat of a
total force of 274.717. or a percentage of
1.059. These figures when brought io com
parison with the losses of former expedi
tions to the West Indies, show how insig
nificant our death rate has been. In the
English expedition to the West Itadies the
land forces numbered 14,000. VThe losses
were 1,790 officers and men killed. Wounded
and missing, and the losses by disease were
about 50 per cent, of the total fore.
The French expedition to the West In
dies in 1802 was perhaps the most disas
trous in losses from disease. The French
army loss in four months from disease
alone was 13,207 men. out of a total of
,, .. murium- or auo per tnousana.
Of the 8,275 survivors 3,000 were reported
unnc ror duty.
The figures as to the loss of the Spanish
from disease in this war are not obtainable
yet, but one statement Alone fhows how
greatly the Spanish army suffered. Spain
has carried to Cuba during the present war
135,000 men. There now remains but
S5,000, and thousands of these are inca
pacitated and will have to be carried back
to Spain in the hospitals. Compared with
her loss from disease, the losses in battle
by the Spanish have been insignificant.
Other Southern Camualgas.
The death rates' of other campaigns 'n
southern climates bring out by comparison
our smnll losses. The loss of the campaign
in Algeria, in 1S48. was 77.81 per 1,000.
The expedition to Tnnis, in 1881, suffered
a mortality of G1.30 per 1,000. The French
losses in Cochin China expedition (1801-62)
was 100 men per 1,000. In the French
campaign to Madagascar (1884-85) the loss
was from 70 to 110 per 1,000. The Eng
lish campaign in Burmah (1824-26) had a
loss of 72 per 1.000.
In Napoleon's campaign to Russia, bis
loss by wounds and disease amounted to
243,000 men out of 363,000. In Napoleon's
campaign of 1813, against Germany, but
8.1.000 out of his original 500,000 returned.
In the Turko-Russian War of 1828-29, the
Russians lost 60,000 men, mostly by dis
ense. Civil War Records.
In the first year of the War of the Re
bellion the sick in home regiments ran as
high as 45 per cent. In the Army of the
Potomac the average number of constant
sick per 1.000 was 61; in the Valley of the
Mississippi. 116, and in the Department of
West Virginia. 162.
Of the British Army in time of peace.
6'y per cent, are in the hospital. The
British Arnij in the Peninsular War, under
the Duke of Wellington, had 21 per cent,
sick in hospital, which increased at one
time to 33 per cent.
These rates were exceeded in the British
army of the Crimea, where the constant sick
rate was 26.0 per cent., the annual rate of
mortality being 3 per cent, in battle and
20.6 per cent, by disease and accident.
Deaths la Porelaa Wars.
The rate of mortality from all causes ex
perienced by our army in the war with
Mexico was one-half greater than it was in
the War of the Rebellion, and of the British
troops in the Peninsula more than double,
and in the British War of the Crimea more
than three times that experienced by the
Union armies in the War of the Rebellion.
To sum up from extracts of military statis
tics of the United States, the deaths in the
volunteer forces of the United States (June,
1861, to February, 1S62,) under more favor
able conditions than those experienced by
the volunteer forces of our present army,
were from w ounds received in action 8.6 per
cent., disease and accident 44.6, or a total
of 53.2. The nunual death rate in both Eu
rope and America of civilians of the military
age is nearly one-half the death rate exper
ienced in the army of the United States in
the present war. from all causes. During
the war with Mexico the mortality was 118
per thousand. 14 from wounds received in
action, including killed in battle, and 104
from disease and accidents.
During the Spanish Peninsular campaign
under Wellington (1S11-1S1J) the annual
death rate experienced by the British forces
was 165 per thousand, of which 52 was from
wounds nnd 113 from disease; in the cam
paign of the allies against Russia in the
Crimea the rate experienced in hostilities
for the period of the first nine months, not
including those killed in battle, was 232 per
thousand, 30 being from wounds and 202
Thla War's Statistics.
Deaths from all causes between May 1 and
September 30, inclnsive, as reported to the
Adjutant-General's office up to date in our
army are: Killed. 23 officers and 257 en
listed men: died of wounds, 4 officers; died
of disease. SO officers and 2.485 enlisted men;
total. 107 officers and 2,803 enlisted men.
This is an aggregate of 2,910 out of a
total force of 274,717 officers and men, a
percentage of 1.050, or, if continued for an
entire year, would result in A loss of only
4.41 per cent.," or, reducing fo a basis of
actual cumber" of deaths per year, makes
a total loss from all causes of but 25.5 per
thousand, three from wounds received in
action, and 22.4 from diseases and acci
dents, or considerably less than one-half
tbe death rate for the same period of the
The Division Hospital.
The division hospital became the subject
of peculiar and vidous attacks, either from
ignorance of its adaptability to a state of
war or from jealousies arising ia regiments.
The best military authorities in the great
armies of tbe world unite ia pronouncing it
the only successful method of caring for the
sick of a great army.
Regiments are organized to move and to
fight. If they are hampered by their own
sick in their own hospitals, when marching
orders are received they must either be
delayed by transporting their sick to some
other hospitals or be burdened with their
care upon the march.
The presence, too, of sick and wounded
men so near noise and confusion of a regi
mental camp h? not calculated to hasten
their recovery, and the effect of their pres
ence is depressing upon the able-bodied.
VOLC5TEER 9IGXAL CORPS.
Admirable Work at the Froas,
Thaagh Belated la Startlaa;.
It was nearly a month after war was de
dared before authority of Congress was se
cured for the organization of the Volun
teer Signal Corps, but in the short period
of time intervening before the opening of
the campaign, to the small regular estab
lishment of sixty officers iad Ken tod been
added a volunteer force of one hundred and
sixteen officers and one thousand enlisted
men, well organized and so perfectly
equipped that in every camp there had been
established a complete telephone exchange
and telegraphic system: and at Santiago
the, firing line was so well supplied with
tnesns of communication thf It 'took bat
twenty minutes for a message to paw frees
the rifle pits to the Executive Mansion" in
Is the PhUifannes they caattractal iM
maintained telegraph aad telephone lives ia
the advance trenches, and wherever be
troops were, there was the Signal Corps
also present, thorantnly eejatpped Mnd' effi
TUB BNGmBBft CvRpS,
Their Work la Caast Defease aad Par.
la Saattaara CasapaJca.
The duties of the Eagiaeer Corps of-the
United States Army ia time of war may be
considered conveniently under two heads:
First, in relation to the eeacoast defenses
of the country; second, in relation to the
operations of armies in t e field.
Under the first heading the duties or the
corps consist in planning and constructing
permanent works of defense for the pro
tection of our seacoast to-.'ns and dties,
and in the planting and operntion of sub
marine mines blocking the entrance thereto.
Under the second heading their duties
consist as staff officers in planning. laying
ont and constructing temnorary fortifica
tions, hasty intrenchments. roads, bridges,
etc.. and in making reconnaissances and
military maps. In this latter class of
duties engineer troops are largely employed
whenever their services can be obtained.
At the outbreak of the war with Spain
out seacoast defenses were scarcely in a
condition to have withstood a well-directed
naval attack upon our coasts. Strenuous
efforts were, however, made to mount every
available gun in such batteries as were
then in progress, and to provide temporary
batteries for old-style armament at a num
ber of ptaces otherwise wholly defenseless.
In an exceedingly short time a large num
ber of guns, new and old, were in readiness
for service, and would have given a good
account had any hostile attack taken place.
Deficiency in submarine mining material
threatened to render submarine operations
futile at the outbreaking of hostilities, but
by taking advantage of the entire manu
facturing resources of the country, and
working night and day, torpedo defenses
were placed in position and maintained in
good order throughout the entire period of
active hostilities at all principal harbors.
Engineers la Santiago.
In the Santiago campaign the operations
of the engineer troops were, in consequence
of inadequate numbers, limited to the more
technical classes of engineer work, such as
road repairs and construction, repairs to
railroads, construction of landiug piers and
The various engineer officers assigned to
duty, on the staffs of corp? and division
commanders in the different camps were
employed in laying out the sites of camps,
providing: for water supplies and sanitation,
in the instruction of troops in military re
connaissances nnd map making, nnd in the
construction of hasty field intrenchments.
Jons S. Shriver.
VALOR 131 A PI.Cl'SHIO..
Its Presence la His Pocket Sladi
St. Louis Globe-Democrat.
After one of the battles of the Civil War.
a group of Confederate soldiers sat about
their camp-fires talking of how a man feels
when he goes into battle. Most of those
who confessed to any feeling at all ad
mitted that they felt scared, and at length
one of them told of his first fight, and how
a little thing changed his feeling of fear
to one of courageous determination.
It was not a great battle, -but It was
lively while it lasted, and unfortunately for
him it was one of those engagements in
which it is necessary to wait for the enemy
to begin. The Confederate troops were
lying on the edge of a piece of woods, with
a sloping meadow in front, crossed by a
stone wall heavily overgrown with vines.
At the other edge of the meadow was
another strip of woods. The enemy was
somewhere in there.
And so they waited, and out of nervous
ness the young soldier got to feeling in his
pockets, and pulled v out a little three
"My first thought," he said, "was that I
wanted to go home and give the war up;
but then came another kind of thought.
The little girl wouldn't have giveu that
pincushion to me if she hadn't understood
that I was going off to fight for the country.
So I said to myself. 'Old fellow, you've got
to stand tip to the Worst.'
"And now." he concluded, "whenever we
f;o into battle I always brace myself up a
little by feeling in my breeches pocket and
sort of shaping out that pincushion. And
when I go back home if it suits the Yan
kees that I ever go back at all I am going
to give it as a souvenir to the little sister
that made it for me. And I'm going to tell
her that it was that pincushion, little three
cornered thing that it is, that made a man
of me that day."
SOME EXOllMOfS ECLS.
They Wclah Tiro Haadred Poaads la
Frof. Jules Gamier, the French explorer,
in a publication made some time ago, men
tioned the existence of gigantic eels in the
rivers of New Caledonia. He had not per
sonally encountered spedmens of this eel,
and requested a colonist of La Poya, on the
west coast of the island, to try and obtain a
specimen for him, alive or dead. More was
heard about tbe matter at a recent meeting
of the French Geographical Society, when
Prof. Gamier read a letter from M. A. Es-
cande, a colonist of ?ew Caledonia.
During the rainy season great sheets of
water are formed inland ty the torrents
rnshing from the hills. These small lakes
are inaccessible on account of the thick bor
der of reeds and aquatic plants, with keea
leaves. During the dry season the water
dries off, but in the center it Is often from
twelve to twenty feet deep. In order to get
at the sheet,of water the colonist set fire t
the dry reeds, and thus could nuke his way
into the center. There he found two speci
mens of a gigantic eel, heretofore unknown,
even to the natives. These eels were six'
and one-half or seven 'feet long, with beads
as big as a man's and enorteons eyes. The
body is not quite as thick as the .bead; tbe
skin is of a dark green, and the mouth very
large. The form Is very much like that of
the lamprey, bnt its meat is not black. Mr.
Escande shot one of the animals, but could,
only with great difficulty, land the eel ia his
boat, although he had fastened a boathook
to its body. It weighed over 200 pounds.
Ia the Past Tease.
"My impression is," oracularly began the
tall boarder, "that Spain is going to
"It would he more correct," rnterrupted
the solemn boarder, "to say she has gone
A Sliver Oraaa'a Oalaloa at. the Credit
Dae Bias for His Caadaet of
1 'ashlnrton Tisms odfeUl orsaa ot the Bryaa
frKKcrtcy) Jury zl. TflBB.
While we are praaaa Jasiraa let as aot
fohjttMosM! Tbe trata to rapidly dawaiac
poe dbicoattcry that If Dewey and catef
hare' wot unfading hnmfo fofrtheir cavalry
hnd for themselves, there is a crown of
honor no less the due of William Mckinley,
President of the UMted States." The glori
ous conditions of the hoar, whether refected
tn the war situation or in our National and
Jnternatioaal statfavcahftot he ceatrsspfeted
without bringing home the conviction that
hn honest, true and wise pilot stands at the
helm of State. Timers been whe we
thought otherwise. We may have been ex
cusable in view of things antecedent. Ia
fact, we werai wrong aad gladly acknowl
edge it. An honest newspaper, like an hon
est gentleman, will never hesitate to retreat
from a mistaken positioa nor lose a minute
in undoing an injustice.
The war with Spain followed hard apea
a period of intense-domestic, political and
economic strife. The administration of
President McKinley was surrounded by
evil and corrupt elements, and appearances
justified the suspicion that it was influenced
by them to the detriment of tbe country.
Whether it was or not. is of little moment
at this time. The declaration of war made
a "tabula rasa" of old differences and con
tentions, and. beyond, that, we can say
with complete satisfaction and pleasure
that, on the firing of the first gun, William
McKinley, the practical Ohio politidan,
passed from the stage, and William Mc
Kinley, tbe great war President, appeared
to plan victory for his people and to achieve
for them the benefits and glories of a new
and splendid colonial empire.
Prince Hal did not more suddenly or
sternly relegate to obscurity tbe disrepu
table ralstaff aad other loose companions
of his evil days than President McKinley
swept away from his official life the rese
gade Tories and despicable peacemongers
who once permeated it. The 21st of April
saw him seize the crown of American
patriotism, championship of humanltv and
National progress from the deathbed of old-
time seclusion and prorlneiallsm.and placing
it on his head, stand forth a new man and
a worthy counselor and leader of the splen
did, imperial Republic of America."
While we have a McKinley in the chair
of state and a Dewey in the conning tower,
all Europe could not wrest from our bands
the scepter of our new dominion In the Far
Orient. As in the case of the hero of
Cavite. so in that of President McKinley,
"The hour has come, and the Man."
The Haad Uaoa the Helm.
Washington Post (Ind.).
In this hour of rejoicing and relief, while,
as is right and proper, we visit with accla
mation the men who have led our military
forces with such courage and address, it is
well to keep always before us the thought of
that firm yet gentle hand which from the
first has been upon tbe helm of state and
which, with wise and noble guidance, has
steered us into port the hand of William
McKinley. President and patriot, philan
thropist and warrior.
To his undaunted courage, lofty purpose
and immovable devotion we owe not only
the swift and splendid victory we have
won, but the glory of having won it as gen
tlemen and' Christians'. He it was who, at
the outset, curbed the passionate extrava
gance of those who bad invoked the judg
ment of the sword.
He foresaw the calamities which our
first outburst of ardor Would have entailed
upon us; he stood firm against the clamor
of the unthinking multitude. His wisdom
set us in the straight and narrow path of
justice. His quiet strength has held us
there. We stand to-day free of all compli
cations, at liberty to carry out our whole
some and beneficent schemes of restoration,
simply because William McKinley cast
away the fetters that were offered us by
folly and excess of zeal. We are masters
of the situation, bound to no ignoble course
and touched by no discreditable alliances,
solely because he. with clear head and ten
der heart and potent hand, has saved us
We owe nothing to Aguinaldo, the venge
ful mountebank of the Philippines. We
are not involved with the insurgent chiefs
of Cuba and their conspiracies of tyranny
and pillage. To Mr. McKinley g tranquil
prevision and statesmanlike conservatism
we owe our present immunity from thoe
abominable and sinister entanglements. He
braved the insensate storm, the maudlin
clamor, the hysterical importunity, which,
three months or so ago, held possession of
the land and threatened tbe extinction of
its self-restraint. He it was who heid Con
gress at hay, with its insane hypothesis of
Cuban independence, meaning the regime
of the insurgents. Through all that tragic
time he scorned delights nnd lived laborious
days, that wisdom, righteousness and hal
lowed ieace might crown our arms. Kind
of heart, leaning always to gentleness and
mercy, suspected by the callous, nnd re
proached by every rude and brutal tongue,
he yet displiyed a courage which nothing
c6uld nppalf a determination for the right
which stood like adamant.
And he has led us to humanity and grace,
to power and to cleanliness. We take up
the work of emancipation and civilization
without a shameful or encumbering enibnr
rnmcnt. We have no objectionable coad
jutors, no distasteful obligations. The field
of regeneration lies before us and we eater
it without a single clog upon our action.
William McKinley has led" us to this noble
task. His has been the hand upon the helm.
A Loadoa Tribute.
London. Aug. 1. The "Times" this morn
ing comments editorially upon the generous
universal recognition of the part which
President McKinley has played throughout
the war between the United states and
Spain, and says:
"If foreign observers might presume to
have an opinion on his conduct, it would be
that President McKinley has kept his finger
constantly upon the National pulse and has
known how to stimulate and direct National
thought without too markedly outraning its
-"Everything has been done in the open,
every move has been discussed on a possi
bility all over the United States before the
Government was irretocahly committed
one way or the other, and the tentative
policy is that where he stands at this mo
ment the President has the whole Ameri
can people at his back.
"We do not know that there can be any
higher statesmanship' for a President gov
erning aader the Constitution of the United
"It is noteworthy that, while the Span
iards, who are usually" regarded as chival
rous, romantic and medieval, have turned
first to the fiacadal aspect of tbe situa
tion, the Americans, who are usually sup
nosed to be intensely practical, have as yet
hardly given a thought to the financial or
economical side of the ouestion. " What
Occupies the American people at this mo
ment is not the cost of the war. the vtf se
of their acquisitions or the balance of the
profit and loss account, but the moral result
oi i.jc buiihic uu urc uian ui lae ravas
which it aUsaalatea,"
WHEELER WAR STORY
Testiaoiy Before tke Commis
to ttoTatttf Washington.
DI MET SPECIFIC CBAtflES
fare. Saatiagra the Troops Bad Ita
tloas aad Medlelaes WlkoC aa
Meal Caa-All ta CoadtMOas
WaahiattM. Oct. 11. The testimony
which Major-Gen. Joseph Wheeler gave be-
.fore the War Investigating Commission is
Still a topic of general discussion in army
cirdes. It was straightforward, dedsive
and lucid. In effect he dedsred that hard
shif was hsMpdrable' from war. aad that
the troops ia the Saatiago campaign did
not escape the Usual lot Of soldiers. He
testified that the camp at Moattak was all
that unlimited resources could make it, and
that if at any time the soldiers did not have
all the necessaries and aaay of the luxuries
of life the fault lay with their immediate
Of the alleged suffering before Santiago,
the General said it seemed to him it was
chlely because the men were forced to lie
tn trenches in the sun ia the daytime aad
in the rain at night. He did aot see how
that could hare been prevented. Members
of the medical staff were right along la the
firing line, and as a nun would fall some
one would call out and he would be takea
from the field. Speaking of the quality of
the rations. Gen. Wheeler said:
"I will state that the spirit of the troops
was such that they were ia no disposition,
to complain. They were, proud to fight for
their country, and they were proud to un
dergo privations. They didn't regard them
ttcr duriMn ti Avht t TH f!snsv anil
the magnificent behavior of the American
troops. Gen. Wheeler tcatlned that there
were generally plenty of supplies of aD
kinds at the- front, aad the man were sever
nnouub usyiv nuwi ivs " uw - i
said Gen. Shatter deserved great credit for
the way he kept the army supplied. Be
said the General seemed to realise the
great importance of that matter. And hla
efforts were to keep at least three days
rations with the troops, sad he did keaff I
two days' rations there.
PLBNTT OF SUPPLIES. '"j
Coming up to Montauk, Gea. Wheeler
said that he had selected tbe meet avatJebt i
transport and had been yrr eomfortahrt
on it. The men took their owa ratioaa aal ;
there was plenty of good water.
When asked if the clothing issued to the
troops was suitable for soldiers in a tropical 1
climate, he said the thinner dothlng given
them later was better, but the blue issued
to them was satisfactory.
Of the camp at Montauk Gen. Wheeler
testified that he had been authorized by
the President to provide a special diet for
the men without regard to cost. He con
sulted with surgeons and ordered a large
quantity of articles to add to the diet of the
"I undertake to say," said Gen. Wheeler,
"that no army on earth was ever provided
more abundantly or with a higher order of
food than was given the soldiets of MosV
In answer to questions as to the general
character of the camp and its location. Gea.
"It was located on a point of land; rolling,
good, hard sod; water ran off nicely, and
air perfectly charming from the sea. Th
sea was all around. The soil was sandy
and used as grazing ground. I think it a
perfectly delightful situation, and it was
most wonderful that the :Ei,000 eople came
from the yellow fever country to this camp,
and yet not a single case of yellow feter.
with all the infected clothing."
Gen. Wheeler denied that he had pver re
ceived any complaints about the improper
burial of men. He said the capacity of the
detention hospital was 800 patients in 415
tents, and he considered the hospital accom
modations ample for the canlp, as after the
800 were in they were not full.
"Was there at any time, from the tune
you got there until you left, a crowding':"
"Yes. but only for a day at a time, ns they
were being sent away dally to New York,
New Haven and other places."
THE NEED OF CAMP WIKOFF.
When asked if it would have been better
to have shipped the holdiers to their homes
after a five days' quarantine detention at
Camp Wikoff, Geu. Wheeler said:
"I think it would have been very cruel:
they needed medical- care and attention. anJ
they got it there right good."
"Would it have been rong, in your judgv
ment, to have transported these troops to
their homes all through the country?"
"No, they would have dropped out all over
the country, at different cities, as 00 per
cent, bad this poison in them. Their
strength was taken away from them."
"This applies to officers as well. as menV
"Yes; and not an officer on my staff who
was not taken down, and this ran all the
way through the entire army."
"Did you have sufficient pillows, sheets
and blankets in the hospital?"
"Yes, they had plenty of them."
"You think that Montauk Point was ab
solutely necessary on account of quaran
"Yes, absolutely necessary, considering
the sea air."
Asked as to the specific charge that the
Seventy-first New York suffered severely,
tbe men being compelled to sleep on the
ground, with no blankets and only light
rubber ponchos, he said: "I went by their
camp sad never heard any such complaint."
"If that was so. whose fault was it 7"
"The fault of the men, as they should
have had blankets in their bunks."
"Didn't you bve ihe. red jLafsusujI J
"I did not have any red tape. As soon ss
tbe surgeons told me what they wanted the
request. was pot in shape bymy typewriter
and put through. I telegraphed oa Sunday
night, and tbe awdicine was got from New
York oh Blonday night, I think."
"If any complaint was made that soldiers
had lost their blankets bow lens would it
have been before yea could get blankets for
"Very shortly. Two or three boors, I
think, and I dea't think we were ever out
of blankets. In-tbe Seventv-firat'a ca.
they could havehad them certainly before
the next nigni. r
"I made a sperisJ point in going through
the hosnitais t") ask in everv ward if tkr.
was anything that could be done which was
not done, and the answer was always one
of gratitude Mr the great care the sufferers
Tb subject of camp drinking water was
gone into verj inoroagaiy ana Gen. Wheeler
contended mai it was at ail tlsses ample and
vtnen en. noeeier was about to leave
tbe stand Gen. Dodg? made the sweeping
inquiry as to whether any bureau or depart
ment of the aHila IT establishment ,!
seemed to the witness inefficient, and if so
what branch of the service and in what way.
Gen. Wheeler tfad Sri .Wnntt ,!!
sent In reply, tte gm of which was that
everyiaasg ii easa pvsiect QM beyaaaexiU