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THE SMOKY HILL AND REPUBLICAN UNION.
"WE JOIN OURSELVES TO 10 PARTY T1IAT DOES NOT CARRY THE FLAG,- AND KEEP STEP TO THE MUSIC OF THE UNION."
33y JBlakely fc jVEartin.
JUNCTION, DA.VTS CO., KAJSTSlS, TITUTS XXAfSr, jSAUCH 20, 1862.
"Vol. I -No. 22.
Smolnr gill anb gepulr'n Slnion,
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Dealer, Washington street, between 7th
-and 8th streets.
BECKER, WJL, City Bakery and Confection
ary, Washington Street, bet'n Gth and 7th.
BECKERS, M., Painter and Glazier, corner
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CASPER, JOHN, Boot and Shoe Mal'er, Wash
ington street, between 7th and 8th.
C10BB, EDWARD, Builder and Architect, cor-
ner of Sixth and Jefferson.
RCW, F, P., Physician and Surgeon. Office
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ALE, JOSEPH, Butcher and Dealer in
Meat, corner Washington and Eighth.
EAGLE HOTEL, J. H. BROWN, Proprietor.
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TTlLETCIIER, F. M., Builder and Architect,
J 5th street, bet'n Washington and Adams.
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ANTZ, HENRY, Dealer in Dry Goods and
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GILBERT, N. S., Dealer in Dry Goods and
Groceries, corner 7th and Washington.
ALL, LUTIICR. City Druggist, Washington
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'RULE, FRANK, Boot and Shoe M.iker, Wash
ington street, between Gth and 7th.
T7"ARNAN, J. II., Tinner and Dealer in
J Stoves, Corner Ninth and Washington.
I" EGORE, J , Jeweler, Washington street,
I j above Sixth.
MITCHELL, 1)., Surveyor and Civil Engi
neer, Washington stiect aboe Seventh
MOBLEY, R. D , District Clerk and Land
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STREETER & STR1CKLER, Dealers in Dry
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"Washington and Seventh street.
S PRONG, HENRY, Tailor, Washington street,
SEYMOUR, E. W., Physician and Surgeon,
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STRICKLER, S M., Post Master, corner
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fob SAiE at this orricr,
For i1k Lslon
THE MANUFACTURE OF SUGAR AND SYRUP
Sorghum Saccdralum is an annual, gram
ineous plant, of Chinese origin, introduced
into this country about seven years ago,
from Port Natel, in South Africa. In its
habits and nature it cb3cly resembles
Indian Corn, or more properly speaking,
the ordinary Broom Corn. It is of re
markably easy cultivation, and resists the
effects of drought so effectually as to render
it a plant most desirable for raising in a
country so liable to occasional drought as
Kansas is. On rich bottom lands, or
moist loamy soil, it thrives in great luxu
riance; but produces also a very fair crop
on sandy or dry soils, where other plants
would not produce a remunerative crop.
It endures cold much better than corn,
and early frosts in autumn do not injure
it in the least. The method of cultiva
tion is similar to that of Indian Corn,
and on light soil should be sown in rows
about three feet apart, while it will be
found to do better on rich soil if sown in
rows about four or five feet distant. On
account of its intimate eolation to Broom
Com, Chocolate Corn, and JJourdh Corti,
it should never be planted in their vicinity,
as it is apt to hibridize or intermix with
them, thus rendering the seeds unfit for
producing a crop the succeeding year.
If a fresh, thin, transverse section of the
cane is made, it presents to the. naked eye
a diaphanous appearance, similar to that of
a slice of an apple or turnip, but if this
section is subjected to the microscope, it
exhibits a cellular structure, the cells of
which contain a transparent fluid, devoid
of crystals or opaque matter. But if the
slice is dried it is much altered in appear
ance little dots of opaque, whitish matter
become visible, apparently protruding from
the divided cells and tubes, which, when
placed in the sunshine, show little, glitter
ing crystals of Sugar, formed by the evapo
ration of the watery part of the juice of the
Although many -of our farmers have,
during the past year, raised crops of Sor
ghum, and produced therefrom a large
quantity of excellent molasses, still they
have experienced great difficulties (supposed
by some iusuraiountable,) in crystalizing
the juice so as to form Sugar. These diffi
culties are of two-fold origin: firstly, those
existing in the juice itself; and secondly,
those arising from the inexperience of those
who have attempted it.
The difficulties which exist in the nature
of the juice are: Its extreme liability to
undergo a rapid decomposition after it
comes from tho crushing mill, from expo
sure to the atmosphere. As the juice runs
from the mill, it is nearly colorless, but, in
warm weather, a short exposure hastens
decomposition, and a vinous or spiritous
fermentation ensues, which renders it en
tirely unfit for the purpose intended. An
other cause of trouble is the unripe state of
the cane, for unless the plant has reached
a complcrc atato of maturity the juice is
utterly useless for sugar-producing pur
poses. To guard against the proclivity to decom
position, the operator should endeavor to
conduct the first part of the process as
expeditiously as possible, and add some
slaked lime to the liquid while cold, not
when heated, as some recommend. The
lime is employed to saturate and neutralize
certain acids which exist in the juice, and
which should be quickly neutralized, in
order to restore the gluten of the liquid
to its original insolubility, so that it may
immediately coagulate and envelope all
these substances, which consist of green or
gummy matter. Lime will absorb more
free acid, and that more rapidly, in a cold
than in a warm state the same as cold
water will dissolve more lime than warm.
And for this reason the lime should be
added before the hcatitsg. After this, the
liquid should be strained through, and
then clarified by the addition of nut-galls
or tannin, aided by the action of heat, when
it should be again strained or filtered, and
then boiled down to the proper consistency
The method of Dr. Charles T. Jackson,
of Boston, being the easiest and most avail
able for farmers, we here give it is fall:
" Omitting, as of no practical valne to the
manufacturer, the more refined processes,
which were employed in determining the
amount of saccharine matter in the juice
of this plant, I now describe a cheap and
economical method of syrup and sugar
making, which may be used by the farmer.
" In the first place, it is necessary to fil
ter the juice of the plant, as it comes from
the mill, in order to remove the cellulose
and fibrous matters, and the starch, all of
which are present in it when expressed.
A bag filter, or one made of a blanket
placed in a basket, will answer the purpose.
Next, we have to add a sufficiency of milk
of lime (that is, lime slaked and mixed
with water) to the juice, to make it slightly
alkaline, as shown by its changing tumeric
paper to a brown color, or reddened litmus
paper to a blue. A small excess of lime
is not injurious. After this addition, the
juice should be boiled, say for fifteen min
utes. A thick greenish scum rapidly
accumulates on the surface, which is to be
removed by a skimmer, and then the liquid
should again be filtered. It will be of a
pale straw color, and ready for evaporation.
It may now be boiled down quite rapidly
to about half its original bulk, after which
the fire must be kept low, tho evaporation
to be carried on with great caution, and the
syrup constantly stirred to prevent it from
burning at the bottom of the kettle or
evaporating pan. Portions of the syrup
are to be taken out, from time to time, and
allowed to cool, to see if it is dense enough
to cbrystalize. It should be about as dense
as sugar-house molasses, or tar. When it
bus reached this condition, it may be with
drawn from the evaporating vessel, and be
placed in tubs or casks to granulate.
Chrystals of sugar will begin to form gen
erally in three or four days, and sometimes
nearly the whole mass will granulate, leav
ing but little molasses to be drained. After
ic has solidified, it may be scooped out into
conical bags, made of coarse open cloth, or
of canvass, which arc to br hung over the
receivers of molasses; and the drainage
being much aided by warmth, it will be
useful to keep the temperature of the room
at 80 or 90 F. After some days, the
sugar may be removed from the bags, and
will bo found to be a good brown sugar.
It may now be refined by dissolving it in
hot water, adding to the solution some
whites of eggs, (say one egg for 100
pounds of sugar,) mixed with cold water,
after which tho temperature- is to be raised
to boiling, and the syrup should be allowed
to remain at that heat for half an hour.
Then skim and filter, to remove the coagu
lated albumen, and the impurities it has
extracted from the sugar..
"By means of bone-black, such as is
prepared for sugar refiners, the sugar may
be decolored by adding an ounce to each
gallon of the saccharine solution, and boil
ing the whole together. Then filter, and
you will obtain a nearly colorless syrup.
Evaporate this, as before directed, briskly,
to half its bulk, and then slowly until dense
enough to chrystalize, leaving the syrup,
as before, in tubs or pans, to granulate.
"This sugar will be of a veriL light
brown color, and may now be clayed, or
whitened, by the usual method that is, by
putting it into cones and pouring a satura
ted solution of white sugar upon it, so as
to displace the molasses, which will drop
from the apex of the inverted cone. The
sugar is now refined as loaf sugar.
"The methods here described arc the
common and cheap ones, such as any
farmer can employ. It may be advantag
eous, when operations of considerable extent
arc contemplated, to arrange a regular sys
tem of shallow evaporating pans for the
concentration of the syrup, similar to those
now used in Arermont for making maple
" It is evident that ordinary methods can
not compete with those of a regular sugar
refinery, where acuum pans are employed,
and evaporation is consequently carried on
at a very low temperature. If the planter
should raise sufficiently large crops to war
rant the expense of such an apparatus on
his farm, he would not fail to manufacture
larger quantities of sugar, and to operate
with perfect success in sugar-making ; but
this can only be done in the Southern, Mid
dle or Western States, where extensive
farming is common. Those who wish to
have their brown sugar clarifiedtan send it
to some of the large refineries, where the
operations may be completed, and the sugar
put up in tho usual form of white loaves.
" A very large proportion of our agricul
tural people will doubtless be satisfied with
the production of a good syrup from this
plant. They may obtain it by following
the methods"described in the first part of
this paper, or they may omit the lime and
make an agreeable but slightly acidulous
syrup, that will be of a lighter color than
that which has been limed.
" This syrnp is not liable to chrystalize.
owing to the presence of acid matter. The
nnripe canes can be employed for making
molasses and alcohol, but, as before stated,
will not yield true cane-sugar."
Why would it not be well for our com
munities and aeighborhoods to club together
and get a gooi crashing mill, and go into'
the manufacture- of Sugar on an exteasive
scale, so that finally a refinery could be
established, and Kansas rival Louisiana
in the production of Sugar? Sorghum
nroduees frosa 10 to 40 tons of stilk'per
acre, from 15 to 20; bushels of seed, and
from 150 to 400 gallons ot syrup. A'gea
tleman in Illinois received recently a prize
of 825 from an Agricultural Society for a
sample of Sugar, of which he raised a ton,
and 45 gallons of syrup from one single
acre of sorghum. ,
Besides the Sugar producing qualities,
Sorghum has various other uses, to which
it can be applied. As fodder for cattle, no
more wholesome, nutricious, and economical
food can be found.
Good bread can also be made from the
flour ground from their seeds. Paper, too,
has been made from the fibrous part of the
Beer and alchohol can be made by fer
menting and distilling the syrup, and a
permanent red or pink dye can be made
from it, which answers all purposes of giv
ing silk or woolen fabrics these colors.
This battle has been pretty well written
up in these columns, but the following par
agraphs, from the tetter of an eye witness,
may bo found interesting :
Just before sunset, I took a ramble
through the grounds and encampments of
the rebels. It is impossible to describe the
scene. The rebels were falling into line,
preparatory to embarking upon the steam
ers. Standing upon the hill beyond the
village, I had at one view almost all their
force. Hogarth never saw such a sight ;
Shakespeare in his conceptions of FalstafFs
tatterdemalions, could not have imagined
the like. I do not mean that they were
deficieut in intellect, for among them were
noble men, brae fellows, who shed tears
when they found that they were prisoners
of war, and who swore with round oaths
that they would shoot Floyd as they would
a dog, if they could get a chance, bat that
for grotesque appearance they were never
equalled, except by the London bagmen
and chiffoniers of Paris. There were all
sorts of uniforms, brown colored predomi
nating, as if they were in tho snuff busi
ness and had been rolled in tobacco dust.
There was sheep gray, iron gray, blue gray,
dirty gray, with bed blankets, quilts, bed
robes, pieces of carpeting of all colors and
figures, for blankets. Each had his pack on
his shoulder. Judging by their garments,
one would have thought that the last scrap
ings, odds and ends of humanity, had been
brought together. I do not write this as
at all impeaching their bravery, but to show
the straitened condition of the Southern
Confederacy that can only give its troops
such an outfit.
I mingled freely with the prisoners, offi
cers and men, to ascertain, if possible, their
views and feelings. There is a marked dif
ference between those from Mississippi,
Arkansas, and Texas, and the Kentuckians
and Tennesseans. Those from the Gulf
States were sour, not inclined to talk as a
general rule ; or, if talkative, they at once
commenced about the negro, and were
defiant. The Tennesseans, I think, or a
majority of them, were not much sorry
that the result was as it was. I h;ard one
Mississippian express his utter contempt of
the Tennesseans. The Mississippi Colonel
informed me that if compelled to retreat
from Nashville, it would be given to the
flames, and if we moved South we should
find all the cities and towns destroyed, and
if at last we conquered, we should find a
destroyed country. It is not easy to un
derstand such insanity.
The dispatches sent out give startling
accounts of terrific fighting, and I have
heard many say that it was the hardest
battle America ever saw ; but as these men
have not seen all the battles fought on this
continent, I shall accopt it with some allow
ance. There was some very good fighting;
some very brave and some cowardly. There
is but little doubt that Taylor's battery
saved the day, when the enemy advanced
to attack Wallace. r There was no great
generalship on either side no manaeuver
ing which would make aiiy Brigadier a
Lieutenant General ; there was on the other
hand an opportunity lost. A single field
piece landed on the other side of the river,
and put in position above the town, and
Floyd, the thief, would have been ours.
Colonel Reynolds, of one of the Mississippi
regiments, sneered at the supineness in the
matter, and said that it was, in bis view, a
great mistake on our part. He was very
bitter on Floyd, and his personal feelings
intensified his expression of opinion.
Elephants Declined. President Lin
coln evidently thinks, he has elephants
enough on hand, and is not desirous of
seeing any more of the same sort. The
King of Siam, pitying a country "with
two hundred and fifty religions and only
one soup," with several rebellions and ao
elephant, offers to send a few of the, latter
tQ.be. let loose to increase and, multiply in
the continent of America. The President
in his reply remarks i "This Government
would not hesitate Jto avail itself of so1 gen
erous an offer, if the object were oao which
could be made practicably useful ia the
present condition of the United States.
Our political condition, however, does not
reach a latitude' so low as to favor. the awl
tiplication, ot the elephant, and steaia on
land as well as oa water has been our best
and most efficient agent of transportation
in internal commerce.'7
A Southern Martyr.
When the secret history of current events
at the South is brought to light, there will
be revelations of sacrifice and suffering for
loyalty to the Union, that will show that
the age of heroism ha? not wholly gone by.
A recent letter from a lady in Charleston,
of undoubted authenticity, gives an account
of a martyr to loyalty whose name will be
honored in the history that i3 yet to be
written of the great events of this age,
though now concealed from motives of
" Poor F is dead. Before the fall
of Sumter he exerted all his influence,
using both pen and voice against the rebel
lion, until he was thrown into prison. At
first he was treated as an ordinary criminal
awaiting trial ; but after the battle of Ma
nassas, the Confederates seemed drunk with
their triumph and victory, and mad with
rage over the vast number of victims who
fell in their ranks. I wrote you with what
pomp this city mourned for her dead ;
amid it all, when the Confederate host
seemed likely to win, F. was offered free
dom and promotion, if he would espouse
the Confederate cause. His military and
scientific attainments were considerable,
which made them anxious for his services.
'I have sworn allegiance to the Union
said he, 'and am not one to break my
pledge." When tempted with promotion,
if he could be prevailed upon to enlist
beneath their banner, he said, 'Yon cannot
buy loyalty. I love Carolina and the
South, but I love my country better
"Finding him faithful to the flag he
loved, he was made to feel the power of his
enemies. He was cast into a miserable,
damp, ill-ventilated cell, and fed on coarse
fare ; half the time neglected by his drunk
en keeper. His property was confiscated,
and his wife and children beggared. Poor
fellow ! he sunk beneath his troubles, and
was soon removed from the persecution of
his oppressors. The day before his death
he said to his wife, 'Mary, you are beggared
because I would not prove disloyal 'God
be thank for your fidelity replied the wife.
' They have taken your wealth and life, but
could not stain your honor, and our chil
dren shall boast of an unspotted name. My
husband, rejoice in your truth She re
turned to her friends after bis death, openly
declaring her proudest boast should be, her
husband died a martyr to his patriotism.
Who shall say the day of heroism has
m m m
The Late Edick.
Villiam Brown, Eskevire, a particular
friend of Orpheus C. Kerr, who writes for
the Sunday Mercury, gets off the following
Having noticed that the press of the
United States of America is making an
ass of itself, by giving information to the
enemy concerning the best methods of car
rying on the strategy of war, I do hereby
assume control of all special correspondents,
forbidding them to transact anything but
private business; neither they, nor their
wives, nor their children, to the third and
I. It is ordered, that all advice from
editors to the War Department, to the gen
eral commanding, or the generals command
ing the armies in the field, be absolutely
forbidden ; ns such advice is calculated to
make the United States of America an
II. Any newspaper publishing any news
whatever, however obtained, shall be ex
cluded from all railroads and steamboats, in
order that the country journals, which
receive the same news during the following
year, may not be injured in cirkylation.
III. ibis control of bpccial Correspond
ence, docs not include the correspondent of
the London Times, who wouldn't be be
lieved if he published all the news of the
next Christian era. By order of
Villiam Brown, Eskevire,
Capt. Conic Section, Mackcral Brigade.
JSTTIic United States is formally and
officially withdrawn from competition at the
forthcoming International Exhibition at
London, and the Commissioners appointed
by the President, are notified that their
functions have ceased.,. The United States
are just now busy in an International Ex
hibition on a large scale, which is no less
than the public testing of the power of a
free people to put down revolt The na
tions are looking on, and will doubtless be
instructed by what they are to see. In
better times, Brother Jonathan will again
enter the list of rivalry ia the Mechanic
arts just now he is too busy.
!. A sick Wisconsin soldier in Balti
more, It was thought, gave up the ghost
last week. He was laid out, pot into a
handsome; snag coffin, aad atade ao objec
tions whatever until they began to screw
down the lid, when he rose in bis eereareats
and ressoastrated against' being buried
alive. He was uncofiaed, and put oa trial
for preventing a funeral which bad been
ordered by a ssperior officer.
a, Never was there a surrender any
thing like that of Fort Donelson on our
continent. Bnrpovne rare nn Tea than
1 a b w r -
six thousand men, and Cornwallis but little
over seven thousand.. In Jact we should
have to -read long in European history be
fore we should find a capitulation on a ecale
Oapula Bob Srtf ' HecoHHoisaace.
' Orpheus C. Kerr," a funny correspond
dent of the New York Sunday Jfcrcuryt
writes from the National capital:
Scarce had the glorions sun shot up the
dappled orient on Monday morn, my boy,
when the Commander-in-chief of the Mack?
erel Brigade received a telegraphic dispatch,
which read as follows:
" General Frost has appeared near Cen
treville, and is now covering the woods and
roads in our rear."
It bore no signature, my boy; but the
General believed the danger to be immi
nent, and ordered Captain Bub Shorty to
to take ten thousand men and make a re
connoisancc near Centreville.
" Bob, my cherub," says he, if you can
get behind the rebel Frost, and take the
whole Confederacy prisoner, don't adminis
ter the oath until the Eagle of America is
Bob smiled liko a happy oyster and said :
'Twas nigh upon the hcur of noon when
Captain Bob Shorty and his veterans ap
proached the beautiful village of Centre
ville. Cross trees had been placed under
the horses of the cavalry to keep them from
falling down, and the infantry were arrang
ing themselves so that the bayonets of tho
front rank shouldn't stick in the rear rank's
eyes every time they turned a corner, when
a solitary contraband might have been seen
eating hoe-cake by the solitary road side.
: Confederate," said Ciptain Bob Shorty,
approaching him with his sword very much
between his legs, " hast thou seen the rebel
Frost and his myrmidions ? I have come
to give him battle, having heard that he was
The Ethiopian took a pentagonal bite of
hoe-cake, and said ho,
" Tell Massa Lincoln dat de frost were
worry thick last night ; but he bab gono
by dis time."
Captain Bob Shorty took off his cap, my
boy, looking carefully into it, put it on
again, and frowned awfully.
" Comrades," says he, addressing the
troops, " you have all heard of a big thing
on Snyder. You now behold it before you.
This here reconnoisance," says he, "is
what the French would call a fcic-paw.
We must turn it into a foraging expedition.
Charge on yonder haystack, and remember
me in your prayers !"
'Twas early eve, my boy, when that
splendid army returned to the Potomac's
shore, with two haystacks for the horses,
and ten Confederate chickens for supper.
Nobody hurt on our side.
Big Thins on the "Ham Guards."
The war is prolific in humorous scenes as
well as bloody honors. For instance, a
brave volunteer is introduced by the fol
lowing: Rev. Mr. , a man about six feet
four in his stockings, and of proportions
worthy a grenadier, and whose heart is as
stout as his frame, a thorough Union man,
and in for the war until treason is entirely
crushed out, was recently conducting a
religious meeting, when a brother arose to
speak, who, after alluding to his hopes and
fears in a religious point of view, branched
out in reference to the state of the country,
saying that so great was his devotion to tho
Stars and Stripes that ho had enlisted ; and
after a few further patriotic remarks, beg
ged an interest in the prayers of the church,
that he might be protected by Divine
Providence on the battle field, and that if
he should fall a victim to the bullets of the
enemy he might be prepared for the change.
Such a speech at any time would thrill
with patriotic fervor the brave heart of our
worthy minister, and he consequently spoko
in a few words of encouragement to the
hero. When the wife of the enlisting man
volunteered her experience, in the course of
which, alluding to her husband's enlist
ment, she expressed a willingness to give
him up, even onto death, in the service of
In a few moments aftct, the meeting
came to an end, when the minister, all
anxiety for the welfare of the patriotic vol
unteer, proceeded to make some inquiries
in reference to his regiment, commencing
with the very natural question as to its
name and number, when ho received tho
startling reply ,
" I've jined the Hum SuardP'
A. Terrible Fate. We learn that a
few days since, several notorious Jayhawk
ers were caught near Nebraska City, and
not having a jail sufficiently secare to con
fine them ia, it was deemed advisable by
their captors to end their thieving career at
once. A hole was accordingly cut ia tha
ice, and the guilty wretches wero given
passes on the ' under ice ' route to Leaven
worth where such characters have been in
the habit of resorting. St. Joteph Gazette.
"Aa honest saaa is the noblest work
of the-Lord I" enthusiastically exclaimed a
hard-shell Baptist: and then, altera pause,
he added, " bat the Lord hasn't had a job
in the world for fifty years !"
13," Ma,' somebody's going to die!"
said a knowing little fellow, who was look
ing out of tha window into the street
"Why?" asked the anxious Mother.
"'Cause the doctor's jastgoneby' was