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The Billings gazette. (Billings, Mont.) 1896-1919, December 31, 1909, Image 5

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Persistent link: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84036008/1909-12-31/ed-1/seq-5/

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Will Repay the Settlers
WASHINGTON, D. C., Dec. 30.
Under the plan of settlement devised
by Secretary Ballinger, all settlers on
government irrigation projects who
assisted in building the same, and
were paid off in water users' cer
tiicates, will be repaid for their labor,
if their certificates have not hereto
fore been accepted as part payment
for water rights. The fiscal agent on
each project where these cooperative
certificates were issued will immedi
atly tbe authorized to pay, by govern
ment check, all settlers who performed
such work, the check to be equiva
lent to the face value of the certifi
cates presented. No such payment,
however, will be made to speculators
holding certificates. Their only re
course will be to reach an understand
ing with the settler whose certificates
they bought at less than face value.
The secretary of the interior issued
the following statement explanatory
of his refunding plan:
"Secretary Ballinger has approved
a tentative plan for the settlement of
claims outstanding against the recla
mation fund for work done under the
cooperative agreements, whereby such
certificates as do not show on their
face that they have been assigned
may be accepted as evidence that the
holder performed the service or paid
some one else to perform it for him,
payments to be made on the project
by check drawn by the local fiscal
agent.
"The method to be followed in mak
ing such settlements contemplates the
surrender of certificates ,by the water
users' associations and all parties who
have certificates or claims on account
of work done or materials furnished,
or the filing of claims for the work
done where certificates have not been
issued.
Forests of United States
WASHINGTON, Dec. 30.-"The For-i
ests of the United States; Their Use,"
is the title of a pamphlet just issued
by the forest serivice. It contains
some food for thought; it also pre
sents some ground for argument. The
following extracts are made without
comment:
Our forests now cover 550,000,000
acres, or about one-fourth of the
United States. The original forests
covered not less than 850,000,000 acres.
"Forests publicly owned contain
one-fifth of all timber standing. Pri
vately owned forests contain four
fifths of the standing timber. The
timber privately owned is generally
more valuable than that owned by the
government. The Pacific coast for
ests probably contained originally 90,
000,000 acres with a stand of 1,400,
000,000,000 feet. The Rocky mountain
forests covered about 110,600,000
acres with a stand of 400,000,000,000
feet. The Pacific forests now cover
80,000,000 acres, or 89 per cent of the
original acreage; the Rocky Mountain
forests cover 100,000,000 acres, or 91
per cent.
Our industries which subsist wholly
or mainly upon wood pay the wages of
more than 1,500,000 men and women.
The industries which use wood wholly
or mainly in manufacture represent
an investment of over $2,250,000,000
and yield each year a product worth
$3.000,000,000.
The national forests In the Rocky
mountain and Pacific coast states af
ford summer ranges to over 12 per
cent of the cattle and 21 per cent
of the sheep in the states in which
they lie.
"Forests publicly owned contain
over 100,000,000 acres of merchantable
timber, with a stand of 484,200,000,000
feet B. M., distributed as follows:
Board feet.
Nlational forests...... 390,000,000,000
National parks. ......1. 11,000,000,000
Unreserved public lands 14,000,000,000
Indian reservations.... 34,000,000,000
Military reservations .. 200,000,000
State forests .......... 35,000,000,000
484,20,000,000
Corporate holdings with the large
individual holdings contain about
1,700,000,000,000 feet of timber. This
is on the average, the most valuable
timber in the United States. Forestry
is practiced on less than 1 per cent
of this area.
"We take from our forests annu
ally including waste in logging and in
manafacture. 20,000,000,000 cubic feet
of wood. We use in a normal year
90.000,000 cords of firewood. 40,000,
hoard feet of lumber, 118,000,000 hewn
ties, 1.50,000,000 staves, over 133,000,
000 sets of headings, nearly 500,000,
000 barrel hoops, 3,000.000 cords of
native pulp wood, 165,000,000 cubic
feet of mine timbers, and 1,250,000
cords of wood for distillation.
"Forest fires burn over millions of
:cres and destroy billions of feet of
timber annually. The young growth
destroyed by fire is worth far more
than the merchantable timber burned.
The loss in the mill is from one-third
to two-thirds of the timber sawed. The
loss in the mill product through
seasoning and fitting for use is front
one-seventh to one-fourth. Great dam
age is done by insects to forests and
forest product. An average of only
320 feet of lumber is used for each
1.000 feet which stood in the forest.
"We take from our forests each
year, not counting the loss by fire
three times their yearly -growth. We
take 36 cubic feet per acres for eadh
12 cubic feet grown; we take 230
cubic feet per capita while Germany
uses 37 cubic feet and France 27
cubic feet.
"The condition of the world supply
of timber makes us already depend
ent upon what we can produce. We
send out of our country one and one
half times as much timber as we bring
in. Except for finishing woods rela
tively insignificant in quantity, we
must grow our own supply or go
without. We have taken our dividends
out of our forest capital, until we
have greatly reduced the capital itself.
We have 65.000,000 acres of cut-over
and burned-oiver forest land, upon
which actual Iplanting will be neces
sary to iproduce a merchantable crop
"Upon the receipt of such certifi
cates, vouchers will be prepared on
the usual forms in the name of the
persons to receive payment for the
amount found to be due, evidenced by
attached cooperative certificates of
various denominations; in case the
lialbility is not represented by the
certificates surrendered, the detail of
work done or material furnished to be
shown with unit rates in lieu thereof,
with proper deductions for settlements
previously made. These vouchers are
to be certified to by the claimants, by
the project engineer, and approved in
the usual manner and submitted to
the special fiscal agent for payment.
"All certificates heretofore surren
dered and filed in the department, but
not wholly applied, will be forwarded
to the project engineer and the credit
yet remaining in favor of the persons
surrendering them included in the
vouchers presented.
"Water users who desire may avail
themselves of the opportunity afford
ed by this plan for making settlement
of construction, maintenance, and
operation charges due the government.
This may be done, on their request,
by the payment of the amount due by
two checks, one representing an
amount equal to the charges for con
struction, maintenance and operation,
cte other covering the balance of the
claims and the endorsement by the
water user of the one check, which
latter he will turn over to the fiscal
agent or forward direct to the receiver
of the local land office in settlement
of his charges.
It is estimated that about $381,000
worth of these cooperative certificates
are outstanding. Supervising and
project engineers will be fully advised
as to the details of the above plan at
an early date."
of timber. Of the 9,500,000 acres of
forest cut over each year, 1,000,000
acres is cleared for farms; 5 750,000
acres is restocked naturally, and
2,750,000 acres go to increase our na
tional task in forest planting.
"Douglas fir and yellow pine, now
our chief source of supply, are going
far quicker than they grow. Douglas
fir cost 65 per cent more at the mill
in 1907 than it did in 1900.
"We invite by over-taxation the
misuse of our forests under the gen
eral property tax, 'a method of tax
ation abandoned long ago .by every
other great nation. The taxation of
forest lands has been excessive and
has led to 'waste by forcing the de
structive logging of mature forests,
as well as through the abandonment
of cut-over lands for taxes. That this
has not been more Igeneral is due to
under-assessment, to lax administra
tion of the law, but to no virtue of the
law itself.
"From now on the relation of tax
ation to the permanent usefulness of
the forests will be vital. Taxation
of forest lands should be based either
on the yield when out or on the earn
ing power of the forest. The former
would mean a tax on the land alone,
plus a tax on the timber when har
vested: the latter would mean an an
nual tax on the capital value of the
forest calculated upon the net re
turns expected from it. The former
method is well adapted to the actual
c uiditions o forest investment and is
practicable and certain. It 'would in
sure a permanent revenue from the
forest in the aggregate far greater
than is now collected, and yet be less
burdensome upon the state and the
owner. It is better that the forest
land should yield a moderate tax per
manently than that it should yield an
excessive tax temporarily and then
cease to yield at all.
"We have manufactured more lum
ber than we require. We have es
tablished a consumption per capita
based not merely on actual need. but
on a lavishness, a disregard for pos
sible substitutes, and a scale of waste
in the use of wood equaled in no otheri
country. The cost of growing trees
has always been left out. That there
is, in the economic sense, overproduc
tion of lumber is wholly true, be
cause we manufacture more lumber
than our forests can yield perman
ently.
"We pay generally less for lumber
than it is worth, with a slight present
gain to ourselves individually, and by
so doing we discourage the, right use
of the forests and greatly increase
the cost of lumber to ourselves later
on. and to those who come after us.
We must recognize the actual value
of timber now or pay an excessive
price for it in the near future, and we
have carried destruction so far that
we shall probably have to do both.
"On national forests which has been
sold yearly for the last three years
an average of about 25,000,000 feet of
timber, the timber was sold at prices
no lower than those paid for timber
of the same kind and quality on pri
eate forest lands. If lumbermen can
with profit buy timber at .wh "t it is
worth from the forest lands of the
people and log it conservatively, they
can do it at least as well with their
own land.
"If all the wood wanted In the man
,-facture of lumber from spruce, hem
lock, poplar and cottonwood in 1907
had been used for paper masking it
would have furnished all the paper
made from wood in that year.
"By reasonable thrift we can pro
duce a constant timber supply be
yond our present need and with it
conserve the usefulness of our
streams for irrigation, water supply,
navigation and power.
"We shall suffer for timber to meet
our needs until our forests have had
time to grow again. But if we act vig
orously and at once we shall escape
permanent timber scarcity."
To save time of horsemen is the
object of a Californian, who has pat
ented a combined curry comb and
brush, so arranged that one follows
the other over the side of a horse.
obviating the necessity of going o.er
the animal twice.
Insecticides and Fungicides
At the last session of congress a
bill was introduced in both the senate
and house providing for the govern
ment control of the purity of insecti
cides and fungicides in much the same
manner as the, purity of foods and
drugs is now controlled. This bill was
introduced at the instance of the As
sociation of Economic Entomologists.
With the increased use of manufac
tured insecticides and fungicides, it
has become very necessary that their
quality should be standardized so that
definite recommendations for their use
may be made with accuracy and so
that adulterated and inferior articles
may not be imposed upon the farmer.
In view of the fact that many states
are enacting such legislation, the
manufacturers are warmly in favor
of a national law, which will govern
interstate traffic and which will tend
to secure greater uniformity of the
state legislation. While the passage
of such a national law would not pre
vent state legislation, it would in most
cases make special legislation by the
states unnecessary, and where states
desire to legislate they would tend
to pass laws similar .to the national
law. Several conferences of entomolo
gists, agricultural chemists and man
ufacturers have been held and prac
tically all of the large manufacturers
of insecticides and fungicides are
heartily in favor of the measure which
is drawn to protect the legitimate
interests of 'both the consumer and
the reputable manufacturer.
The measure has again been intro
duced at the present congress in the
house( H. R. 2218) by Hon. E. A.
Hayes of California and has been re
ferred to the committee on interstate
commerce. 'The bill will also be in
troduced in the senate and an earnest
effort will be made by the executive
committee representing the entomolo-'
gists, chemists and manufacturers to
bring the measure to a vote before
congress. Practically all the leading
horticultural and agricultural organ-'
izations of the country have endorsed
the measure. 'It seems probable that
the bill 'will be passed by congress if,
the members of congress become con
vinced that the people wish and need
such legislation. At the last session
of congress the bill was favorably re
ported by the senate committee on
agriculture, but this report was so
late in the session that pressure of
other business prevented a vote at the
Armament Is the Price of Peace
(Special to The Gazette.)
NEW YORK, Dec. 30.-Former Sen
ator James B. McCr.eary of Kentucky,
president of the American Peace and
Arbitration league, is in this city. He
came on to bid goodbye to Ernest
Beckman the noted Swedish liberal,
who recently sailed for home.
Senator McCreary is enthusiastic as
to the prospects of the peace and ar
aitration movement.
He said to tne Publishers' Press:
"I was much pleased to find that
Hr. Beckman as well as other prom
inent statesmen of other countries
take a deep interest in the work of our
league, the program of which has been
approved by former President Roose
velt, by President Taft, Admiral
Dewey, Secretary Knox, former Secre
tary of the Interior Cornelius N. Bliss,
General Horace Porter, ex-ambassador
to France, American delegate to the
national Hague conference, United
States Senators Clark, Daniels, Wil
liam Alden Smith, Robert L. Taylor,
and a number of other prominent men
who have associated themselves with
the work of the league, among whom
may be mentioned Hon. Champ Clark.
Henry Clews, Dr. E. Benjamin An
Irews, Brig. Gen. George E. Davis,
delegate to the second Hague confer
ence, and others.
"President Roosvelt declared that
the formulation of this program was
a new departure in the general peace
movement which entitled its authors
and advocates to the gratitude and
support of the whole American people.
This program is "adequate arma
ment and effective arbitration, corre
lative agencies for national security
and justice and for international
peace."
"Wherein does this program differ
from the programs of other peace so
cieties? Some other societies favor
national d'isarmament' or decreacing
of armaments, while many people de
clare that immense armaments are the
best or even the only way to secure
international peace.
"The program of the league recog
nizes the value of both national arma
ment and international arbitration as
agents for peace and Justice. It calls
for adecr ate 'armament.' Hy this is
meant such armament as will enable
the nation to protect its rights and
the rights of its citizens from forcible
attacks by any government that will
not recognize its rights in theory and
respect them in practice. The United
States came into existence through
making war in order to secure certain
rights for its people and when the
existence of the union was threatened
by the Civil war the nation made every
sacrifice of men or monEox that was
found necessary to preserve the union:
by force of arms. In the light of this
fact can this government for the mere
sake of preserving peace be expected
to allow any foreign nation to trample
upon American rights that were se
cured and then protected by great sac
rifices unon the field of battle?
"But the league is not willing to.
look only to an armament plan for the
preservation of national rights and of
international peace, any more than
for the preservation of individaual and
state rights. The principles of law
are due to the declaration or the con
stitution ,and adjudication and enforce
ment of these principles are required
by the league as the chief means of
preserving peace and the ,administra
tion of justice, between the individual
citizen and between the states of the
American Union.
"The learue requires that similar
agencies of an international charac
ter must be the main hope of preserv
short session. In their report this
committee stated as follows:
"The bill was referred to the secre
tary of agriculture with the request
for his views thereon end the measure
as amended is exactly in line with
his recommendation. The legislation
has the unanimous endorsement of
practically all the organizations of
practical growers in the country as
well as the National Grange, the Na
tional Apple Growers' Congress, the
American Association of Economic
Entmologists and in fact all the or
Cganizations representing the con
sumers. On the other hand prac
tically all the leading manufacturers
are heartily in favor of the measure.
Your committee considers the legisla
tion of vital interest to the fruit and
truck growers of the country and rec
ommends its enactment in a law."
We hear very frequent complaint
of imapure or ineffective insecticides.
In many cases these complaints are
unwarranted and lack of success is
due to improper usage rather than
poor quality, but there is no question
that inferior goods are on the market
as shown by the publication of
analyses by some of the experiment
stations. In the last Yearbook of the
United States department of agricul
ture it is stated that the Ibureau of
chemistry has analyzed samples of
arsenate of lead which were prac
tically nothinfg but white arsenic.
This would, of course, be quite in
jurious to foliage. 'The sale of such
an article is not only unfair to the
consumer but hurts the sale of prop
erly made arsenate of lead, than
which there is no better arsenical in
secticide. If the fruit and truck grow
ers and farmers of the country desire
such legislation for the control of the
purity of insecticides and fungicides
they should let their congressmen
hear from them in favor of the pas
sage of this measure (H. R. 2218) at
once and make their position clear
as to the need of such a law.
If you are interested in this, write
your congressmen at once, stating
that the bill is before the committee
on interstate commerce and you wish
their influence toward favorable re
port by the committee and prompt
action by the house. Write at once
as the matter is being pushed for
speed, consideration. If every one in
terested will thus show their interest
the law can probably be passed.
ing peace and the administering of
justice among nations.
"Certainly our men (both policemen
and soldiers) are part of these agen
cies of domestic law, order and peace
but congress and courts are also and
it may be truly said the more cus-'
tomary means of securing justice and
keeping the peace.
"The United States government pro
posed at the second Hague conference
that a properly constituted interna
tional congress and court of justice:
be created as a means of securing in-'
ternrational peace and justice. The
other nations are unwilling to make
at this time, the arrangement pro
posed by the United States. This fact
has led the American Peace and Arbi
tration league to advocate for the
present, such an arbitration program
as will be most likely to win the ap
proval of this and other governments
pending the time when the nations will
all consent to the creation of the most
approved and modern machinery for
peace and justice on an international
scale and for international uses.
"When proper arbitration treaties
have been concluded between all na
tions and when arbitration in this
form has been sufficiently tried and
found adequate for the protection of
national rights the people of all na
tions will see the safety of national'
courts and congresses with ample
power and jurisdiction.
"The American Peace and Arbitra
tion league invites all good citizens
to assist in taking as long and rapid
steps .as possible on this safe way to
peace and justice and in the meantime
to keep the United States adequately
armed so as to protect America and
American rights against any aggres
sion that may manifest itself in 'any
part of the world.
"This program seems to be a prac
tical one. Its promulgation w'aq a
great step forward and its approval by
the former and present presidents of
the United States is of the utmost im
portance. Proper support of finan
cier, business men and the people gen
erally will be another long step on the
way of permanent international peace
and security.
"Preparing proper international or
ganizations for securing national
rights and for administering internia
tional justice is absolutely necessary
before it will be possible to relieve
the people of the burden of arma
ments, made necessary by the busi
ness of such agencies for interna
tional peace and justice.
"The American Peace and Arbitra
tion league expects to do its part in
this good work. Its officers and di
rectors hope this part will be a large
one and that it will be worthily done
considering the vast and vital interests
involved."
TARIFF JOKERS.
No doubt those who are interested
in the various trades affected know
pretty well by this time how the new
tariff operates. But the general pub
lic is necessarily slower to discover
the various tricks by which duties
have been raised. A few days ago at
tention was called in this column to
the sneaking way in which the duty
on structural steel had been lifted.
Students of the measure have called
attention to the raising of duties in
the cotton schedule, notably on mer
cerized cloth. Primarily, too, with the
tax on lead imposed for the benefit of
the smelting trust. We know how, by
the maintenance of the old color class
ification, it has been made impossible
to import any sugar except that which
the thieving sugar trust brings in to
refine. And now it develops that the
itax on sawed lumber has been greatly
Woodmen to Spend Half Million on Consumptive
F . .:i " ." ' "" ;:. : - '" . , . ' ' , " : . .i.. "". .~ 5 V
t~4'
.. ..........
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T.'BEII('I'I, OSIS ('AMI', MIODERNS WOOD MEN Oy' AMERIC'.
Half a million dollars is the sum
Swhich the Modern Woodmen of
America will spend within the next
few years in providing the order with
a plermanent and practical weapon
with which to wage the battle against
tuberculosis among its 1,000,000 meni
hers. Near Colorado Springs, Colo.,
the order has purchased an ideal site
of 1,200 acres, where already it has
provided accommodations for upward
of 100 patients, at an initial expendi-.
ture of more than $100,000. Plans for
the institution have been drawn on a
broad and comprehensive scale, and
provision was made at the last head
camp meeting for a permanent an
nual income of $100,000 through a
per capita tax of 10 cents a year.
The site was selected to secure not
only the undoubted beneficial effects
of Colorado's curative climate, but
with a view to its economic useful
ness as well. The sanitarium has a
most ,beautiful environment. Located
in the foothills 10 miles north of and
in direct communication with Colo
rado Springs, the tract is a part of
Monument Park, wihich with its curi
ously shaped monumental rock form
ations has long been one of the scenic
attractions of the Pike's Peak region.
Included in the tract are productive'
farm lands, an apple orchard, a coal
mine, and an excellent water sul)ply, I
thus providing the sanitarium with
much of its own supplies, fuel, water
and power at a minimum cost. The
buildings are located on a central
plateau and are approached from the
south and east by splendid drives
through pines and crags.
The institution represents a dis
tinctive plan. It is being 'built on the
unit system in order that it may never
become unwieldy, no matter how
increased, and again by a trick. The
Dingley law provided that sawed lum
ber, hewn, sided or squared, should
pay a duty of 1 cent a cubic foot.
The new law fixes this tax at '% a
cent. But the senate added to. the
words "hewn, sided or squared," the
words "otherwise than by sawing." As
most lumber is now squared by saw
ing, the effect of these added words is
to take this product out of the %-cent
classification. Under just what classi
fication it falls is not clear. In any
event, the effect is to increase the tax
by the addition of four apparently
harmless words which operate to
change the classification.
So again we see how the scheme
works. Under a pretense of reducing
the duty from 1 cent to % cent a cubic
foot the tax was actually increased.
And this is the penalty that must be
paid for sawing instead of hewing tim
ber. It is an interesting case of "re
sion downward."
The point we make-and it is one
that our English friends would do well
to give some attention to-is that un
der such a system as ours, which in
vites men to seek and push for favors
at the hands of the government, such
tricks as this are almost inevitable.
Indianapolis News.
ONLY A GOVERNORI
Governor Gilchrist of Florida, who
was one of the many governors ac
companying President Taft on his
recent trip down the Mississippi, has
discovered -a new definition which he
will endeavor to have placed in all of
the standard dictionaries. Here it Is:
Governor-A small potato.
"At Cape Girardeau I got off the St.
Paul expecting to accompany Presi
dent Taft to the State Normal school,"
he said.
"A long line of automobiles was
drawn up in the main street and I
expected to ride in one of them.
" 'Guess you can't.' said my escort,
a member of the local reception com
mittee.
" 'Why?' I asked.
"'Well,' he replied, 'you're only a
governor. Those machines are for
the president, the diplomats and the
newspaper men.'
"We walked."-Norman E. Mack's
National Monthly.
RAILROADER VIOLENTLY INSANE.
PHILADELPHIA, Dec. 28.-Bernard
Baile, second vice president and gen
eral freight traffic manager of the
Philadelphia & Reading company, be
came violently insane today in his of
fice in the Reading terminal, and after
t struggle was removed to a hospital.
It is believed overwork was the cause
of Mr. Baile's breakdown.
large it may grow to be. It is to
consist of six (or more if needed)
cottage tent colonies, each containing
60 tents. In the center of each col
ony is a utility building, providing,
with the exception of meals, for prac
tically all the needs of the group,
their nurses and la doctor. A large
central building contains the dining
hall and culinary departments, while
for those patients unlable to 'be ul
there is an infirmary with its own
diet kitchen. On one side of the cen
tral )uilding will be the amusement
hall and on the other the medical
buildings. With these buildings, con
structed of rustic stone, standing at
the head of the central plaza, the
effect 'is most dignified and imposing.
The tents 'are octagonal in shape,
built on concrete bases with hard
wood floors, green shingle roofs, win
dows ,and doors, with closet and
dresser built in the tent. Besides be
ing cheaper than rooms in buildings,
the tent cottages have the advantages
of individual privacy end of provid
ing the necessary fresh air combined
with every comfort. At the. head of
each bed is an electric bell, and a
power plant 'will ultimately furnish
electric light and steam heat. A
steam laundry and ice plant are also
to be a part of the equipment. The
help are cared for in tent colonies of
a different type. The physicians and
aapartment heads have small cottages
along the hills.
Several years will be required to
carry out the plans now made for the
institution. Plans are so elastically
made, however, that they permit the
work of caring for the patients to
progress during construction. One
colony of 60 patients has been in oper
ation since January, 1909, and con
struction work on the second colony
Windsor Castle Is Well Guarded Always
The presence of King Manuel at
Windsor castle has been the cause of
considerable quiet energy at Scotland
yard, and known anarchists have been
watched for at the ports, and those
whose presence is known in this coun
try have been shadowed. The precau
tions, however, taken for the safety
of King Edward are so nearly perfect
that little remains to be done in the
actual guardianship of Windsor castle.
For an unauthorized person to gain
an entrance into one of the king's
palances is nearly an impossibility. I;
has been done, but the number of
times could be almost counted on the
fingers of a hand.
Within the walls of Windsor castle
are treasures of priceless value and
even if the court is not in residence
no one can enter without his presence
being known to the police.
Although the royal residences are
so well guarded at all times the guard
is strongest when a foreign sovereign
pays a state visit to this country.
Then almost every other man is a de
tective within a mile or two of Wind
sor castle, and no one who is not well
known has the slightest chance of
getting within esAsy reach of the royal
apartments.
When the king is in residence at
Windsor the guards are doubled. In
stead of one man marching up and
down with bayonet fixed between sen
try box and sentry box, there are two.
Then there are the metropolitan
policemen on duty at each gateway,
as well as royal gatekeepers in scar
let and gold livery. In addition to
that there are plain clothes detectives
and night watchmen.
A lunatic seldom gets farther than
Henry VIII's gateway at Windsor. The
little police office is just inside the
gate and here is officially recorded
every day anything of note that takes
place within the precincts of the
castle.
A few yards inside the gateway are
also the quarters of the officer who
is in command of the castle guard.
Telephones are installed all over the
castle, and the different entrances are
connected with the main switchboard.
near the equerries' entrance.
If a paper knife were taken out of
the castle today it would be missed to
morrow. Every treasure and piece of
furniture in Windsor castle is entered
into huge books and photographs are
kept of all the most valuable articles.
The sentries were always provided
with ball cartridges until a guards
mIwan fired three bullets into a stone
eil,phant on the east terrace of Wind
is rapidly nearing completion. Many
camps throughout the country are
donating $250, the sum required for
the building and equipment of a
single tent.
Treatment is conducted along prac
tical lines, emphasis being placed on
the outdoor features, so that almost
any day the patients may be seen
basking in the Colorado sunshine.
The executive council has decided to
conduct the sanitarium free of charge
to all members afflicted with tubercu
losis, but the provision has been made
that only those who are curable or
whose lives may be prolonged a con
siderable length of time will be ad
mitted. This rule is expected to bring
members to a realization of the neces
sity of beginning of the fight against
the disease in its earliest stages.
In an educational way, the sani
tarium will do an irpportant work.
From it will be disseminated by
pamphlet, by lecturers and the month
ly journal knowledge which will be
a potent factor in the world-wide
campaign for the prevention of tuber
culosis. The staff of lecturers re
cently held a meeting at the sani
tarium for the purpose of studying
its methods and spreading informa
tion throughout the country.
Aside from the humanitarian fea
tures the sanitarium is considered by
the head officers to *be a financial
economy. It is figured that each life
it saves represents $1,700, the aver-.
age amount of policies in force, at an
expense for treatment of one-twen
tieth that sum. Official reports show
that from 1891 to 1907, 14.5 per cent
of the total mortality, or 5,156 deaths,
were charged to tuberculosis and that
13.9 per cent of the insuranbe losses
of these years, or $9,065,000, resulted
from this cause.
sor castle, which he mistook for a
ghost in the mists of the early morn
ing. Now they have to depend on
their bayonets.
It is very seldom that thefts take
place at royal residences. The police
have power to search all bags or par
cels being conveyed from the royal
palaces. Many years ago a sentry at
Windsor castle managed to hook down
a valuable gold watch and chain from
one of the royal apartments with his
bayonet on the end of his rifle, but
he was quickly found out and pun
ished.
A night watchman goes on duty in
side the castle at Windsor every night
and comes off in the morning. In
case of fire, he would at once give the
alarm, and in a very few moments the
royal firemen and castle guard would
be on the spot, and all entrances
would be closed and guarded. The
same system prevails at the chief of
the other royal residences.
There used to be sentries at Frog
more in the early part of the last cen
tury, but there are none now. Around
the royal mausoleum at Frogmore,
where Queen Victoria's remains re
pose, the metropolitan police are on
duty all through the 24 hours.
The penalty for a soldier failing to
perform his duty when on guard out
side royal residences is so severe that
there are very few cases indeed on
record of men having to be taken off
their posts.
Two hours on and four hours off
duty are the allotted times in the
24 hours' round, and men are very
seldom discovered asleep. When the
court is in residence at the chief
royal palaces the strain of duty is
very severe at times.
The royal household police, of
course, take turns at night and day
duty, and when important functions
are on they have a very busy time.
In addition to the soldiers, police,
and detectives, there are, of course,
the royal servants and lodgekeepers,
who know a stranger at once.
Even if a visitor got through the
strong cordon around royal residences
he would still have to face the six
foot footmen in scarlet and gold, who
sit just inside the chief entrances.
Near at their hand is a telephone, and
if they have the least suspicion of a
visitor the police are acquainted in a
trice.
A stranger would have the greatest
difficulty, even if he successfully
eluded the hall porter, to find his way
about such buildings as Windsor cas
tle and Buckingham.-London Daily
.[ail.

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