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THE COLORED CITIZ N.
DEVOTED ',0 THE IzIrzBIT 1 Or OLORED ZrICAZ .3
Vol.. 1. No. 4. HELENA, MONTANA, MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 24, 1894. $2.ao Pna Yat.
D. S. HODGE,
SIIA.I ~aT' 701 o
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DR. M. ROCKMAN,
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aeri . Itr sd rivate 4y si eMase.
Osc.-et of roadway Rkelea.
OF HELENA, MONTANA.
CAPITAL PAID IN $500,000.
THOB. A. MARLOW .................. Prsidet
RORT. L. McCULLO, ........ Vice Premednt
ALBERT L SMITH ............... Cashier
R . P WEIRI('K. .................st. Cashier
Thos A. Marlow, H. . Gales,
David A. Cory, . W Walk.a,
Herman 0 A. H. Wilder,
Niholas Ker . J. MeNamara,
Olneral Banking BSolnesa Tranaacted.
OF HELENA, MONTANA.
UNITED BTATES DEPOSITORY.
eupim uad UNivud hFdi $171,866
L H. HERSFBIELD ............. President
A. J. DAVIDBON ..........Vice President
AARON RERSHFIELD ............Cashier
T. P. BOWMAN...................Amet. Cashler
Interrt allowe4 on depoalts left for a
specifedtame. Transfers of money made by
teleraph. Exchat e sold on the principal
cities of the United tes and Europe.
Boxes for rest at reasonable rates i our
Ere and brglar.proof safe depsdt vaults.
NEW ENGLAND NO LONGER LEADS IN
The "we Wet be w by as ZemSm
cmua to nase karpese tLa eo e Sm
betearmes spates Ia te A mutalain cf
The increase oa wealth from 1880 t
1890 in the states has camused muh
gomment. Free traders and calamity
howlers have bild up the eastern maus
facturing states as awful examples c
greed and robbery, while the poverty ot
the west has been oited in snob pi.eas
and heartrending stories of wrong and
oppreston that common justi demandsu
that the people shall be informed at
once of the fraud these decelvers of the
people are trying to have them believa
The census bulletin on wealth, No, 87,
issued March 19, 1894, is madethe bai.
The inareased wealth at the naiona I
$21,895,091,197, or $1.089 per eapita
Twenty-eight out of the 60 states -ad
territories erceed the average tan se
per capita Of these only ve ue east.
ern states-namely, Conneooout, Mas
sachusetts, New York, Pennm lvai
and Rhode Island-these rive having
only an average gain of $1.387 per wp
Its, while the Ave western states o
California, Colorado, Idaho, Mo s-.
and Nevada have an average of $8.4
The only states whoh have lost l.
the pst 10 years are eastern ate
Maine, New Hampshire and Vermcat
Kansas, which the Popullsts have
pauperised on every possible opa.cesa,
saved and accumulated tore wealth
in the 10 years preceding 1890
did Massachpsett. Nebraska ezNsee
Pennsylvania in her aocumula.ti
while Minnesota, Michigan and Wis
cousin all and each passed New Jerss
in the race for wealth.
Where do you afnd the "robbe
baron," the "giant robber," the
"fortress of geed and gain?" No lom
ger in manufactoring New glman.
Pennsylvania gives place to TareM In
the total sum of her avin, and New
York, with 3,000,000 of inmcrese
wealth, has not as much to divide to
each person as those in the Distris of
Ooltambi, where a factory is not haowm
M.rtgag. am Dee.
The table prepared by the oensus be
rean shows the mortgages in force Jan.
1, 1890, giving the per cents of number
and the amounts for which said mort
gages were given. From the character
of the public debates in conpgress and
from newspaper editorials one would
suppose that the entire mortgage in
debtedness of the peat west especially
had bedn given in order that the people
mjlght -hve, ans I m.ann unrm which
to live, attempting to show that the
mortgages were the result of the perilous
times through which these people have
been passing. The table which is ap
pended is a complete refutation of this
More than half of the mortgages given
were for purchase money. We all know
what this means. An individual is able
to buyaf rm or a piece real estate
by paying a part down and mortgaging
for the remainder. Twenty per cent of
these mortgages were given for improve
ments upon the property. Four and one
half per cent were given for purchase
money and improvements combined.
Six per cent was given for business
purposes. An individual wishes ready
cash upon which to speculate or do busi
ne. He thereby mortgages his farm.
Another owns a large tract of land, but
be wants farm machinery, domestic
animals and other personal property
with which to improve it This carries
1.96 per cent of the whole amount.
N4 Mwtresaed wr Mr.o to Lav UpI..
That which is said to be his family
expenses-namely, being the amount
upon which the farmer and his family
live-amounts to only & 40 per cent of
the number of tracts so mortgaged, or
1.78 per cent of the amount so mort
The riends of god government a.d
Republican control, against whom the
infamous charge at mortgage indebted
nees has been hurled, are asked to care
fully read this table. You will notice at
the bottom of the table the total amount
at mortgaged indebtedness is $1,094,
877,798 in 1890. This was placed on
9,517,747 separate pieces ca prtperty.
By an eaumination of the reports of
the eleventh census the collection of
taxes for state, local and school purposes
in 1890 amounted to $69,36,6384, or
$9.09 per capita for the whole country.
These figures reveal some strange con
ditics, so far as state, county and city
government is concerned, and they fur
nish in part an answer to the great
clamor that is constantly heard in the
congres of the United States for the
lessening of taxes
The southern states, divided into two
divisions, known as the south Atlantic
and the south central divisions, re wr
thy af an examination as compared with
the rest of the United States. The saouth
Atlantic division, including the District
of Columbia, pays annually $4.81 per
capit for all taxes, including schools,
while the south central division pays
only $4.08 per epits, making a general
Overage per capita for all the southern
sates o $4.14 for all sta local anad
dsh t am.
The nort Atlantic division pays per
capita $19.83. The north central divi
sai pays $9.80. The western division
pays $1.0, or an average for all the
states outide of the south of $1 4 T,
being three times the amount per capita
paid by the south. Here, again, we dis
over the difference between purely agri
cultural staes and states with diverm
ed lndustries. The south, without fas.
toris and industrial improvement, Is
also without enterprise or public im
How the people of North Carolina can
manage the dairs of a great state ha
ing uch resources as she is capable o
with a tax ler of 1.99 er ,ants fe
all purposes, while in the Distrit of Co
lumbia $1.88 per capita are collected,
or In Mhssachsetts $30. 76 are collected,
or in Nevada $988. are collected, can
ly be understood a revealing the ut
want of enterprise in publio affairs.
Thee figures are cited to show that in
states where free trade ides prevail
hing else partakes of the nature
of ohbeapn -ehep an obhep bomes,
cheap roads, chep towans, cheap rail
, against the thrift and enter
irie of New Englau d and the great
I West . s lee nes
The Demoorat. having smcceeded in
ng a tariff bill which alts every
, i the promises and expectations
of the framers and champions no the
meaure are in anywise fullled, the
most sanguine of ur people will be
The question of money at once takes
.the place of tarif in the minds of all
thoughtful reople and is the all absorb
ing topic of investigatin and discus
following the lines laid down by the
Sepublioan party more than 80 years
ago, when as a party they were com
pled to aoriginae and adopt a system
Surrency and national credit, which
was to be tesd b t moast desperae
if all methods known in history, bt
which was to smcceed and triumph in
semirlng a place in the monetary ea
tsmes of the world far above anything
ver Instituted in human goernmeut,
they havee oatiued to pesse and main
tain uanbrken through all the yas of
Republican 'ontrol an insroheageable
arrenay bused upon co, eery dollar
of which has been maintained and .
deemed asoordingo to he original pledga.
The party odray is il to Pwe ofa
sound money ald ball comnte to
maintain by legislatlion the use ot old,
silver and paper, with proait to all the
HONORED BY A NATION.
mie. Begu1es 3eeves he URbbe art Me
*Lgssa er Muses.
The French government, by awarding
the ribbon of the Legion ot Honor to
Mmae Bogelot, has turned a brilliant
lit on a personality whose aeer has
hitherto taia -iew iati -l
Leaving to others the oae d vindleat
1mg the feminine ca.e in publio meet
iLgs and in the press, MmY Bogelot
as devoted her life to the redemption
it female criminals. Her name is int
mately connected with that highly phil.
anthropio work, the "(Hntre de Lber
es de St. Lasae," of whleh she is now
directres, and it is mainly due to the
fat that she persoa ily represented the
society at the woman's coungrp at Chi
cago that she owes this public recogni
tion of her worth-an honor seldom
vouchsafed to women, however well
merited. To be thus singled oat from
among others of her sex must certainly
be extremely gratifying, but it is pleas
ing to find that Mme. Bogelot takes her
honors very meekly. The predominating
characteristics of the new bevaliere are
meekness and ceerfulness, combined
with excellent business capuacties and a
boundless compassion for human errors
and misfortunes of every shape
She is an admirable specimen of that
olass of Frenchwomen about whom the
fashionable society of Paris knows lit
"The world and I are strangers I
never go out, never pay visits," Mma
Bogelot explained in a recent interview.
"I rise early, the morning is spent at
home dictating letters to my private seo
retary. During the afternoon hours I
am generally to be found at the otAess
of the (Euvre des IAberees de St. La.
sae. At 6 o'clock I return to dine with
my husband and son, and I am seldom
out of bed after 8."
This is the simple epitome o Mmha
Bogelot's self sacrilcing existence In
her home surroundings there are abun
dant evidences that the humanitarian
labors of this excellent woman are not
allowed to interfere with the comfort of
her husband. There is no disorder in
her household. You feel that every
thing moves on oiled wheels. A roomy
fiat in a large house situated in a small
street turning out of the busy BRue de
Rivoli is her abode, solidly but simply
furnished, a single, middle aged serv
ant composing the entire sta. It is
pleasant to note that between husband
and wife there is complete harmony of
ideas and interests, IL Bogelot, who is
a member of the bar, afording his wife
aid and advice on all legal matters con
reeted with her work.
Few women leading more or less of
a public life manage to steer clear o the
quicksands of sectarianism. That Mma
Bogelot has been able to do so is due
Spartly to a well balanced mind and
I amiable temper, partly to the manifold
I eooupations of her busy lif. She is ewr
s adyto give advice a reeet to the
administration of swolies a matter L
which she is thoroghly coavenant,
but she wisely restricts her own labors
to the speolal lines she has taken up,
and which absorb all her time and mer
gles Politics mnevl attrated her, nor
has she ever taken active part in the
vindientia of wom.'s rights Still she
is ever ready to lend a helprg hand to
members do her own me, to fellow
workers as well a is the dislnherited
by fortunea Ht, altheugh bshe peronal
lyprefers tohod aloo toor party sri
the woman's case has undoubtedly her
entire sympathy. Indeed it would have
been strange had It been otherwise,
owing to the great hfldsip that est
ad between her sad the late Maria De
raismea The oon ti between them
was almost that of mistres and pupil.
There was a diereaose of some 10 years
in their ages, and Isabelle Bogelot,
when a weakly child, was taken under
the wing of the elder woman and her
sister, Mma PFenins that she might
have the benmet ot country air, and is.
malned an inmate at their house until
she married. This early training had
probably a great efeot cm her sabs
Not being gifted with literary abill.
ties as was the mre brilliant Marts
Deraimes, she sought to render herself
useful in other way It was not, bow
eve, until after her marrage tat she
j the (uEm des Liberees de L
war h with whish her name his Wasce
been so inseparably enm ted. This
was in 1878, and the sociaety had been
founded three years previously by Mile
Miohel ds Gradps the alse of the
chaplain of Si. Larne, who had been
strack during her iateroease with the
lamates of this he of detention by
the ainety evlaced q so ma ry the
prisoners as their terms of mlaprison
meat came to a elss ed em hnew
they would be ase mose n
their own resouaees e have to do bake
tie with the diAeultie et lls, heavily
handicapped by the Iesday .y a Iom
victio. Initiated age the w as d
the soolety by Man rnfie ie
des, its vice posemt, rns Bogelot
threw herself Ito the wrak haut and
soul sad wa very e s eetsd a s
ber of the coslla to blecome I
1880, its general dibetesse, a pi
which she has hoeMwellase-Lrsden
WEST VIf gp OR m1081IO
Thm.e Rause Tmse Age Wth P eiU was
oa esi Tts w ta seln.
The question d protection for wool
end manufatures there seems to have
occupled the attention cd the lawmakers
in the American colonies in the very be
ginning at their htory. As early a
1609 the coloniss of Jamestown, Va,
wene provided with sheep, which did
not increase very rapidly in conequence
ed their destratien by wolves, so that
to 1648, 9 years after their first intro
whole colony of Virginia wea only
8,000. The fist evidemce ' government
protection for wool wa in an enactment
pased in 1667, setting forth that no
sheep be transported out'of the colony
eaept upon such penalties a may be
thought it hr thm govrnor and the
ooouncil, and in 166e VLrgnir , a stat
ate, not only prohibited the exporta
tion of wool, but offeed a bounty as an
encouragement to the raising of sheep
and the establishment of woolen manu
factores by offering Are pounds of to
beaoo (at that time Virginia courrenoy)
for every yard of woolen eloth made in
Thus proteotlio was born on Virginia
soll. The principle of protection to
American industries was again recog
nised in 1664, when, with a view to di
versiying industries, the general assem
bly of Virginia, at the publio expense,
established in each county looms for
weavers In 1668 a law was passed for
the purpose of better converting wool,
flax and hemp into clothing. The com
missiamers of the county courts were
given authority to build houses for the
instruction of poor ehildren in the art
at spinning and weaving.
And to further promote these objects
laws were enacted in 1688 imposing
heavy penalties upon the exportation of
wool, and for the encouragement of the
working up of wool into cloth a bounty
do six pounds of tobaooo was provided
for every person making a yard of
woolen cloth, or linsey woolsey, three
fourthe of a yard wide, and for every
dosen pairs of men's or women's woolen
or worsted hoe a bounty of IS pounds
of tobacco was offered. The price of
wool was fixed at 8 pence per pound for
eeces, washed before shearing. In 1687
Virginia passed an act for the encourage
ment at domestic manufactures, includ
ing those from wool, which was rejected
by the king as hostile to English inter
este, for in her colonial policy England
was always selfish and cruel-a sow
that devoured her own litter.
FREE COAL AND TAXED SUGAR.
r. Commumr Tas sam t a Ts," 'a tls
Demerstat, S ee Wbh t Memas.
In considering the effect ad free coal
and a tax upon sugar it must be remem
bered that, according to the Democratic
theory, the consumer pays the tax.
Our imports of coal in 1893 were
1,864,817 toms, upon which was collect
ed a duty of 76 cents per ton, or a total
ot $1,0238,18 in a single year. This is
the extent of the relief that would be
accorded to the American peopleby free
Our c.nsumption at sugar last ear
average prite of
I would be waeth
valorem tatri d db ci
amount would be A li"
Ieeta uya 4,548,309,500 450,-'
oI $iP3,04, 3l0.
Feie eeoal m M r ie.
pa y~ P·ing hef r Witto1
people ci *izwMmw w ri.
capita, while WR 0" m
I them 6=,104j, YIn `ttrom frv
manl, woman ad MMll 13 the e- ,
The direct los b1s swuia s e iq
ladalka would love b* T$3 eU ?) S
e vey lndlidual. a' UN addl·in
bind.. of p3,16l, M a .
I WHO, it itMI
we h Is3 ap irmY
Jad ·hlaleW.W~do ~ L
In hi le~s th the
fad i~·N w-"i lrolrq /h
world the awful ~ ý *Damoslaet"
whereby DemuibaW atm
tramapled apace aaI iabiaJC
mmrr to thole oI « uum p
the -s a~~
:able calamify thc 1nº fr
e known to
dcai.. who, rn&wVW
mind del ~i
tall be las hat
bie becname iaO w W
oilk and dS~burip M i
unity that they mO--v
Tb..e i. rash Ib b hepi
onnatlee amcag t bI
'they, libe Jody gba
ovra b io rl ;1' d
s tOI 51i5 bs u cad
In this rwy the hOW W
B tbe~lkth b civ.IM
The sdisatss ' : -l
which the pei Mri8l at - - -a
made , app r qd a . , te e
closing Jane 1 U1 18N-vge udmed
by the treasary depg m ad ts
o8~nres by the sesm td e thpeiMe
gates, asking w.r w 148L $ . Ap.
pop-iaar pnwere a
N. 51, beang La a am bu
000,000 le n t In pedshea as-u
for Ino the esMtsat9m ti n e
then tht, in tt e agpe sJ 9),
must appear ia a@pot lity In lb
nextyear as a deG W. The *
atams this year age bg t , *
858.71 than the ea ograem (the
Fifty-first, whimh was beaMd for asl
wear by the Deme a "the bilh
dollar congres." The enstlioam arno
in the appropriateions peae Ieas wa
$e9,000,ooo,000O in neoad ainb senthse
was appropriated bis yar which leaves
the appropriations o thbi year standing
i r$68,5lt. 15 o ester them the apper .
prinatieons made last ye.
The foregoing gves the reader a
glimpse at Demeert lIesimda with in.
reased approp a1r04a
The close ce the agsami aes n ot the
Fifty-third ocagre gives v a glimpse
at what the De menm7 can do by way
io running a gelat t like aran
While they have the appo
priations over these lest year by sevr
eral hundred thonmr they have failed
to collect revense eamgh to meet the
current expenses d the government
The receipts for the year ending June
80, 1894, are 88, .s, 9L78 leos than
the receipts for the eel year ending
June 80, 1898. This deilt does not
show in the aooonts e treasury by
reason of the fact that it was paid in part
from moneys in the tesuary on March
4, 1894, when Clevemlnd weas naugu
rated and in part fro a sle ao bonds
made by Secretary Charnle February
last amounting to $8l, 8,95.71, by
which the annual inteest charge against
the government was mlreased wh,000,
000 per annum.
By an eunminatian of the tables f.r
nished by the lmmaury department
of receipts and eapenditures it is
shown that President Cleveland expend
ed for his first fall feal year $1,295,
477.50 more soearrync the government
than was expended in the fiscal year
under President Harrison. This is ea
olusive of peaslans, for all the saving
made by President Cleveland's admia.
istration is at the expense aof the old sol
Mer of the late war.
Love coetinues to triumph over pej
udice and politics. Herr Walter, the
principal adherent and assistant ao Herr
Ahlwardt, the German and-Semitie
leader, is to marry a charming Hebrew,
Professor Joseph Hyrtl, the eminent
anatomist and the last survivor of the
famous groopof scientific men who laid
the foundations of the renowned med.
leal school of Vienna, has just died at
his home near Vicena at the age of 4