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DEVOTED10 THE INTERESTS OF COLORED AMERICANS.
Vol,1. No. 4.
HELENA,MONTANA, MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 24, 1894.
WANAMAKER BROWN, of Philadelphia
THEROYAL TAILORS, of Chicago.^New Fall aqd Winter Samples Just Received
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dr.M. ROCKMAN.^Physician and Surgeon.
Specialattention given to ladles' diseases;^al*o genitourinary and private diseases.^Offica^Foot of Broadway Helena.
capitalpaid in $500,000.^surplus $100,000.
THOH.A. MAKI.OW President
ROBT.k MHULLOH,Vice Pressdcnt
K.H. WRIKK'KAsst Cashier
Tlum.VMarlow,H. F. Galen,
JohnT. Murphy,Peter I -arson.
R.L. Met iilloh,Henry Hmtnnhcr.
DavidA. Cory,K- ^'^ Wallace,
HermanOansA. H. Wilder.
NicholasKessier.('. J. McNamara,^f, 8. Ford.
GeneralBanking Business Transacted.
Surplusami Undivided Profit* ^ M70.000
L.H. HERSHFIF.LD President
A.J. DAVIDSOX Vice President
T.I^. BOWMANAsst. Cahsler
Interestallowed on deposits left for a^specified time. Transfers of money made by^telegraph. Exchange sold on the principal^cities of the United States and Europe.
Boxesfor rent at reasonable rates In our^Are and burglar.'proof safe deposit vaults.
TheGreat West Shown i^y the Eleventh^Census to Have Surpassed the Great Man^^ufacturing States In the Accumulation of^Ten Years.
Theincrease of wealth from 1880 to^1890 iu the states has caused much^comment Free traders and calamity^howlers have held up the eastern manu^^facturing states as awful examples of^greed and robbery, while the poverty of^tho west has been cited in such piteous^and heartrending stories of wrong and^oppression that common justice demands^that the people shall be informed at^onco of the fraud these deceivers of the^people aro trying to have them believe.^The census bulletin on wealth, No. 879,^issued March 19, 1894, is made the basis^of calculation.
Theincreased wealth of the nation is^$21,395,091,197, or $1,089 per capita.^Twenty-eight out of the 60 states and^territories exceed the average increase^per capita. Of these, only five are east^^ern states^namely, Connecticut, Mas^^sachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania^and Rhode Island^these five having^only an average gain of $1.287 per cap^^ita, while the five western stains of^California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana^and Nevada have an average of $3.542^per capita
Theonly siatea which have lost in^the past 10 years are eastern states^^Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont
Kansas,which the Populists have^pauiK-rized on every possible occasion,^saved and accumulated more wealth^in the 10 years preceding 1890 than^did Massachusetts. Nebraska exceeded^Pennsylvania in her accumulations,^whilo Minnesota, Michigan and Wis^^consin all and each passed New Jersey^in the race for wealth.
Wherodo you find the ^robber^baron,^ tho ^giant robber,^ the^^fortress of greed and gain^^ No lon^^ger in manufacturing New England.^Pennsylvania gives place to Texas in^tho total sum of her savings, and New^York, with 22,000,000 of increased^wealth, has not as much to divide to^each person as those in the Distriot of^Columbia, where a factory is not known.
Thetable prepared by the census bu^^reau shows the mortgages iu force Jan.^1, 1890, giving the per cents of number^and the amounts for which said mort^^gages were given. From the character^of the public debates in congress and^front newspaper editorials one would^suppose that the entire mortgage in^^debtedness of the great west especially^had In en given iu order that the people^might haw money or means upon which^to live, attempting to show that the^mortgages were the result of the perilous^times through which these people have^been passing. The table which is ap^^pended is a complete refutation of this^charge.
Morethan half of the mortgages given^wero for purchase money. We all know^what this means. An individual is able^to buy a farm or a piece of real estate^by paying a part down and mortgaging^for the remainder. Twenty per cent of^theso mortgages were given for improve^^ments upon the property. Four and one-^half per cent were given for purchase^money and improvements combined.^Six per cent was given for business^purpose* An individual wishes ready^cash upon which to speculate or do busi^^ness. He thereby mortgages his farm.^Another owns a large tract of land, but^be wants farm machinery, domestio^animals and other personal property^with which to improve it This carries^1.95 per cent of the whole amount.
NotMortgaged For Money to Live loon.
Thatwhich is said to be his family^expenses^namely, being tho amount^upon which the farmer and his family^live^amounts to only 5.40 per cent of^tho number of tracts so mortgaged, or^1.73 per cent of the amount so mort^^gaged.
Thefriends of good government awr^Republican control, against whom the^infamous charge of mortgage indebted^^ness has been hurled, are asked to care^^fully read this table. You will notice at^the bottom of the table the total amount^of mortgaged indebtedness is $12,094,-^877,793 in 1890. This was placed on^9,517,747 separate pieces of property.
Byan examination of the reports of^tho eleventh census the collection of^taxes for state, local and school purposes^in 1890 amounted to $569,252,634, or^$9.09 per capita for the whole country.^These figures reveal some strange con^^ditions, so far as state, county and city^government is concerned, and they fur^^nish in part an answer to the great^clamor that is constantly heard in tho^congress of the United States for the^lessening of taxes.
Thesouthern states, divided into two^divisions, known as the south Atlantio^and the south central divisions, are wor^^thy of an examination as compared with^the rest of the United States. The south^Atlantic division, including the District^of Columbia, pays annually $4.81 p- r^capita for all taxes, including schools,^while the south central division pays^only $4.03 per capita, making a general^average per capita for all the southern^states of $4.14 for all state, local and^school taxes.
Thenorth Atlantic division pays per^capita $12.82. The north central divi^^sion pays $9.30. The western division^pays $16.03, or an average for all the^states outside of the south of $12.74,^being three times the amount per capita^paid by the south. Here, again, we dis^^cover the difference between purely agri^^cultural states and states with diversi^fled industries. The south, without fao^tories and industrial improvement, Is^also without enterprise or publio im^^provements.
Howthe people of North Carolina can^manage the affairs of a great -tat ^ hav^^ing such resources as she is capable of^vpth a tax lew of $1.99 per caoita for^all purposes, while in the District of Co^^lumbia $21.88 per capita are collected,^or in Massachusetts $20.76 are collected,^or in Nevada $22.89 are collected, can^only be understood as revealing the ut^^ter want of enterprise in public affairs.
Thesefigures are cited to show that in^the states where free trade ideas prevail^everything else partakes of the nature^of cheapness^cheap men, cheap homes,^cheap roads, oheap towns, cheap rail^roads, as against the thrift and enter^^prise of New England and the great^West
TheQuestion of Money.
TheDemocrats, having succeeded in^passing a tariff bill which suits every^^body, if the promises and expectations^of the framers and champions of the^measure are in anywise fulfilled, the^most sanguine of our people will be^pleased.
Thequestion of money at once takes^the place of tariff in the minds of all^thoughtful people and is the all absorb^^ing topic of investigation and discus^^sion.
Followingthe lines laid down by the^Republican party more than 80 years^ago, when as a party they were com^^pelled to originate and adopt a system^of currency and national credit, which^was to be tested by the most desperate^of all methods known iu history, but^which was to suooeed and triumph in^securing a place in the monetary sys^^tems of the world far above anything^ever instituted in human government,^they have continued to pursue and main^^tain unbroken through all the years of^Republican control an interchangeable^currency based upon coin, every dollar^of which has been maintained and re^^deemed according to the original pledge.
Theparty today is still in favor of^sound money and shall continue to^maintain by legislation tho use of gold,^silver and paper, with profit to all the^people.
HONOREDBY A NATION.
Minc. Hog.-lot Keeeives the Klbbon of the^I.egion of Honor.
TheFrench government, by awarding^the ribbon of the Legion of Honor to^Mine Bogelot, has turned a brilliant^light on a personality whoso career has^hitherto lain somewhat- in the shade.^Leaving to others the care of vindicat^^ing the femiuiue cause in publio meet^^ings and in the press, Mine. Bogelot^has devoted her life to the redemption^of female criminals. Her name is inti^^mately connected with that highly phil^^anthropic work, the ^(Euvre de Liber-^ees tie St. Lazare,^ of which she is now^directress, ami it is mainly due to the^fact that she personally represented the^society at the woman's congress at Chi^^cago that she owes this publio recogni^^tion of her worth^an honor seldom^vouchsafed to women, however well^merited. To be thus singled out from^among others of her sex must certainly^be extremely gratifying, but it is pleas^^ing to find that Mine. Bogelot takes her^honors very meekly. The predominating^characteristics of the new chevaliere are^meekness and cheerfulness, combined^with excellent business capacities and a^boundless compassion for human errors^ami misfortunes of every shape.
Sheis an admirable specimen of that^olass of Frenchwomen about whom the^fashionable society of Paris knows lit^^tle.
Theworlti and I are strangers. I^never go out, never pay visits,^ Mme.^Bogelot explained in a recent interview.^^I rise early, the morning is spent at^homo dictating letters to my private sec^^retary. During tho afternoon hours I^am generally to be found at the offices^of the (Euvre ties Liberees de St. La^^zare. At 6 o'clock I return to dine with^my husband and son, and I am seldom^out of bed after 8.
Thisis the simple epitome of Mme.^Bogelot's self sacrificing existence. In^her home surroundings there are abun^^dant evidences that the humanitarian^labors of this excellent woman are not^allowed to interfere with the comfort of^her husband. There is no disorder iu^her household. You feel that every^^thing moves on oiled wheels. A roomy^flat in a lar^e house situated in a small^street turning out of the busy Rue de^Rivoli is her abode, solid ly but simply^furnished, a single, middle aged serv^^ant composing the entire staff. It is^pleasant to note that between husband^and wife there is complete harmony of^ideas and interests, M. Bogelot, who is^a member of the bar, affording his wife^aid antl advice on all legal matters con^^nected with her work-^Few women leading more or less of^a public life manage to steer clear of the^quicksands of sectarianism. That Mme.^Bogelot has been able to do so is due^partly to a well balanced mind and^amiable temper, partly to the manifold^occupations of her busy life. She is ever^ready to give advice in respect to the
administrationof societies, a matter In^which she is thoroughly conversant^but she wisely restricts her own labors^to the special lines she has taken up.^and which absorb all her time and ener^^gies. Politics never attracted her, nor^has she ever taken an active part in the^vindication of woman's rights. Still she^is ever ready to lend a helping hand to^members of her own sex, to fellow^workers as well as to the disinherited^by fortune. But although she personal^^ly prefers to hold aloof from party strife,^the woman's cause has undoubtedly her^entire sympathy. Indeed it would have^been strange had it been otherwise,^owing to the great friendship that exist^^ed between her and the late Maria De-^raiames. The connection between them^was almost that of mistress and pupil.^There was a difference of some 10 years^in their ages, and Isabelle Bogelot,^when a weakly child, was taken under^the wing of the elder woman and her^sister, Mme. Fenisse, that she might^have the benefit of country air, and re^^mained an inmate of their house until^she married. This early training had^probably a great effect on her subse^^quent career.
Notbeing gifted with literary abili^^ties, as was the more brilliant Maria^Deraismes, she sought to rentier herself^useful in other ways. It was not, how^^ever, until after her marriage that she^joined tho (Euvre des Liberees de St.^Lazare, with which her name has since^been so inseparably connected. This^was in 1873, and the society had been^founded three years previously by Mile.^Michel de (irandpre, the niece of the^chaplain of St. Lazare, who had been^struck during her intercourse with the^inmates of this house of detention by^the anxiety evinced by so many of the^prisoners as their terms of imprison^^ment came to a close and they knew^they would be once more tfirown on^their own resources and have to do bat^^tle with the difficulties of life, heavily^ham!mapped by the ignominy of a con^^viction. Initiated into the workings of^the society by Mme. Emilie de Mar^sier, its vice president, Mme. Bogelot^threw herself into the work heart and^soul and was very soon elected a mem^^ber of the committee, to become, in^1880, its general directress, a post^which she has held ever since.^London^Queen.
WESTVIRGINIA FOR PROTECTION.
ThreeHundred Years Ago This Policy Was^Born on Virginia Boll.
thequestion of protection for wool^and manufactures thereof seems to have^occupied the attention of the lawmakers^in tho American colonies in tho very be^^ginning of their history. As early as^1609 the colonists of Jamestown, Va.,^were provided with sheep, which did^not increase very rapidly in consequence^of their destruction by wolves, so that^In 1648, 39 years after their first intro^^duction, the number of sheep in the^whole colony of Virginia was only^3,000. The first evidence of government^protection for wool was in an enactment^passed in 1657, setting forth that no^sheep be transported out of the colony^except upon such penalties as may be^thought tit by the governor and the^council, ami in 1663 Virginia, by a stat^^ute, not only prohibited tho exporta^^tion of wool, but offered a bounty as an^encouragement to the raising of sheep^and tho establishment of woolen manu^^factures by offering five pounds of to^^bacco (at that time Virginia currency)^for every yard of woolen oloth made in^the colony.
Thusprotection was born on Virginia^^oil The principle of protection to^American industries was agaiu recog^^nized in 1664, when, with a view to di^^versifying industries, the general assem^^bly of Virginia, at the publio expenso,^established in each county looms for^weavers. In 1668 a law was passed for^the purpose of better converting wool,^flax and hemp into clothing. The com^^missioners of the county courts were^given authority to build houses for the^instruction of poor children in the art^of spinning aud weaving.
Antito further promote theso objects^laws were onacted in 1682 imposing^heavy penalties upon the exportation of^wool, antl for the encouragement of the^working up of wool into cloth a bounty^of six pounds of tobacco was provided^for every person making a yard of^woolen cloth, or linsey woolsey, three-^fourths of a yard wide, antl for every^down pairs of men's or women's woolon^or worsted hoso a bounty of 13 pounds^of tobacco was offered. Tho price of^wool was fixed at 8 pence per pound for^fleeces, washed before shearing. In 1687^Virginia passed an act for the encourage^^ment of domestic manufactures, includ^^ing those from wool, which was rejected^by the king as hostile to English inter^^ests, for in her colonial policy England^was alwtvys selfish and cruel^a sow^that devoured her own litter.
FREECOAL AND TAXED SUGAR.
TheConsumer Tars the Tax,^ Bnjr the^Democrats, No Nee What It Means.
Inconsidering the effect of free coal^and a tax upon sugar it must be remem^^bered that, according to the Democratic^theory, the consumer pays the tax.
Ourimports of coal in 1892 were^1,864. 817 tons, upon which was collect^^ed a duty of 75 cents per ton, or a total^of $1,023,613 in a siuglo year. This is^the extent of the relief that would be^accorded to the American people by free^ci ial.
Ourconsumption of sugar last rear
was4,843,209,500 pounds, which, at an^averago price of i% cents per pound,^would be worth $119,488,361. An ad^valorem tariff of 40 per ount upon this^amount would be $47,776,804. A dif^^ferential duty of one-eighth cent upon^4,348,209,500 pounds would be $6,429,-^012, making a total breakfast table tax^of $53,204,316.
Free^oal would thus, according to^tho Democratic theory of the consumer^paying the tax, effect a saving to the^people of $1,083,618, or \% cents per^capita, while taxed sugar would cost^them $53,204,316, or 77 cents for every^man, woman and child in the country.^The direct loss by such Democratic leg^^islation would rrave been 76% cents for^every individual, a total additional^burden of $52,180,708 a year.
IfWe Forgive Not Our Enemies, How Shall^We Expect to Be Forgiven
Inhis letter to Mr. Catchings of Mis^^sissippi, in which he held up before the^world the awful example of Democracy^in its dealing with the tariff question,^whereby Democratio principles were^trampled upon and trusts and combines^were taken into the confidence of the^party and their interests served in pref^^erence tti those of the common people,^the president says of the Democratio^senators, against whom this crime is^charged, ^that they shall never be for^^gotten or forgiven.^ It is indeed a ter^^rible calamity that such good men as^are known to constitute the active poli^^ticians who are the managers of the^party, including the executive, his cabi^^net and the Democratic senate, should^all be lost, that forgiveness is impossi^^ble becauso of not forgiving! Perhaps^the chaplain of the senate in praying^for wisdom and guidance in the coun^^cils and deliberations of that body for^^got in bis prayers to remind these^brethren who dwell together in happy^unity that they must forgive each oth^^ers' weaknesses, even to the dabbling in^sugar stock and sharing in sugar trusts.^There is much to be hoped for in a ref^^ormation among those brethren, that^they, like Judas, shall return the 80^pieces of silver and do their first works^over agaiu by repentance and oonfeasion.^In this way the president may be enabled^to both forgive and forget
Closeof the Second Session^Financial Tlew
ofthe Work Accomplished.
Theestimates for the fiscal year, for^which the present session of congress
madeappropriations^namely, the year^closing June 80, 1896^were estimated^by the treasury department and sent to^congress by the president of the United^States, asking for $620,662,840.71. Ap^^propriations were made for $490,668, -^869.51, being in round numbers $80,-^000,000 less than the president asked^for in the estimates prepared in the^treasury department. It will be noted,^then, that, in the first place, congress^failed to appropriate $80,000,000, which^must appear in all probability in the^next year as a deficiency. The appropri^^ations this year aro greater by $27,269,-^858.72 than the Reed congress (the^Fifty first, which was heralded far and^near by the Democrats as ^the billion^dollar congress.^ The reduction made^in the appropriations for pensions was^$29,000,000 iu round numbers lens than^was appropriated last year, which leaves^tho appropriations for this year standing^as $263,51.^). 15 greater than tho appro^^priations made last year.
Thoforegoing gives tho reader a^glimpse at Democratio reform with in^^creased appropriations.
Theclose of the second session of the^Fifty-third congress gives us a glimpso^of what tho Democrats can do by way^of running a great government liko ours.^Whilo ^hey have increased the appro^^priations over those of last year by sev^^eral hundred thousand they have failed^to collect revenue enough to meet the^current expenses of the government^Tho receipts for the year ending June^80, 1894, are $88,859,292.78 less thau^the receipts for the fiscal year ending^June 80, 1898. This deficit does not^show iu the accounts of the treasury by^reasou of the fact that it was paid iu part^from moneys iu the treasury on March^4, 1894, when Cleveland was inaugu^^rated antl in part from a sale of bonds^made by Secretary Carlisle February^last amounting to $68,633,295.71, by^which the annual interest charge against^the government was increased $3,000,-^000 per aiKiuiu.
Byan examination of the tables fur^^nished by the treasury department^of receipts and expenditures it is^shown that President Cleveland expend^^ed for his first full fiscal year $1,295,-^^77.50 more tocarryon the government^than w .is ^ tponded in tin fiscal y. ar^under President Harrison. This is ex^^clusive of pensions, for all the saving^made by President Cleveland's admin^^istration is at the expense of the old sol^^dier of the late war.
L ve continues to triumph over prej^^udice and politic*. Herr Walter, the^principal adherent and assistant of Herr^Ahlwardt, the German anti-Semitio^leader, is to marry a charming Hebrew,^Fraulein Herrmaunsohn.
ProfessorJoseph Hyrtl, the eminent^anatogiist and the last survivor of the^famous group of scientific men who laid^the foundations of the renowned med^^ical school of Vienna, has just died at^his home near Vienna at the age of 84.