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THE HARTFORD HERALD .
WEDNMDAY, JAN, , 118.
i i t
For Infantry Fifteen Miles Is a
Good Day's Work.
HORSES MAKE TWENTY MILES
ut to Do Thl Day After Day Re
quires Good Artillery Stock and Al
most Perfect Conditions The Pace
For Soldiers In Various Countries.
The Infantry p:ico varies In ilotnll In
the nrnilcsi of thu nations. It vnric
not only In luiiRtli of tcp. but In tin
number of Btcp.t to the minute, nmt
each nntlou. of course, thinks its own
step In the boot.
One peculiar step, known ns the "pa
rade march." or "BOo-e step." Is lined
at times by Gorman soldiers. No oth
er nrmy has a step similar to It. The
German gotiso step consists In throw
ing out l he lex without Ix-mllim the
knees, nnd It Is used only on ceremo
nial occasions, in chaneiuR guard and
when a detachment of men pass on
officer of high rank.
The rnto of march of a detachment
of Infantry In active service depends
on many factors. Including the size of
tho marching liody or the length of llir
column, the training, physical condi
tion and spirit of tho troops, the road
and the weather.
Two and u half miles an hour nnd hT
teen iiiIIi-m n day Is a good average for
Ecasoucd Infantry carrying, or course,
field equipment. Seasoned troops In
good spirits and spurred by the pros
pect of action may be deMndcd on to
do much better thau this when the sit
uation requires It, but when an In
fantry division or even a brigade han
moved over fifteen miles of road in one
day It has done u day's work.
Stonewall Jackson's "foot cavalry of
the valley" now and then covered for
ty miles In one march, but it was ex
Id some of the press reports from
the Ilusso-.Iapaiiee war It was given
out that on occasion large bodies of
Japanese infantry covered fifty miles
of road in a day and night and came
up on the tiring line fresh enough to
shoot. Hut a great many prodigies
were accredited to Japanese troops in
It has long been u saying among
military men of countries other than
France that the Trench foot soldier
has the best legs in Europe, and the
mobility of an army depends on its
feet nnd legs. Infantry Is ns good as
its feet. An Infantryman who can
march and shoot is worth a coglmenl
-of men who straggle, bunt shade, pant
for water, develop blisters on the feet
and keep their ours pricked up only
for mess call, skk call and recall.
In the American nrmy the length of
the full step In quick time is thirty
Inches, measured 'from heel to heel.
and the cadence is at the rate of 120
steps to the minute. At 120 steps to
the minute the soldier marches U.GOO
inches a minute, which equals 100
yards. And marching 100 yards a
minute he will march C.000 yards In
one hour, or three nnd nine twenty
seconds of a mile n little under throe
and n half miles. They do not do this
practi.ally because time must be taken
out for rest.
The British Infantry stop is thirty-
one and one-half Inches, the longest of
all the steps. Gvrinany keeps step
with Switzerland, each doing thirty
one Inches, while twenty-nine Inches
Is the pace of the armies of Italy.
France and Austria. The Russians
take the shortest step, twenty-seven
and one-half Inches and' only do 112
-la. a minute. The Germap Infantryman
does 1H. the Auttrlau U.'t uud the
French and Itillan each manage 120
Conxequcutly. to march a mile takes
the KusmIuii twenty minutes, the Aus
trian elghteou aud two-thirds minutes,
the French uud Italian eighteen min
ntes. while the German could beat this
by ten or eleven seconds.
A fair day's march for n battery or
.Srattnllon or reglmeujl of Held artillery
Is twenty miles, but to make this day
after day on the ustinl American roml
without killing the tjorses not only re
quires good artillery' stock with some
warm blood In theitj arteries, but per
feet fitting harness and drivers who
have home native intelligence nnd Into
whom discipline has been hammered
The usual practice In the light artillery
la to march for fifty minutes aud halt
and rcM teu minutes. During that
Test, which Is mainly In the Interest of
the horses, collars arc opened and laid
back so hat u horse's shoulder intij
bo relieved And copied, and. of course,
the limber props are let down that the
weight of the pole may bo taken off
the necks of the) wheelers. Spokane
London has not altogether escaped
the ravages of earthquakes. In I'elirn
ory and March or "M Londoners wer
startled out of their wits by h terrlllc
6h0ck The people were mi alarmed
that thousands fnent the night parad
ing the strecU h( a stale of frantic ter
ror, and Hyde pnrU was crowded with
campers out, tlts more daring whlllug
away me noiira uy piayiug cuius vy
l , Flimsy,
"Why aren't you going to the ball
"I have n night cold."
"you can vyrup up well."
'I know, f,tnt I don't think my ball
Kowu would stand u sneeze." Wash
8ltnpl diitv nU no place for fear.
What the Term "Quick Flrer," "Inch"
Quna and "Pounders" Mean.
To thu average man such phraxes
ns "three pounders" and "ls Inch'
guns arc familiar, but he nearly ut
ways reads them wjthout Tully under
standing their meanings.
A pound gun Is it cannon which re
ceives Ita name from the weight of
the shell It II res. Thus u gun known
us a "three pounder" l. so called be
cause It (Ires n shell which weighs
three pounds, aud a gun llrlug a five
pound fehell would bo called a "five
pounder." The size ot uwt smajl
guns is still described by tho "pound."
but tho majority of large guns made
today are "Inch" weapons in UiU
c-ase the size ot the gun Is obtained
from the size of Its bore, a ten Inch
gun having a bore of ton Inches In
diameter and a twelve Inch weapon u
twelve Inch bore
The largest Ilritlsh naval guns In ue
at present lire the tlftceu inch weap
on. They Jlre a projectile weighing
almost a ion
Next to these cuiiies ilio
i:i.." gnu and then the most iwpuiar
weapon or all the twelve inch, which
II res mi KV) pound nueil.
There are several smaller kinds of
guns now in use mostly or the quick
firing type These weapous are "Ineli"
guns The six Inch, the -1.7 Inch and
the four inch are nil quick firers and
tbtow shells wclghlug 100 pounds, forty-live
pounds and thirty-one pounds
Quite u lot of people misunderstand
the term "quick flrer." Tliey Imagine
a quick firing gun to be a weapon
which pours out a stream of shot with
enormous speed after the style ot a
Mnxlm. instead, however, it is Just
an ordinary broechloadlng cun. which
is fitted with such vnstly improved
methods or loading aud aiming that It
can he fired rar more rapidly than a
weapon without those fittlugs. A gun
that fires u number of shots auto
matically In rapid succession, as the
Muxtm. is not called n quick llrer. The
name given to It Is "machine gun."
There are a large range or these
weapons of all sizes and firing from
1,200 right down to forty rounds ot
ammunition a minute.
The gun which generally nccompa
nles a column into the field on active
service tires a shell of sixty pounds
and Is known as the "live inch." or, to
use tho old term, a "sixty pounder."
Papal Sermons Rare.
Strange aro tho restrictions which
bodge nbout n pope, nnd one of the
strangest Is that he should not be al
lowed to nreach. Only once In .'100
years has n pope delivered a sermon,
nnd that was under exceptional clrenm
stances In l&lll. On the Octave of the
Eplphnny n celebrated preacher. I'.idre
Ventura, was to have occupied the pul
pit lu St. Peter's, but was suddenly
taken 111. To prevent disappointment
to the vast crowd which had assem
bled Plus IX. broke through the cus
tom of ages and, ascending the pulpit,
delivered u simple, homely sermon that
perhaps Impressed its hearers more
than the finest eloquence might have
done, because of Its uniqueness. Lon
Ireland Called Many Names.
In the time of Ptolemy Ireland was
known ns Scotia. Olodoius Slculus
calls the Island Irs or lrisl: lu the "Do
Miindo," credited by some scholars to
Aristotle. It Is called Ireiiue; In the
"Argouautlca of Oipheus" It appears
as trlntis; Strabo calls it Irene; Caesar.
Tacitus and Pliny mention it us ill
berula: Mela called It Juverua The
native names In Col tic are Ir. Ert'aud
Erin. Plutarch mentions it under the
name of Ogygia. The name Ireland is
no doubt derived from the native of
Ir or Erl, but when It came Into gen
eral use Is a question concerning which
scholars arc much ut variance.
The Poor Beneficiary.
Some nations were fighting fiercely.
"V'hy are you lighting soV" Inquired
the bvatunders, moved at length to
"To save civilization," replied the na
Here u draggled figure rose from the
mire under tho feet of the combatants
and limped lamely away.
"And who are you?" asked the by
standers, with a deposition to get to
the bottom of the matter.
"Don't speak to me! I'm Civiliza
tion!" the figure imide ntiswer. some
what pettishly. New York Post
Peter Thompson went to visit his son
In Montreal, It wus tils first vUlt to
the city, and the young man sbowisl i
him nil the slslits. concluding with, an !
ascent of Mount lloyal. lu a burstlof t
iilltllllcl'lum I'ltlllirf 1'llitlttliLtsiti urttrt. I
...i....-..,,,... ..wu . ,.w. ..,.-., r.im
"See. father, isn't It wonderful down T" , ' , T '"'""" """ u,s,,i'
there" penred. tho breach of tho gun has been
"WW said his father. "If It's 0 img I.ouie and the great weapon is
ninriirflll flmvn llii.ro whnt illil rim
Crag nio up hero for';" Everybody's.
Salute of the Sword,
The sword salute of military officers
has two meanings. The first position,
with the hilt opposite the hips. Is a sur
vival of the crusader's action of kiss.
Ing the cross hilt of his sword hi token
of faith, and the lowering of the kiiu
Is a tokeu of friendship. Implying that
It Is not necessary to bo on guard.
A Wet, Blanket.
, Hokus I never Knew such n wet
blanket ns Kluhdub. I'okus That &
right If that fellow should lump troni
the frying pan into the tire lie would
put the fire out-r-Llfe,
Lenity fa npurt of mercy, but sln
qitikt not speak loo Inmj for tear ot
NAVAL GUN CREWS
Warm Work Is Theirs When a
Warship Is In Action.
RANGE FINDING AND FIRING.
How the Target or the Enemy Is Lo
cated and tho Way tho Monntor Gun
Are Operated The Scone In tho Con
ning Tower and In the Turret.
The gray battleship seems .strangely
deserted nnd bare, for her decks are
denuded of men, while nit rails and
other upstanding encumbrances have
been laid fiat on deck for big gun
In the conning tower, with Its twelve
Inch armor, stands tho captain, bis
navigating ofllcer, a midshipman or
twit and several other olllccrs and men.
The small circular erection, Imioly ton
jVi-t in diameter, seems very cramped
for all It has to contain.
A note the conning tower Is another
armored erection, containing a rangu
finder, and Inside this Is the gunnery
lieutenant, with half a dozen more
olllcers and men. He Is surrounded by
strange looking Instruments, while thu
man ut the range Under, wltli his eyes
at Its rubber eyepieces. Is monotonous
ly chanting oat tho distance of the ap
Inside tho turrets themselves the ex
pectant men are grouped i. round their
monster thirteeu Inch guns. The groat
projectiles and the cordite charges be
hind them have already been pushed
homo by the hydraulic rammers, and.
since their weapon's arc tints fully load
ed, the guns' crews are Idle for tur
P.utthegun layers the men who aim
nnd fire the guns and the trainers
those who keep them pointing in the
right direction are anxiously keeping
tho sights on the" target, nnd every now
nnd then, us they move their email
brass handles, there Is n wheezing of
hydraulic machinery, and tile great
breeches rise and fall ever so slightly.
while the whole armored structure con
taining them revolves an Inch or so nt
a time to keep the sights on.
A minute or two later, after an order
has come through from the control
position, the lieutenant In charge of
the foremost turret suddenly raps out
the order, "llrlng both guns to the
The men .standing by the breeches
flick over their small levers, "lllght
gun ready! Left gun ready!" they re
port In rapid succession.
The range meanwhllo Is decreasing
rapidly, and about ten seconds later
there comes the strident rattling of an
It Is the signal to open fire. The gun
layer holds his breath, sees the cross
wires of his telescope ciittltii; the lat
ticework of the target and then presses
an Innocent looking brass thumb piece.
As lie does so there Is a roar, and. with
a blaze of orange (lame and u pall of
brown smoke, a projectile weighing
more than half n ton is sailing through
the air on its way toward the target
Outside the turret the concusIon Is
terrible, but inside It Is barely felt, and
the only means the gun's crew have of
knowing their weapon has gone off is
by tlie rocking of tho turret and the
recoil of the gun. Hack she slides,
with tho water whistling aud gurgling
through the hydraulic valves far be
low. She stops and then, as the run
ning out springs exert their strength,
is driven back to the llrlng iwsltlon.
Tho men meanwhile are working
like demons. Some one, by moving n
small lever which actuates a hydraulic
engine, has opened the breech. A cloud
of acrid cordlto smoke fills the turret,
but another man, turnlug a tap. sends
a Jet or water spouting Into the cham
ber to extinguish uny still burning
Everything seems chaos, but every
one knows whut to do ho has done
It time nfter time nnd in less than
thirty seconds we hear a sharp order,
"Night gun, load!"
A man moves an upright lever, and
an arrangement looking like u minia
ture lift climbs. Into view through tho
floor. It has come up from the shell
room below laden with the new chargo
and projectile uud stops dead in tho
rear of tho gun.
Iteposlug In a tray is tho shot itself.
Another lover is worked, and a flexible
chain hydraulic rammer, looking like a
snake, darts out of Its resting place nnd
pushes the shot before It Into tho
breech of tho gun.
It Is driven home with a dull thud.
Tho rammer is withdrawn, another
handle Is pulled and two enormous
brown cylinders of cordite fall Into
tho tray Just vacated by the projectile.
They, too. are rammed home, and be
fore we quite realizo what has ban-
,! .. ,., ...i .,. ,,...:.
""" "r """
In tho (Ire control position the gun-
aery lieutenant has seen the first shot
tear a Jagged hole In the target nnd
promptly whispers mi order to n man
it his side. The latter moves a small
handle, uud thirty beconds later there
Is another discharge.
In uboiit ten minutes it Is nil over
ind tho ship Is approaching" the target
to see (he result of her shooting. Lon
"Her father thinks a great deal of
Mnuh! lie refused me her hand in
That proves ifHouston Post
To try things oft nnd never to give
Irer doth wonders. Lord Uacou. ,
NOISES HIGH UP IN THE AIR.
Where an Echo le Louder Than the
Sound That Produced It.
To cause the echo of a sound to be
loader than the sound that caused It
seems an Impossibility, but under cer
tain conditions this can Itnppcn. and
the echo Is sometimes many times
greater In sound volume than the orig
inal noise that produced It.
This happens away up In the nlr.
For Instance. If an aviator Is. say, 1,000
or 2.000 feet uboie ground and some
one on the ground tires n revolver
there U n brief time when nothing Is
heard. The aviator can see the smoke
from the muzzle of the revolver, then
wait n little, then the sound comes to
him. not like the sharp report of a re
volver, but more like a quick peal of
thunder, loud and sharp and really
several times greater In sound volume
thnii the uetual report of the revolver.
Tho calico of this Is that the air lo
low Is much more dense, while up
above It Is lighter, and there are no
hills and trees and buildings to help
inn II! e the sound, so It tomes up on
sound waves with Increasing noise.
Having no solid background around
nnd nbout the aviator, the rebound of
tlie sound wnves is greater up there
than on the ground.
It Is said ft man In a balloon may
lower nu explosive on n cord several
hundred feet below his basket and set
It off with n n electric wire nnd battery.
There Is a sharp little "crack" like the
report of a llobert ride; thetr comes the
most terrifying noise, like a great
burst of thunder, the loudest ever
heard. The actual explosion did not
make anywhere near this amount of
nole. hut the nlr being much more
dense below causes the lino of least re
sistance to be straight up, and so the
sound waves expand mightily In an up
ward direction, increasing the sound.
Hostoti Hera hi.
COST OF A THUNDERBOLT.
What It Vould Take In Kilowatts and
Cash to Mako One.
A ltelgiau engineer has been making
a novel calculation, which he publishes
in the liulletiii de lu Soclete Itelge
d'Astrouomle. It is nothing less than
the value of a thunderbolt lu kilowatts
uud In cash!
lie took as the basis of his calcula
tion the price that the electric plants of
great European cities charge their cus
tomers for current.
Measurement of the magnetism of
certain locks containing iron ore, he
says, proves that the electric current
which magnetized them must have had
a strength of at least C.OUO amperes. In
reality the strength of the current
must have been much greater, since
the rocks were at u considerable dis
tance from the spot at which the thun
derbolt fell. However, one must be
conservative In treating of such mnt-
ters. and tlie modest figure of 27.800
kilowatts may tie taken us fairly cor
rect. The lowest price at which current
can be supplied Industrially when ob
tained under the most favorable condi
tions that Is to say. by hydraulic kw-er-
la one-fifth of a cent per kilowatt.
So the minimum value of n thunderbolt
would be $.".!().
Hut the author notes that in ftnW
sels. where he lives, the price of elec
'triclty Is 10 cents a kilowatt. This Is
the price of current for ordinary house
hold use In Xew York. At this figure a
thunderbolt would come to $2,b80. As
the price of electricity varies very
widely In different cities, according to
the conditions under which It Is pro
duced, every one can calculate for him
self what It would cost to produce n
tliundc.rbolt lu the city In which be
llves.-New York World.
Dancing as an Art.
"As a pastime dancing Is cnpablo of
becoming the most potent influence In
favor of national health and beauty
that America ever had." declares Troy
Kinney lu the Century. "As an art It is
a vehicle not one shudo less eloquent
than painting, music, drama or litera
ture. Ballet pantomime. In fact, com
bines the resources of these, adding,
for any one attuned to line harmony, n
supiemely poetic message of Its own.
It bexnues an obligation to consider
means by which the present magnifi
cent beginnings of a national chorcg
raphy inny be conserved."
A Request or a Warning?
Mrs. K. was on n visit to her parents
nnd wrote the following card to her
next door neighbor at home:
"Dear Mrs. G.: Will you do mo n
favor while I inn avuj ? Will vou put
out a little food on our back porch ev
ery day or so fo the llttl tramp cat I
have been feeding lately) Thr eat will
eat almost nnythlng. hut please dc not
put yourself ouL"-LudIes Home Jour
nal. A Test.
"When T wants to be plumb satisfied
In muh mind dat n slstah has done
been converted and not dess merely
pollyfoxln' to be pop'lar." confessed
age old Parson Hngster. "I takes tier'
husband to one side and tells film lo
let a wet dog Into de parlor de tust
time It rains." Judge.
"What's the matter, old man?"
"I was out lust nlcht where u lot of
my friends repeatedly suug that I was
a jolly good fellow."
"I guess I wus, all right. Mit I can't
pet my wife to believe it." Chicago
Mrs, Green- Do you ever flatter yonr
bushimd? Mrs. Wyse- Yes. I some
times ask tils ndvlce ubout thing.
.TIio Kind Tort Havo Always
in uso for over SO years,
1&ffl?-1? , eonal stipcnislon slnco its infancy.
Y, J-CCteSUl. Allow no ono lo dei'ci vo yon in thLs,
All Counterfeits, Imitations and" Just -as-good " aro hut
Experiments that trlllo -with nndeniloiiKcr thu health of
Infants and Children Experience) against Experiment.
What is CASTORIA
Cnstorla is a linnnlcss substitute for Castor OH, Paro
ftoric, Drops nnd Soothing Syrups. It is jMcnsnnt. It
contains neither Opium, Morphlno nor other Narcotic
rmbstnncc. Its ago is its guarantee. It destroys Worms
and allays FovcrJshncss. It cures Diarrhoea uud "Wind
Colic. It relieves Teething Troubles, cures Constipation
nnd Flatulency. It assimilates tho Food, regulates tho
Stomach and IJorrcls, giving healthy and natural sleep.
Tho Cliildrcn's Panacea Tho Mother's Friend.
GENUINE CASTORIA ALWAYS
The Kind You Have Always Bought
In Use For Over 30 Years.
TMt CCNTAVH COMPANY TV MURRAY TBfCT. NEW YORK CITY
TTSisnraAFiOT ATA TKYSEa
w rwiTLAknAu ym
itrMvkV "TTAr;, ir - w -
i III I EL or American IDEAL
Lscat:J on Pennsylvania Aeniis, 18th ar.d II Ctrcets.
Waihincton'o Vltwcn Hotel,
lilcilly situated, VatMn two blocks of tlie Executive Man
sion, cnlv a cimrt vail: to the public bt-.iMinss, tliops, theater-.,
in J points of historical intercit to visitors anil 'ounits.
The famous Indian Giiit Room, t!.c Lcauliful Palm Court,
the delightful Tea ISoora, Crawl I'ip. Ornan tonly one of its
kind in Washington), and an Orchestra of a superfine order,
arc attractions k-rcatly apnmiatcd by ro!.atan cucsts.
Rooms with detached batli, $1.50, S2.00 and up.
Xsciei with private tr.0, $2.59, $3M and up. , rf
"ytt'ile for toJ.l:t with rrapX .,
CLIFFORD M. LEWIS, .
Aik for kcUt U'xtnrr for trlJal Cehph I, (Xi;tsoIu3j, TbutUl rtrUe. ch! vl Cb!lrsv
T'Tt"'"'' miPlP- 1 lailt rif pi mi Mi mi Hi I ...-.- .. I '
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