Railroads and Popular Rights.
From the N. Y. Tribune.
We shall not be surprised if the great
railway crash of 1873 do more toward
the solution of the problem of cheap
freights than all the eloquence of the
orators of the Grangers. It has fur-great
nished a remarkable illustration of the
system upon which roads are built now
a-days, and shows very clearly who pays
for them. Take theNorthern Pacific
Road for example. This concern was
empowered to issue a share capital of
$100,000,000, but of this amount only
$2,000,000 was required to be sub
scribed in advance, and only $200,000
to be paid in. Although further calls
might be made upon the stockholders
should necessity require, it is tolerably
certain.that they never expected to pay
for a tenth part of the road out of their
own pockets, or to do anything more in
feet than advance the preliminary out
lay for surveys, for legislation, and
the other operations of floating their
scheme. This was a slender provision,
it would seem, for a road 2,000 miles
long through an uninhabited country,
without commerce at either terminus,
and without an important town on its
whole route. But the projectors intend
ed that Congress should build the road
and put them in possession of it. They
secured a grant of nearly 50,000,000
acres of public land, and on the secur
ity of this magnificent estate they pro
posed to negotiate a loan of $100,000,
000. As the estimated cost of the road
was only $85,000,000, this loan would
pay for the whole work and leave a
handsome surplus for contingencies
The land is now worth, say $125,000,
000, or perhaps more the portions
thus far sold have brought on an aver
age over $5 an acre. As the country
becomes developed it will of course rise
in value and it was calculated that
the sales would be sufficient to pay
whatever of the interest on the bonds
the road might fail to earn, and to pay
the principal likewise at maturity.
Anything that remained would bo the
property of the stockholders.
If the bonds had been duly nego
tiated according to progtemme the case
would have stood just flhus: A few
speculators would hav* subscribed
$200,000 and persuadedV Congress to
build a railroad for them worth fifty
times that amount out of the national
estate. In a short time they would get
back their original Investments in divi
dends. Then they would be the abso
lute owners of 2,000 miles of road for
which they had paid nothing, and prob
ably they would still have also a large
quantity of unsold land to divide among
themselves. Whether we should have
had a repetition of the Credit Mobilier
Building-Rings, and a rapid absorptiou
of the profits and estate of the Company
by a little coterie of inside managers,
railway Congressmen, and Christain
statesmen we leave our readers to con
jecture. The bonds were offered in
Europe and declined. Then the house
of Jay Cooke & Co. undertook to place
them among the multitude, as a popu
lar investment,—in other words," to
persuade the middle classes to advance
the money which the nation was ulti
mately to repay with interest.
Probably it was a combination of
accidents, rather than any intrinsic de
fect in the arrangements, which
brought this scheme to grief. Similar
methods have succeeded before, and, if
we are not cautious, will be attempted
again. But what we particularly wish
to call attention to is the bearing of
this case upon the transportation ques
tion. If the Northern Pacific Railroad
were in running order to-day from Du
luth to Puget Sound, the directors
would undoubtedly claim the right to
put their tolls high enough to yield
eight or ten per cent, on the cost of the
work. But the cost of the work would
have been paid wholly, or almost
wholly, out of the national estate.
Congress has made a grant rich enough
to cover the entire expense, and leave
the stockholders handsomely provided
for likewise. For more than twenty
years the Government has given away
land in reckless prodigality to aid in
the construction of railways. In 1871
the total amount of the public domain
thus appropriated reached the stupen
dous total of 217,847,375 acres.' It is
true that a large part of this grant will
prove inoperative, as the quantity of
vacant land within the the designated
limits will fall short of the appropri
ation but probably over 100,000,000
acres has been or will be deeded to the
favored companies. These concessions
represent, at the very lowesy computa
tion, a money value of $3|TO,000,000,
and an area considewUy/^reater than
the whole of the BrWfeh Isles, and
greater than New York, New Jersey,
Pennsylvania, and Illinois combined.
Bat when it is proposed that the roads
for which the nation has done so much
should be required to do something for
the people, we are met with the objec
tion, OK, you must not interfere with
the vested rights of stockholders."
Whatever may.be,^said of the rail
road question generally, it most be evi
dent that the land-grant roads hold a
peculiar relation toward the people and
may fairly be compelled to do much
more than roads built entirely by pri
vate capital. Reasonable profits on
roads of the former class cannot be
measured by aper centage on their cost,
because their cost was defrayed in a
degree, if not entirely, out of the
public fund. It cannot be measured
by the capital, because that is largely
fictitious. The limit of their right to
take toll must be fixed by a general re
view of all the circumstances of the
roads and the history of their construc
tion and common sense will demand
that in coming to a determination on
this point the share which the public
took in building them shall be fully
THE ritual and manual of the Order
of Patrons of Husbandry is to be trans
lated into German, and it is said that
German granges are to be established
in German settlements.
THE first farmers' grange in West
ern New York is in the process of
formation at Aurora, and the Buffalo
Courier says that it is likely to have
plenty of company soon.
THE Turtle Creek, Steele county,
Grange, P. H., will dedicate their new
warehouse, located on the Milwaukee
and St. Paul Railroad, six miles south
of Owatonna, on Monday evening next,
by exercises consisting of speeches, etc.
THE local Council of Patrons of
Husbandry of Fillmore county has ar
ranged for a general exhibition and
sale of farm stock and produce and
hiring of hands for Winter, to come off
on the Fair Ground at Spring Valley
on the 18th. That is the right style
and old style of farmers' fairs.
THE plan of the Grange Insurance
Company of Mower County, is on the
Tontine principle. Each member pays
in $10 on joining, and the money is de
posited in bank. When a member dies
his family is paid one dollar for each
member of his class, by a check upon
the bank, and assessment may then be
made upon the remaining members, if
desired, to make.the fund good.
DODGE county is credited by the
assessors with owning 3,648 cows, 4,492
sheep, 2.509 horses, 2,505 swine 'and
909 beef and work cattle.
THE temperance men of Minneapolis,
Minn., have put up a state ticket com
posed of the following names: Gover
nor, Samuel Mayall Lieutenant Gov
ernor, Ebenezer Avers Secretary of
State, John H. Stevens Treasurer, J.
M. Sator Attorney General, G. P. Wil
MINNESOTA'S expenditures in sup
port of public schools are greater per
capita of population of legal school age,
then are those of Wisconsin, Maryland,
Maine, Kansas, Missouri, and eighteen
of the other States and Territories.
She pays about $5.50 per capita.
MR. JAMES T. PRICE, of Eyota,
sold last week 1,800 pounds of wool,'
the product of his flock this season.
He received 45 cents per pound.
Think of the hard labor that would
have to be performed in order to rea
lize $800 from the sale of wheat.—
THE Roman Catholic farmers of
Rochester township, Minn., have met
and passed resolutions favoring the pre
sent farmers' anti-monopoly move
ment but expressing regret that the
obligation of secresy on the part of the
granges prevents the co-operation of
Catholics. It is proposed to form an
organization with similar objects in
view as the granges, but whose meet
ings shall be open.
THEY had cleared at the Cannon
Valley Fair at Faribault $1,000 above
all expenses up to the day before the
close. This was certainly doing well.
Draco Prince and the Star of the West
did much toward drawing the horseman.
—A Southern gentleman who was
at Greenville, Tenn., a short time since
tells the following. A countryman
came into town last weelf with a bundle
of jeans, to have a suit of clothes made
for his negro. HerSaw Andy John
son standing on the corner, and said
Well, Andy, you used to be the best
tailor in these parts, and I wish yn'd
cut out this suit of clothes for my boy
Jim here." "All right," says Andy,
and they stepped into a shop near by,
and in five minutes an ex-president
might have been seen swinging round
the circle of a dirty negro, taking his
latitude, longitude and bearing for a
'suit of clothes.
a.-,-.,. ,lfe,W.^ -Xl. •,\i:^.y..,.y.r^: •-...-• -.:•!
OTHER FOLKS IN TROUBLE—THE
FUEL QUESTION AND THE RAIL
Capt. Barney reported to the Cham
ber of Commerce that he had seen the
railroad officers and they had promised
to send an answer to the questions re
spectfully submitted to them by the
Chamber as to what terms could be
made with them for carrying wood.
This they did not do. The Chamber
meets Monday again and will expect
Gen. Becker, who made the promise
for the Pacific road, Mr. Drake, who
represents the Sioux City road, and
the managers of the Superior and West
Wisconsin road to reply. It is not
just the course the public expects of
those respectable gentlemen to dodge a
business responsiblity of this sort on a
matter so vital to every citizen of St,
APPEAL FOR AID.
The citizens' committee of Memphis
have issued the following request for
assistance from other cities.
The yellow fever is increasing
daily sickness and death and burial
on every side, and business is sus
ended. For the sake of sufferiug hu*
manity send money and relief to our
City Treasurer. All our charitable
societies are exhausted, and private
charity itself is almost exhausted.
Memphis has always responded to
the calls of the distressed in other
cities, and she asks their assistance in
return to relieve her distress. The
occasion is such that we appeal with
out hesitation, but lameut the neces
sity. Money is what we need to pay
nurses, to buy food and shelter foryor
phans and the helpless.
Direct by telegraph to JoajrJohn
son, Mayor, city of Memphis.
There were 27 burials of yellow fe
ver cases in Memphis on Thursday.
The Mayor of Marshall, Texas, denies
the report that the disease had reached
THE jury in the case of Cobb, Blais
dell & Co. vs. the Illinois Central road,
a suit tried at Cairo for the recovery of
damages for delay in shipment of grain
some years ago, awarded the sum of
$43,560 to the plaintiffs.
A CARELESS WITNESS.—Lawyers
have a belief that when a witness be
gins to yawn, and look extra in
different, he is probably lying. A
funny colloquy between a witness of
this class and a counselor occurred a
few weeks ago in a court held not very
far West. The particular matter at
issue was an account of several years'
standing defendant swore that he had
paid in full, and to corroborate him,
called this witness. The fellow mount
ed the stand, took the oath, gaped, and
testified directly that the money was
paid that he was present and saw it
paid. Then he was turned over to the
plaintiff for cross-examination.
Lawyer. You say you saw the mon
Witness. (Gaping) I did?
Lawyer. Where was plaintiff when
•.- ..c :*^.,^:-:,'^. :~A&$Qb$l$S9l0l$&k I
In the barn. A wide
What month was it
What time of day
'Bout 4 in the morning.
Y-a a-s—a little.
Then, sir how could you
see the money paid
Witness. I—I(gaping) lit a match.
What was the plaintiff
What Now, sir, just ex-
plain to the jury how a man can be
mowing in his barn, before daylight,
in the month of Febuary.
The witness saw that he had been
hopelessly involving himself in a quag
mire of falsehood. The eyes of the
court, jury and lawyers were upon him,
and he saw no way to' extricate himself
from his dilemma. But somtehing had
to be done and so, miffl\nonchalant
yawn, he drawled out the words
Well, Squire I don'^cnow as
I care much about this case, any way.'7
MONKEY-MEN.—The naturalist Dar
win tells us that men have de
scended from monkeys but in
the Tette district of Africa the
natives believe in Darwin in a contrary
way. They think that when they die
their souls will live on in the shape of
monkeys. So they reverence all the
monkeys of the forests, and make them
a bow in passing, feeling sure that some
day their own human souls will be
frisking about in some beautiful un
AN illustration of absent-mindedness
is told of an excitable young drug clerk,
who filled his customer's bottles with
the liniment desired, and receiving
therefor a nice new twenty-five cent
shin-plaster, pasted it on the bottle and
pat the label in the cash drawer.
BE KIND ENOUGH TO THROW ME
MY HORSE.—The Scotch area staid
and stern people solid in muscle as
well as in intellect. There is broad
humor in the following anecdote touch
ing Scotch muscle
A Scotch farmer, celebrated in this
neighborhood for his immense strength
and skill in all athletic exercises, very
frequently had the pleasure of fighting
people who, led by curiosity, came to
try if they could settle him or not.
Lord a great pugilist amateur,
had come from London ou purpose to
fight the athletic Scot. The latter was
working in an inclcsure at a little dis
tance from his house when the noble
lord arrived. His lordship tied his
horse to a tree and addressed the farm
er Friend. I have heard a great
deal of talk about you, and I've come a
great way to see which of us is the best
man" The Scotchman, without an
swering, seized the noble lord by the
middle of the body, pitched him over
the hedge, and then set about working
again. When his lordship had got up
Well,"- said the farmer. have you
any thing more to say to me No,"
replied his lordship, but perhaps you'd
be kind enough to throw me my
ONE of our country exchanges says
Never were the effects of matrimony
more terribly depicted thaL th& other
day, whan a meek-eyed mJ^rrilo had
been married about a year patrolled
the village streets all day. trying to
swap a meerschaum ptjnnoF a second
A NEAR-SIGHTED Indianapolis wo
man patched the seat of her husband's
pantaloons with a cold buckwheat cake,
that the children had left in her work
basket. The color of the patchwork
matched the original trowsers, and, as
the cake was tough, the mistake might
never have been discovered but
the old man got caught out in a shower
a day or two afterwards the patch be
gan to swell he felt cold patches on
his back, and thinking it was spinal
meningitis that had clutched him, sent
for a doctor, who soon soothed his fears.
A TIPSY fellow, who mistook a globe
lamp with letters on it for the queen of
the night, exclaimed I will be blest
if somebody hain't stuck an advertise
ment ou the moon.
A FARMER who was in the habit of
giving his laborers breakfast before
light in the morning, hired an Irish
man, and the second day Pat expressed
his opinion of him as follows
Bedad, now, he's the kindest gin
tleman I've met in this cuntry he in
vites me to git up in the night to ate
A N OFFICE
WEED Sewing Machine
30 WEST THIRD STREET,
E. HAWKIN S & CO.,
E iv Dealer in
WIND O W SHA DES,
For sale by
mouse, Sign, Carriage and
Ornamental Fainting in
all it* Branches.
A S BUYERS
Are inrited to call and we the Jf
JOVBS 4L COU3,
a Medicines Stationer
a a Ctoods.
Agents for Prince dt Ott.'s Organs,
A large Assortment of VIOLINS, ACOORDEONS
and small Musical Merchandise constantly oh hand.
]V*ELSON & WINCHESTER,
Foreign and Domestic Dry Goods
of Mai anelBUBn Streets,
Red Wing, Minnesota.
JOHN LYONS, Proprietor,
Corner Plumb and Third Sreeta,
RED WINGK Minnesota.
favor it with their patronage
WILL SELL-AJT ohsT
FOR 3 0 DAYS.
Granges will have a chance to compare
he Onl First-Class a
And the only
Respectable flating House
Main Street, opposite BakeW^opular Hardware
J£DWARD L. BAKER,
HEAVY AND SHELP
74 MAIN STREET,
MED Wlfta, MINNESOTA.
J£ P. LOWATER,
•W.-»'^l,X-i*^1 .... I ..-•' i-f---.'.. ^*r*
AND GENTS' FURNISHING GOODS
A N O S AND ORGANS.
VARIETY OF STYLES
OF TH E BEST QUALITY, AN
ON VERY LIBERAL TERMS.
Cull and see before purchasing.
Music Rooms adjoining Dental Rooms.
F- A. WILLIAMSON, Agent.
8 S 8 0
FOR 30 DAYS ONLY.
O W E SEWIN MACHINE.
The BEST in the World.
SEE THE NEW IMPROVED.
For sale at E. P. Lowater's.
JAS. C. HAWES, Agent.
pARKER & MATTHEWS,
LAC KSMI^ S9
AND MANUFACTURERS OF
WAGONS, PLATFORM \AGONS, SLEIGHS
SLEDS, die, $.,
Third a Httt.
Horse Shoeing and Repairing done to order.
MAyUFACTUREH OF AHD DEALER IM
a Muzzl a in
SPORTING APPARATUS, #c
Revolver*. W in a in
S CITY BAKERY
TOYS, FANCY GOODS,
91AMQM, O O A I
and all the smaller
Comer of Ifiiia nwTBush street*,
1 Red Wing, Minnesota.
b—-:• .':&••».»«• .•"-
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