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THE' 'PEHRYSBT JEG! 'JorMJfiL
The new provisions of the present School
Law. involving changes radical in their
tharacler, must necessarily produce, for a
tiuie, much embarrassment and inconven-
ieaicc, and in some instances it may be, j
sK-tual oppression. But most of these being;
a temporary nature, and incident to al-
nast every innovation upon long established
us;tge, they should not impel tin General
Asotml'ly to hasty and inconsiderate legis
lation, lest the present law may be, iit a
shct time, involved in the same plerplexity
and confusiou which, under the former laws,
produced so much embarrassment.
The annual assessment and levy of two
mills upon the gram.4 duplicate of the State
I'or ehool purposes, is regarded by many
the tax-payers as oppressive and unnecessa-
ry. The levy, however, is only half a mill
;n i-ici man uiiub uuuiuu.t;u ins luimui
Trior to the passage of the present law,
the State levied half a mill, and cuunty com
missioners were required to levy a mill, for
school purposes; making a total school tax
of me mill and a half. Under the new law,
boih levies have been united into one,
styled a State levy. I
Anolher tax which has borne very heavi-J
ly upon the tax-payers the past year, is thej
oik- authorized to be. assessed by Township;
Boards of Kducation for the purchase of i
school houeMtes, and the erection of school
houses. The amount that has been raised
tor these objects is very nearly as large, asl
levied by the State. It is a tax that
will not be required to be repeated, however,'
in the next fifteen or twenty years
in tlie esuoiisinm-m oi aiisciiool systems;
tune objects should
view brevity, si
degree of economy
tm-moi an school systems;
uld be constantly kept
unphcity, and the utmost
y that is consistent with
the proper education of the vouth of the
State. To attain these excellencies, howev
er, much time and experience, and a careful
observation of the wovkin" of the system,
are necessarily required.
1 he grand duplicate has been greatly 111-
rreased bv the re-valution of the real estate
A levy of two mills, for the ensuing year,
nuumpwui.v-.uui mn. iv.iiiuc
was raised during tiie past year, under the
sameleyy. No system can operate bcneli-
eially that bears too heavily on the people.
i therefore recommend that the law be
moaiueu in uus particular as not to require.
sessed by the State. '
lhe work on the new State House has'
Ivvn carried on, during the past year,
eommeudablc industry and dispatch. The,
i-ii irtf rr anil rviiinco -t iwiim'tnn'
' V -Ar... w jum ig
suitable halls for the accommodation of
.,, u--.ai -mu ,, b " I'"-"-!
.nt insecurity ot the public records of
State render the early completion of this!
ijuuuins a maiier oi mucn interest.
Arrangements were made to have it cover
ed in last fall, so Oiat the work, inside,
could be progressing during the winter, but
the contractors were disappointed in pro-
curing the necessary materials. Ihev have!
since been procured, however, and the roof
will be put on early in the spring.
It is expected that the rooms intended foil
Supreme Court, the Library, and the va-1
rious State offices, will be finished and ready
to be occupied early in the ensuing fall, and
that the whoU; building will be completed
in time for the next session of the General
It will be a large ana beautilul etluice
comporting well with the magnitude and
increasing wealth of the State.
nui imiB uiuriuiuu ims ui cu nuiu iur
some time past to the Militia System of this
State, and in some places, it has been suf
fered to go entirely down. No returns, it is
lielievcd, have been made for several years,
and the State has thereby failed to receive
her just proportion of the public arms.
Many of the divisions, brigades, and regi
ments are without officers, and there is some
doubt as to the manner in which they should
The Constitution requires that all white
male citizens' 'between the ages of eighteen
and forty-five Shears, shall be eni'ole in the
Militia of the.State, and that provision' shall
bo made by' law' for the protection and safe
keeping of the public ariiis.
It has been found necessary in all govern
ments to keen uo some kind nf a military
force. ; In ours, the rel',ance is chiefly upoii
a citizen soldiery.
There maybe occasions when the civil
authorities ure unable to perform their ap
jf propriate duties, and when the Governor is
expressly required " to call forth the Militia,
to execute the laws of the State, to sup
press insurrection, an d repel invasion." , , ;
The public arms, as will be seen from the
Quarter Master General's Report, are in a
most unsafe conditio) a.
These circumstan ce, it appears to me,
rentier it imperative on the General Assem
bly to provide for a. more efficient organi-
ofZdtionof the Militia, nf the, Stafo
The reduction of the price of our Canal
niuis has increased the number of acres unon
the grand dup.lice.te, and contributed largely
to uie setuemem 01 one ot the most prom
ising regions of the State.
The area ol lb i whole State contains 25,
570,900 acres, of which there will be
brought on tho g rand duplicate for the ensu
inc vear. 21. 11 .455 nr-res. Ipavinfr n hn.
nnd;ance 0f 705,505 acres, the. greater part of
which still belongs to the. General Govern-
The United St ites continue to demand the
former prices o f from $1.25 to $2.50 per
acre whil tbe State sells her lands, in the
fiamc vicinity-, ut greatly reduced rates.
-ph is necessarily retards the settlement of
those lands, aiud proves a very serious incon
Xliat V(;nience to the people in that section of the
j Tn'e General Government should at once
surrender the remainder of its lands to the
surrender the ro -.maindcr of its lands to the
in'State so lnat tj,i;y mny g0 into lhe hanct3 of
actual scttlers. nt graduated prices, and be
j brought, with aid other lands of the State,
on the grand duplicate.
This would b 3 no more than iust. The
whole quantity of land at first held by the
n.,.-,-,! r.n,,Cvn..n v; c
rears from the i ictual surveys, was 16.770.-
934 acres. The proceeds already realized bv
the National treasury, amount to nearly
21,000,000, which is an average of more
"than 4.2.) per acre for the entire quantity,
j dcem the ?rescnt an appr0priate and
favorablc time t0 prcss this matter
tilrt (.nei,iprntlnn nf th
; irit t cm nn i Vir .nnrl cat i 1 r -i f r f 4 T- vmiK.
Uc domain is the avowed policy of the pres
Our FetW Relations both at home and
abroad have been conducted, during the
with;pa(.t vcar, with signal ability end success,
The principles and policy announced in
the inaugural address and message of
the!p.h;f Mi.tnt. nf it,,, ATatin,, fl0
sentiments and opinions ot the people, and
the!airorti nmple rroof that the honor nd hi h
interests of our country, will be fully and
Columbus, January 2, 1854.
Theory vs. Practice.
nr. T i ... TT 0
,he? 1 "".de.nt 1'ce was in the U. S
; Senate in 1841, he asserted what he deemed
movals from office iu 'the following lau
the nnp .
" When a public officer neglects the duties
of his office for political purposes, prosti
tutes it for political ends, or in any way
abuses the trust confided to him, to promote
the objects of a party, he should be remov-
that priacipie their cordial assent. But
whm V(m tmnsccnd thi8t you Ac
uc officer in tne Tree ana vnemoarrasHed tx-
excise, of his inalienable rights secured to hv.n
by the constitution as a man and a citizen."
Comment the expulsion of a public oifi
cer from office for refusing to do exactly
what Gen. Tierce 60 violently condemned.
Heavy Freight Business. The amount
of freight ofi'ering at the Cincinnati, Hamil
ton and Dayton depot, is unprecedently
large. Cars can scarcely be obtained to
take the freight from this point alone.
Large quantities of hogs and produce are
coming over the M. R. & L. E., as well
as the Q. & M.. destined for Cinciunati.
which makeia great addition to the basinegs
[Correspondence of the N. Y. Daily Times.]
Notes on the
CINCINNATI, Dec. 7, 1853.
After considering the numbers and growth
of a people, the next most interesting inqui
ry is, how do they live ? In what classes
are they divided? Is agriculture or the arts
most predominant? The census furnishes
us with the facts, from which we may draw
inferences, but does not furnish us with the
philosophical conclusions to which these
facts lead. This is the work of scientific and
philosophic minds, for whose use the. census
is really intended.
The first classification in the pursuits and
habits of a people is into civic and rural, or
town and country. From their division in
this respect may be inferred their progress
in the arts. 1 have given below some of the
proportions of the civic and rural popula
tion of the United States country towns
of over 2,000 inhabitants each, as belonging
to the civic class:
New England, (596,905
New York, 1,070,759
27 ir ct. civic,
Lnited States, 3,754,470 19,436,590
It will be seen that the three states New
York, Pennsylvania and Ohio contain about
half the civic population of the United
States, while they contain less than one-third
the whole people. Some inferences may he
drawn from the distribution of the civic
population, in regard to the future growth of
ine several states :
1. The entire growth of New York in the
last ten years has been in the civic class.
The ce nsus shows that some of the best ag
ricultural counties have absolutely dimin
ished. It depends almost entirely on the
growth, of towns in, New York, how far or
last lh'3 Etate shall grow.'
2. Pennsylvania has 320,000 more inhab
itants than Ohio; but this excess is entirely
civic, the rural population being equal. It
depends, therefore, almost wholly on the
growth of Philadelphia and Pittsburg wheth
er Pennsylvania can keep her position.
3. Virginia, the oldest state, has only sev
en per ce nt. of civic population, while Ohio,
a young state, has iourteen per cent., and
Pennsylv ania has twenty-five. This proves
that a sla.ve state cannot have a very large
civic population and from that, also, arises
the fact that they cannot deal largely in
inaiiuiaciures ana me arts. A slave popu
lation ne cessarily results in a floating and
agricultu ral people. New Orleans is a city
foreign t o Louisiana, half its -people being
oniy temporary residents. St. Louis may
grow ia:i ior some lime, out will never
equal th& growth of Missouri that is, here
jjzusiiy oj naoiianon is important, as
showing; the capacity of a country to sup
port inhabitants, and the rapidity of growth
compared with the soil. Let us take some
examples from nearly equal surfaces :
Sa. Miles. Densitv.
iw -r.niriana, m,iio
New York. 40,000
We observe here a fact that would not be
suspected, that the density of habitation in
At. . .1 .
unio is greater man mat oi iNew England
Comparing it with Massachusetts, the Mi
ami country proper (which is about equal to
the surlace ot Massachusetts) has 90 to a
squave mile, while Massachusetts lias 127;
but that includes Boston and the numerous
large towns all around it. The addition of
Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont, makes
the whole density of New England inferior
to that of Ohio.
Virginia, on the other hand, has only half
me density oi iew England, and one third
that of New York. This arises from its
purely agricultural character. Looking at
the capacity of the states, as tested only by
experience if we take 127 (the density of
Massachusetts) as a ratio, then New York
would have 5,700,000 inhabitants, and Ohio
5,000,000. It is quite certain they will both
attain that number without, much check in
the present rate of increase. New York city
would then contain a million of people, and
Cincinnati half a million. These places are
now growing so, rapidly there 6eems no jea-
45 to I square mile.
son to dOUDt that result. If thft Tatin nf
Massachusetts were applied to the five north
w esiern siaies, (under tne ordinance ot I7b7,)
they Would contain 28.000.000 and -there, is
no reason to doubt they will attain that in
we next miny or lorty years, lint let us
compare the United States with some nf the.
6tates of Europe : j
Square Miles. , Density.
' 62,208 40 -
30,000 6 "
We thus see there are pre.at variptJoc in
density of population in Europe. Denmark,
one of our ancestral lands, has less density
of habitation than Ohio. Scotland has not
as much as Massachusetts. But England
proper has much greater density than any of
these countries. At the density which pre
vails in England, New York would contam
nearly fourteen millions of people ! and New
York city be a second London ! , i
There is a. striking resembl an re. lipfron
Scotland and New England, in mind, mor
als, habits, and industrial development,
which any one who chooses may run oUt in
a parallel. Man is naturally gregarious,
which accounts for the apparently strange
tastes of such multitudes of people in rush
ing to cities, and spending their lives within
narrow walls. Even here, in this new town
on the Ohio, we see people daily coming
from every interior county to seek business
and society in the city. They leave, with
no repugnance, the green fields, and beauti
ful words, and running streams, to bury
themselves in the dust of shops, the smoke
of foundries, and the greasy smell of pigs.
While this gregarious nature (and especially
of the American man) remains,' our cities
will continue to grow ' with equal rapidity.
The magnitude and growth of our cities is
one of the most remarkable things attending
American development; and' probably their
future will be more remarkable;" kT note,
here, the population of some bf the!m, at an
interval of thirty years, including the popu-
lanuu u me suuerus, in round numbers :
500 per cent.
These are enough iq show how very extra
ordinary is the growth of our civic popula
tion. There are places in the north west, on
the Mississippi, the Missouri, and the Lakes,
which are now unheard of, but in the next
generation will be great places. The first
warehouse lot was sold in Chicago in 1834,
and now it claims about 50,000 inhabitants.
Milwaukie, Wisconsin, was laid out by two
citizens of Ohio, in 1836, and now claims
VIATOR DEL OCCIDENT.
Cincinnati ; and Dayton Short Line
Railroad. We are much gratified to learn
that the work of construction on this road
is progressing . most rapidly, and that the
prospects are favorable to its completion by
the time specified, j The entire line, from
the tunnel, is under contract to Mr. Beckel,
of Dayton, who, with all that indomitable
energy characteristic of the man, is driving
the work with a rapidity astonishing;;
While" other roads are suffering for want of 1
means, the ; contractor upon this one is pos- , ;
sessed of the advantages of capital that will
insure its speedy completion. Nearly two
hundred hands are at work at the present
time upon the line of the road, and at' the
opening of spring an immense force of la
borers will be put on, that will enable the -contractors,
in connection with tha nrpspmt
flourishing condition of the road and. its
flattering prospects, to complete it thorough
ly and have it in runniner t order within'
eighteen months from the time the contract
1 - f Tt
was raaae. uin. jinq. ' ,
Turn About. The uronriptnr nf tVw Tt '
A I - -H. .
net House gave on Saturday night' 'to the
uumcsuta ini csiauusiimeni, some one...
hundred au'd fifty in number., th' Usual
Christmas Eve supper and ball. ' The ser- 1
vanis, mai nignx, were waited on by Mr.
Coleman and assistants. ! ''' .
A man behind the times should bfi fA&'.