Newspaper Page Text
The Cholera—Its History and Progress.
The first distinct data that we have in
reference to cholera, is that, in year 1781, it
attacked a body of troops at Gunjam, a
coast town 535 miles north-east of Madras,
which latter place it reached during the next
year. In the year 1783 it attacked many of
the native inhabitants of India, and twenty
thousand deaths occurred. It then disap-
oeared: but in 1817 it aaain appeared, and i
fairly earned its name as a terrible epidemic!
In Jessore, (India,) ten thousand deaths in J
a population of sixty thousand took place,
''rom India it was supposed to be conveyed!
in ships to Mauntus, the Dutch East Indies,
and Unina. In la'-il, it Had readied tnei
Persian gulf; and, continuing its western
progress, we find it on the banks of the Ti-
gris, thence in Caucasia: and, finally, on !
the 11th of September, 1S30, it reached Mos-j
cow. Taking the couse of the great rivers'
the Don and the Volga, the disease rapidly!
spread itself over Russia. InJanuary, 1832,jlv
the cholera appeared at Edinburgh, on thejof
1 1th of February, at London, and in March,!
at JJublin. Ualais and rans were also at-1
tacked 111 March. I
The ninth day of June, 1S32, will ever be
as the period when this scourge!
appeared on the American continent. lt
appeared at Quebec, where it was also very j
severe in itiiv. ine nrst case in ew lonti
occurred on the 27th of June of same year,
and the disease disappeared in October. i
It is estimated that in the fourteen years, i
A T f1 mm i. 1 (I'll . 1 1 - - 1 i-V
irom loh to-iodi, trie uisease carrieci on
eighteen millions of
dostan. The number
and Wales in 1S31
20,726. In Scotland,
of whom 10,G50 diec
r1.1 iO ottanl-n r,r,A Ol 1 1 1 .looth.- T
-I(Wy ai.i.cii.n.d, uuu -j.in ucoiiu. m h.k i
city of London there were 11,020 cases, and j
"),275 deaths. The disease visited Spain and
Italv in 1S35-6. and finally disanneared from;
the inhabitants ot llin-
of cases in England
.-'2, was 63,230; deaths,!
20,202 were attacked.
I. In Ireland, there were!
hurope in lb37-.
ine appearance oi me cnoiera in tne uni-i
ted States created a great panic, and proba-j
bly many persons died from fear. In Q.ue-1
bee, Montreal, New York, Philadelphia,'
Baltimore, Albany, Norfolk and Rochester
there were about fifteen . thousand deaths
during three months.
It will be seen by the above that it is com-
paratively easy to ascertain the origin and
progress of the cholera of 1S32. The epi
demic, of 1818-9, is not so clearly traced.
It is alleged that it made its appearance at
Cabul in 1845, and pursuing almost the same
course as in 1832, it reached Moscow in De
cember 1847. In May 1848 it reached Con
stantinople and spread throughout the Dan
ubian provinces. The cholera appeared at
London and Hull in September, 1818. It
disappeared in December, and the whole
number of deaths in the United Kingdom
was 72,180. It is estimated that the ex
pense of funerals exceeded five hundred thou
sand pounds sterling, and the cost of the
disease altogether about two millions of
pounds. The only large city exempted from
the cholera was Birmingham, where not a
single case occurred, although half the in
habitants of a small town in the vicinity
were swept off. In New York the cholera
appeared in May 1819 ; culminated in the
week ending July 25, when there were 714
deaths ; and disappeared in November. The
whole number of deaths was 4,072. .-In some I
ot the western cities it was much more se-
The cholera at present has not risen to the
dignity of an epidemic, and the calendar of
1851 will bear no comparison with those of
1832 and 1849. It first appeared during the
winter of 1803-4, at Sunderland, England.
It is a remarkable fact that the cholera of:
1832 appeared at the same place. The first j
caseinNew York was reported early in June;
but there have not been sufficient number of i
deaths since toexcite anything like a panic.
Tlu- cholera is now raging at Detroit and
MontreM with great violence It has reach-
ed St. Louis also, and will probably go down
ine river to iew urieans. Jjy accounts
published in another part cf this paper, it
will be seen that the disease is making terri
ble ravages at Jamaica and Rarbadoes
The above, is but a , slight sketch of the
isea.nd progress of this terrle scourge; but
sinc its first, appearance the attention of
the learned men has been directed to the phe
nomena accompanying it. They have robbed
it or nail its terrors by demonstrating the
fact that it may be cured it' remedies are ap-
plied in its early stages. One example will
suffice to prove the truth of this statement,
In 1832 the town of Bilston, England, was
ravaged by the cholera. One-third of the
number attacked died. Dr. M'Cann. a dis-
tinguished physician, was sent down by gov
discase. eminent. He opened a dispensary, and
requested every person whose bowels were
jin the slightest degree disordered to come to
him. They did so, and he gave, to each an
astringent aromatic opiate medicine. Sim
pie mcieeu, was it not ' it stopped the dis-
ase, as these figureswill show. In the
days preceding the opening of the dispensa-idying
ry. 227 persons died ; in five days following
134 died; in the next five, 59, and on the
eighteenth day not a fatal case was reported,
We cannot impress this point too strong-;
upon our readers. Check any appearance
diarrhoea, and if accompanied with !
cramps, let the bodv be rubbed with spirits.
Where the looseness becomes serious, lose no;lU
tim? in nht.aininir tlif nrl
Every person should be possessed of "a Buffi
remembered cient amount of common sense to be able to
eat and drink at this season. Violent
changes of diet are always hurtful, and many
persons in '32 and '40 were mad rnnfirmpd
drunkards bv taking " a little brandy,'' as a
nrPv-PniU-A ' w- , ,tn ,mt Jmni;;;,i.-of
.'..... v.. .w. ...V.IIW.. 1111 'I1L11IV lir' I
jieve in brandy as a Preventive as a cnrliiivp
r . ..
cuoiera is an tnieccious or contagious rtis-
ease. It seems to us, however, that it has
been proved that it is neither contagious or
;nfint;r,a n,,,,,,,);,, 1,..
- wv UUtUllWlttv. bUUIIV'b P 1L U ML
IVP 5mnt it 9 tncwlhor ac it inoroncic 1 ,o . ,
.'wt v ivui-. iif--. ib ii v,i i,nv .1 liiu ii iia
mation : and whatever advantage mioht
flow from its astrinaent nnalitU: i
balanced bv this fact? I
We. do not intend tr cm into an m,mMt i
upon the vexed Question as to whether or not
!of a country, as has bL'en shown in Russia
and .Egypt. Thousands of people went from
New York to Newport in 1849, and there '
never has bee:n a case of cholera at tb
latter place. Ten thousand persons went
from Marseilles to Lvons when the cholera
was raging at the former place, and Lyons
still enjoyed immunitv from the scourge. j
The burden of proof goes to show that there
is no necessity for cholera hospitals, or for!
the removal of a patient from home. It
would be barbarity so to do, with the light
we have now on the subject. !
The causes of cholera, and the means!
whereby it may be checked or entirely pre-;
vented, are subjects which open a wide field
for discussion. For the first, the best theory
is that cholera is caused by an intensely '
..... . .
poisonous Jras emitted nnr prrertam rmn i.!
tions of heat and moisture, from decayina
mineral and vegetable matter. This gal!
does not diffuse readily, but is borne in cur-!
rents until it meets with conditions favora-i
ble to its development: that is, it travels I
c ur,,i rtn.,i t,;,u, ua .:
prfmi,Df D .v.i.,:
should have but little need of cholera hos-i
pitals. IN. Y. Ilsrald
Death of the Vv.ceroy of Egypt. On the ;
14th of July, Aba Pasha, viceroy of Egypt, j
died of apoplexy i'.t Benha, a town on'the
cuest. The noison
a iiirn icitucu xiiiu inc Unix's, acts ai once
blood, and then we have cholera
symptoms. How to prevent it' We have'"
great faith in watdr, and were the citizens of !
New York all Mahometans for a month or j
Njle. He was bnried on the following day j
in one of the mosques at Cairo, and his fu-;
neral was attended by ihree .regiments of,
soldiers and some officials, but no relatives j
or friends. There are reports that he did not !
die a natural death but the truth is not
sily apcertamod on this point, ,
The intelligence was brought to Alexan
dria on the IGth, and Said Pasha (son of
Mehemet All) the vightful heir, as the eldest
of. M.ehemet's family,' at once ' proceeded to
the pBlace'al Rasel-teen, and there assumed
the teius of go lemment. London Times, 'j
The Great Plague in London.
In Dickens's Child's History of England,
volume two, we find the following respect
ing the Great Plague that prevailed in the
seventeenth century, in the city of London :
I For this was the vear and ih time, nf the
great plague in London. Durin g the winter
of 1GG4, it had been whispered about that
pered about that
some few people had died here and there
a disease caueu me piague, in some ot tlie j
suburbs around London. Newsgion,
was not published at that time like, it is luuvtr
and some people believed these rumors, audi
some people disbelieved them, and thev were
soon forgotten. Hut in the month of" May, j
looj, u oegan io oe saui an over tlie town. t
tliat the disease had burst out with great vi-j
iiveiolence in St. (iiles, and that the people were j
in great numbers. This soon turned j
; out to be awfully true. The roads out of:
London were choked up by people endeavor-'
ing to escape from the infected citv. andl
laroe sl,ms were. l,aul for any kind of con-
I veyance. Thi disease soon spread so
that it was necessary to shut up the houses!
I111 which sick people were, and to cut them!
lrom communication w
it h the li vinir. !
outside of the door with a red cross, and th
"Lord have mercy on us!- The street,!
II deserted, grass grew in the public!
and there was a dreadiulsilence in the'
air. When nicht came on. dismal rumblins
. . . . .
usei1 10 b- heard' antl thew were the wheels!
tht; death-cart, attended by men will. :
veiled laces, and holding cloths to their
;l..i.il.- r( 'lw. r-l,.,-.!.. f.. .1 1
"""" tan-j k"s- ' me f;nirrdi
,ear- children ran away from their parents. ,
ancl Parents from their children. Some who ;
were taken ill. died nlone. and u ithmir . nnv '
IHOUU1S. WHO nil)!' llOlelUL Oe IS. ttOil rrierl In
' r t - -- ----- -
a lolul an solemn voice, " IJrmg out Your..
rWpr.idead!" The corpses rut into these carts
were buried by toich-li-ht, in great pits, no
service being performed over them all men
being afraid to stay for a moment on the
help. Somr! were stabbed or strangled bv
hired nurses, who robbed them of all their
moey. and stole the verv beds on w hich
they lay. Some went mad, dropped from
Uieir windows, ran through the streets, and
in their pain and phrenzv flung themseves
Into the nv.er- lhos& were not all the hor-
rors of the times. The w icked and dissolute,
m ili desperation, sat in taverns, singing;
roa"nS fonga, and wer; stricken as they .
!(lrank, and went out and died. The fearful
!aml superstitious persuaded themselves that'
they sawsupernatural sights-bumingswords
,n lhe ?k'' g5Santic "ms and darts. Others
Prelent,ed tf,at at J11'1 : crowds of ghosts
in r,0U" a , T , (h?.mal pits.
Inalma. akei'. ai carrying a brazier
, 1 01 . bu.rni"5 coals upon his head, stalked
iTrirniKfti the erff.tc rrrinn ., t. ..
- ..v... , ......f, h.ul i. un u
.l A ' . . ,
lnolmei comrnissionen to enounce the ,
engeance ot u.e Lord on wicked London,
, ??h ahva-vs went. and lro, exclaiming:
. 1 ,Vy I V I'0"' on pha11 l'du-,
,.r0ye,d ! A Ttd .avoke 'echoes ot the
the fires out. At last the winds, which usu-.
ally arise at that time of the veaf which is :
r led 1 , , oclu'no "hen day and n.glit are
:"J el,al Ienth a11 over ' worl(l' l)f'ga to
blow and purify the wretched town. Tlie
deaths began to decrease, the red crosses
slowly to disappear, the fugitives to return, i
the shops to open again, and pale, frightened i
faces to bp seen in the streets. The. plague,
Througli the months of July, August and
!Ptemb;r. thegrea t dag;.H raged more and
, v J . unu " 1,1 UIR bU( Vl?
? t,,e , stoppinj; the infection; but
lcu;"dS u P''eoi ram, too, anau uat
Lad h?en in every part of England, but" in '
close and un'wholsornrt London, it had j
killed one hundred thousand people
The Great Plague in London. COMPARATIVE COST OF SOLDIERS IN EUROPE.
onX M rmo 1 w,"
!show fhfs rpat- I npnw, in f. "1 .
countries of English, Freaich, Piussiau, Aus
trian and Russian soldiers, viz : 120 Eng
lish soldiers cost as much as 538 Russian;
120 French cost (is much as 350 Russian;
120 Prussian cost us much as 240 Russian
120 Austrian cost 83 much as 212 Russian.
The Washington correspondent of the N.
Y. Courier & Enquirer says: 1 have no
doubt at fall that a large majority of inn fir.,i
settlers in Kansas will be from slavcholdiug
states, and that it will be a slave territory,
and will be admitted as a slave state, h ii
possible that slavirv mav ilu-imll,. i, k-.,.,.
oijsas alter the first excitement, which will
cause a rapid inllux ot slaves into that rt
unwholsome shall have passed, but I do not conid
that probable. Slavery has thrived and
is thriving in Missouri. In 1S10 the tori i
tory contained 3.011 slaves ; in 1620 it had
10,222. In 183U the state contained (j'JI
slaves ; m lfU), OS.240, and th
loaO showed the number to bc87 -V- Km
it will give a hett.r view of the prioress '
this class of the population to compare r
with that of the whites, as follows:
Whites S'aves Ii V v:)
IQin 17-o7 'om' increasa ul 's-aves
.. per cen'
In seventeen counties next tie: line
Kan ?Vr u 1 l.".M . thlr,-v ul t, th- frr-
nlu' 1 amWhere are 11.01
? l0Vu Proportion between th,:
,W0 "l riost tlie same as ;n
iuv ,i vu n. u iui i.1
-"Jv nils l f . nf 'i,!.n
: ...... i i i . . .. - -
N- . ' ... . , ' ' " " ,or ot Ka,":ii" ar'-'
; ,tl,r'-1 11 -iuu miles, and seems to be the
....-...J...... .14 .1 1
least adapted lor slave lab;r of any io M'V
souri, yet tlie proportion of slay's is fuUv-
() . ehni-!- i HCth- - " i
fe t .1V:' . "j J'xactly oquiva-
MUn,. vk7L ? not ,''XI1 1!l
! . 11 as a territory, lias not.
i ,-, , v . , . i i . . . i .
', ',. . ., ' . : ' , ' ' '.""l"J ni!' '
' 1 . V' IM-1V I. uie .'"or, nud ic seek
' r !. um
' liV. ' 1 s. VU!" u l);lt ' wrote at an
,.'.n.. ' . , 1 1SC11'"' to..u it
111:. U L T II L 111! I M.l l 'fv 1 lia t i I I
since existed there, and docs not'exist the:
The Graduation Law.
Among the various schemes introdued near
cioe cu uje late session ot oures
substitutes lor th'! homesteail bill, th.-re ha
been .-ome uncertainty as to the precise na-
f the provis-ions of the one w hich uc
tually became ;i bw. We therefore give tlie
following snop-is of the law. approved on
the 0th of August :
Sec. 1 provides tliat all public lands which
have b.-en in market ten years or more, prior
to application to enter th" same under thi.-
uct. shall l .M.bject to sale at 70 c.-.its per
acre ; those that have been in the market a()
years ami upwards, to be sublet to entrv at
r.o ' . .
cents tier acre if i7i v.-nrr r. :.,
. .. .vuinui iiiui':ui I ('
market, to be subject to entry at 20 cents
per acre ; if 30 years or more in the marker,
to be subject to entry at 12 cents p,-r acre,
This does not apply to lands reserved to
the United Slates by acts granting lands for
tion that h;iil uk nhw,. if
purchased, .-h ill n';iin he subL-rf tr, tl.r.
Sec. 3 rovides that persons applying to
enter hinds shall he required to make" afluL-
vit that he or she enters the same for his or
her own use, and for the purpose of actual
settlement and cultivation, or for the use of
an adjoining f;um or plantation owned or
settler upon the lands shall have the rihi
pre-emption at such graduated price, upon
1,1,5 sa,- wnitions as trio public lands nv.
now subject to tliat right, until within Sf)
days "r-cedmg the u -xt graduation or reduc
occupied by him or herself, and together with
said entrj ,' he or she has not acmii red from
the United States, under tlie. provisions of
mis act, more man .J2(J acres ; and it any
person or persons, taking such oath, shall
swear falsely, he or she shall be subject to all
the pains anil penalties of perjury.
Cominci Down ! The prices of beef cattle
the past week have fallen nearly one dollar
per hundred. Some sales have been made as
low as $7.' A few weeks since $11.50 was
about tin; average. N. Y. Express.'