i & t . 'i . . . . ,
livery. Thurtdny Jlorning)
slew dobfa aiiriat ol Court Houm,
- Jntla tnliserltier, per aulium, (in advance) ? ?
fix atmiih 1
Three ainnih t"
L. DANrOBD. E. K KENNON
Danford & Kennon,
ATTORNEYS AT LAW,
ST. CI.AIRSVILI.K, OHIO.
OFF1CK nearlV opposite Court House end East of
C. W. CARROLL,
.A-ttorney at Law,
rr ci.AiRMViti.K. biiio.
brrici In Ui Court Hons. 8. V. room, up .tairt.
. CEO. W. HOCE.
lA.ttorney at Law,
M CLAIRSVII.LE, OHIO.
' Omri on North aid of Miilti street, a few dtrrtft
ul of Marieua atreei.
M. D. KING,
Attorney at Xjaw
WILL practice In Belmont and adjoining eoun
tiea. All busiue.. promptly attended to.
' ,.. J. J. GLOVER,
ATTORNEY, AT LAV,
WIIEKI.INO, WEST VA.
WILT, prentice in ftfeat Va.. and Raatern Ohio.
Orti.e, N. B. Cor. Monro. It 4th Streets. Wheel
ing, W. Va. (jelSS-ly
, ' .; , ' ' . , '
JOHN S. COCHRAN,
. ATXORNKY A-X LAW,
. L'kCBNAJCO V. . CLAIM AOBIT,
. CLAIHBVUXR, OHIO,
T 8 prepared lo collect back pay, bounty, and all eol
J dn-r' claim with all poasilile dispatch.
Applicant, will call at Judge. Kenuon'a Law Offie.
malS-ly- . . t -
ATTORNET AT LAW,
T. CLAIRSVILLK, OHIO.
O Frier. np-slairs in lite Court Ilousaj
... , .. . , . mal8..y
D. D. T. COWEN
ATTOHNEY AT LAW,
ST. CLA1R8VILLE, OHIO.
yxrFITK an North ride of Main ttreet, a few" door.
Kast of Marietta .treat.
C. L. POORMAN.
Attorney & Counselor at Law,
ere. OLAlRaviin o.
OFFIOK Masonic Hall Building, a few doora East ol
the Court House.
. Sntst'ial attention given to lae collection of claim,
airaiiinili. (hiveriiinent for Bnuniy. Back Pay. Ven.iona,
Fay for Hor.e or other oroperly In.i in lha aervice, c.
Attorney at Law & Notary Public
ST. CLAIRSVILLE, OHIO.
Owes in the Court IIuum. 8. W. room up stair..
DR. HENRY WEST
AS resumed the practice f Medleiue and Surgrery.
Residence Mat end ot town, wtneo at urug more
.. Dr. John Alexander,
'-'T. OLiAIItSVILiLK, OHIO.
.FFICE AND RKSI DUNCE i the Seminary prop-
cny, Weat end of town. M
.Dr. John H. Thompson,
OFFICE oppoeita W.sl'.Drug Store. v
DR. J. "W. FISHER
M A VINO permanently located in ST CI.AIR9VII.I.B
, M-voaut reapecnuiiv aimuunc.
jraparml u perorm all operation, pertaining ,
fen Ma wtimmmiitU .
Illll .rlr uavrantlt I fflva ..tiafaClifMl.
OFFIOTK a few doora Ea.t ol ihe National Hotel, and
Marly oppniie the Cliroaiele office.
. BUIDOEPOKT, OHIO. .
THE anderalrned haring taken poaae.aion of ' the)
National Hotel, Bndneport. (formerly kept by Vm.
Rohiuaoil,) ia prepared Ihe nccommodHte Ihe traveling
public in irood siy 1. and ou rauiinlle tenna.
B. T. BH0DE8 0. M. RHODES.
El P. 'Rhodes &; Sola.
T T " n (Sdsre RHodet 1c WarSeld.) j
.MiillALE i GROCERS,
PRODUCE Jb COMMISSION
1 iirldgepdrt) Ohio,
TlRST. .NATIONAL. BANK
, ., on ht, CL.Ainwvir.Lic
; cAPITAi..:.......... ioo,ooo.
. VANK open tram It. I. until r. n. Di.eountduya
SJ Tueadaya ! n.. ; j : ' ,
IT l...lrMl ah TVHOaalt.
, Colleouona mad. and proceed, promptly remitted.
. Exchange uaugbl ana sola.
' ' "Georfre Brown,
koaa J. Alexander,
D. D. T. COWEN, ire.Ul.nt.
Catliiac. . , y-lf
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And Sealers in Beady-Mada Cloth
Ing, Gents' Furnuaing Goods,
. Hats, Caps, tfco. &o.
Brt rirAlBayttLH. O-. i
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" .i.-i.i . .A i,..ibLn,llv the verv beat in use
MACHINE TWIST. THREAD, SPOOL COTTON
(itd NEEDLES eouaianily on hand. oew-iy
T.vERy ST A.
. Mkinnvr!R la lha Public that (hey .1 furnish
A u, Umrarie, Hak. Carriaxea aad Omni
hulea, at all hours, wsta or wUhoul dnvcre.
Jrant'' ' ,n NaUonal Hotel. ,,..,
. it; d-Aiiu'iixiv onia.;
' ' ' ' ' I ' ''''''' ' ' ' ' . ; i '
Established iix 1813.
ST. OTJATTtSVlfE,OTIIO, it'KU.
8erievVol. C, lTo. 4.
Abraham Lincoln, tho
The Congressional Obsequies.
Oration by George Bancroft.
WASHINGTON, Monday, Feb. 12. 1866.
Tbs Oars oror ths'publio buililinna, in
eluding the Capitol, wcro at half'-uiaat to
AUO o'clock the doors .leadinif to the
rotund of the Capitol were opeo te those
heldins tioknta'of admiiwion.
The President ef the United Otatu, the
Chief Justice and Anooiate Justices of the
Supreme Court ef the United Status, the
head of Departments, and the Diplomatic
Corps occupied prominent teats. Repre
sentatives and Senators occupied seats on
either side of the hall, beside the assistant
beads of Departments, Crovernorsof States
and Territories, the Mayors of Washington
and Georgetown, the Judges ef the Court
ef Claims, and the Chief Justice and As
sociate Justices of the Supreme Court of
the District of Columbia, the heads ot
Bueaus in the Departments, and others.
Whan Lieut-Gen. Grant entered the
gallery, with ladies, he was greeted with
The army and navy offioers were in uni
form. The Diplomatic Corps appeared in
Major Gen. B. F. Butler, on entering the
hall, was applauded by his friends.
The House was called to order at 12 o'-
elook by the Speaker. .
Rev. ' Mr. Boyoton, Chaplain ef the
House of Representatives, opened the pro
ceedings with prayer.
Every seat in the House was occupied.
The Marine Band, in the rear of the re
porter's gallery, performed a solemn air
from the opera of La Trovatore.
Hon. Lafayette S. Foster, President pro
te n of the Senate, preiidod. Mr. Foster
No ordinary occasion could have conven
ed this sugust assembly. For four years
the storm ot civil war raged fiercely over
our country. -The blood of the best and
bravest ot her sens had been freely shed to
preserve her name and plaoe among the na
tions or the eartb. In April last the dark
oloulds which had so long hung heavily and
gloomily over our heads were all dispersed,
aod the light of peace, reora welcome than
even the vernal sunshine, gladdened the
eyes and the hearts of our people. Shouts
ot joy and sengs of triumph echoed through
our land. The. hearts of the devout poured
themselves in orisons and thanksgivings to
God of Battles and of Nations that the
most wicked and most formidable rebellion
ever known to human history, had been ef
fectually orusbed, and our oountry was
saved. In the midst of the abounding joy,
suddenly and swiftly as the lightning s flash,
came the fearful tidings that the Chief
Magistrate of the Republic, our President,
loved and honored as few men ever were,
so honest, so faithful, so true to his duty
and his country, had been foully murdered;
had fallen by the bullet of an assassin. All
hearts were stricken, with horror. The
transition from extreme joy to' profound
sorrow was never more sudden and univer
sal. Had it been possible for a stranger,
ignorant of the truth, to have looked over
the land, he would have supposed that there
had oome upon us some visitation of the
Almighty no lens dreadtul than that which
fell on anoient Egypt, on that fearful night
when there was not a house where there
was not nne dead. The Nation wept for
him.. After being gazed upon by myriads
of loving eyes under the dome of this mag
nificent oapitol, the remains ot our f resi
dent were borne in solemn procession
through our cities, towns and villages, all
draped in the habiliments of sorrow, the
symbols and tokens of profound and heart
felt grief, to their final resting-place in the
capital of his own Stats. Tbero he sleeps
neaoetu v. emhaimenin the tear or nis
countrymen, i The Senate and House of
Kepresentatives have through! proper te
oommemorate this tragio event by appro
priate services. : This day, the birthday of
bim whom we mourn, hat proDerly been
selected. An eminent citizen, distinguished
by hit labors and services in high and rs-
sponsihle public position, at home and
abroad, wbos nn has instructed the pres
ent age in the history of his- oonntry, and
done much to transmit the tame and renews
of that country to future- tges, the .Hon.
George Utnoroft, will now deliver a dis
oeurse. lAppiauss.i , . ., , .
Mr. Bancroft, who was sitting between
Senator Foots en ona side arid Representa
tive Washburne of Illinois on the other,
tbeq arost and delivered the following ad
dress ; .. .
Mr. Bancroft's Oration.
GOD IN HISTORY.
Sbsatorb. Represntativks nr Amer
ica : That God rules in the affairs men
is as eertain as any truth of physical foionce
On the great moving power which is frera
the beginning, hangs the world nf the senses
and the world of thought and notion. Eter
nal wisdom marxhale the prest procession of
lha nation, working in patient onntinuily
through the ages, never halting and never
arruDt, enoempassmg an events in us over
sight, and ever affecting its will, though
mortals may slumber in apathy or or pose
with madness, rungs are lined un or
thrown down, nations oome and go, republics
nourujb and wither, dynasties pass away
like a tale that is teld: but nothing is bv
ohanoe, though men in their ignorance of
oauaes rosy think to. The deeds of time are
govern'od. as well as judged, bv the decrees
ef eternity. - The eanrioe of fleeting exist
ences bends to the immovable omnipotence
which plants us root en sil the centuries,
and has neither' ohange of nurnese nor re
note. Sometimes, likes messenger through
the thick darkness 'of night, it steps along
mysterious ways; but when the hoar strikes
for a people, or for mankind to pass into a
nsw form of being, umeea hands draw tha
bolts from gates of futurity : an all subduing
influence prepares the mind of men for the
coming revolution ; those -who plan renst
anee find themselves in eenfliet with the
willof Providence rather thea with human
devices;' and all hearts and all understand
ings, most nf all the opinions and influences
of the unwilling, ate wondoi fully attracted
and coin pellud to bear ferward the change
which bsoomes more an obedience to the
law of universal nature than submission to
the arbitrament nfninri. .
DESPAIR OF THE MEN OF THE REVOLUTION.
The hops prevailed in Virginia thtt tho
abolition ot the slave trade wuuld bring with
it the gradual abolition of .Slavery, but thu
expectation was doomed to disappointment.
In supporting incipient measures for uui.tn
cipation, Jefferson encountered difficulties
greater than he could overcome, and after
vain wmvtling. the word that broke from
him, "I ttciuble for my country whun I re
flect that God is just, that his justice can
not sleen forever. " Were words of despair.
1 1 was the desire of Washington's heart that
Virginia should remove Slavery by a public
set; and as the prospects of a general eman
cipation grew more and more dim, he, in
utter hopelessness of tho aotion of the State,
did all that he could by bequeathing free
dom to his own slaves. Good and true men
had, from the days of 1776, thought ot col
onizing the negro in the home of his ances
tors. But the idea of colonization was
thought to inoroase the difficulty of eman
cipation ; and in spite ot strong support,
while it accomplished much good for Africa,
it proved impracticable 'as a remedy at
home. Madison, who in early life disliked
Slavery so much that he wished "to de
pend as hi tie as Dossible on the labor ot
slaves!" Madison, who Jhold that where
Slavery exists, " the republican theory be
comes fallacious ; " Madison, who in the
last years ot hi lite would not consent to the
annexation of Texas, lest his countrymen
should fill it with slaves ; Madison, who said,
" Slavery is the greatest evil under which
the nation labors, a portentous evil, an
evil moral, politioal and economical, a sad
blot en our free oountry, " went mournfully
inte old age with the cheerless Words : "No
satisfactory plan has yet been devised for
taking eut the stain. '
NEW VIEWS OF SLAVERY.
The men of the Revolution passed iw.
A new generation sprang up, impatient that
an institution to which they clung should
be condemned as inhuman, unwise and un
just ; in the throes of discontent at the
selt-reproaoh ot their fathers, and blinded
by the luster of wealth to be aonuired bv tha
oulture of a new staple, ' thev devised the
theory that Slavery, . which they would
not abolish, was . not evil, but good.
They turned on the friends of colonization,
and confidently demanded, "Why take blaok
men trora a civilized and Christian coun
try, where their labor is a source of im
mense gain aod a nownr to control th mar
kets of the world, and send them to a land
of ignorance, idolatry and indolence, which
was the home of their forefathers, but not
theirs? Slavery is a blessing. Ware thev
not In their anoestral land naked, scarcely
lifted above brutes, ignorant of the course
of the sUn, controlled by nature? And in
tneir new abode,, have they not been taught
to knew the difference of the seasons, to
plough, and plant, and reap, to drive oxen,
to tame the horse, to exchange their snanrv
dialect for the richest of all the languages
among men, and the stupid adoration of fol
lies for the purest religion? And since
slavery is good for the blacks, it is good for
their masters, bringing opulence end the op
portunity of educating a rave. The slavery
of the black is good in itself: "he shall
serve the white man forever. " And na
ture, which better understood the quality of
fleeting interest and passion, laughed, as it
caught the eoho, "man" and " forever 1"
SLAVERY AT HOME.
A regular development of nretentiona fol
lowed the new declaration with logical con
sistency. Under the old declaration every
one of the States had retained, each "for
tself, the right ef manumitting all slaves
by an ordinary aot cf legislation; now, the
power .ef the people over servitude through
thoir Legislatures was curtailed, and the
priviledged class was swift in imposing legal
and constitutional, obstructions on the doo-
pie themselves. The cower of emancipation
was narrowed or taken away. The slave
might not be disquieted by education. There
remained an unconfeased consciousness that
the system of bondage was wrong, and a
restless memory tnat it was at variance with
the true American tradition ;' its safety was
therefore to be secured by political organi
sation. The generation that made tha Con
stitution took care for tbe Dredorainenee of
freedom in Congress, by the ordinance of
Jcnerson; the new school aspired to secure
for Slavery an equality of votes in tbe Son
ate ; and while it hinted , at an organio act
that should onnoede to the collective South
a veto power on national legislation, it as
sumed that each State separately had the
right to ruvise and nullify laws of the Uni
ted State, acording to the discretion of its
judgement. -, ,. ', ;. , , '.
SLAVERY AND FOREIGN RELATIONS.
The' new thoorv hung as a hi as on ' the
foreign relations ot the country;' there oould
be no recognition of Hayti, nor even of tho
American oolony of Liberia: and the world
was given to understand that the establish
ment ot free labor in Cuba would he a rea
son tor wresting that island from Snain.
1 srntortee were annexed: Louisiana. Florida.
lexas, bait ot Mexico; Slavery must have its
snare in tnem all, and it accepted for a time
a dividing line between the unquestioned
domain of free labor and that in which in
voluntary labor was to be tolerated. A few
years passed awav. and tbe new school
strong and arrogant, demanded and received
an apology tor applying the Jefferson pro
viso to Oregon.
The aDtilicaflon Of that nrovisn was inter
rupted for three administrations; but justice
moved steadily onwards. In the news
that the men or California had chosen free
dom, Culboun heard the knell of parting
Cl I JL-S 111 i. ' r
slavery; ana on nis ueatn Deu he counseled
secession. Washington, and Jefferson, ami
Madison, had died despairing of the aboli
tion ot slavery: uaihoun died in despair at
tbe growth ot freedom.' Hit system rushed
irresMtitijy to it natural development.! Th
death struggle for California was followsi
by a short truce; but the new school tf
politician wbo said (bat Slavery, was not
evil, but good,, soon sought to.. reeover the
ground they had lost, land, o-inudeot of se
curing lextv tbey demanded that tha es
tablishod line in the territories between
t reedom aad slavery should be blotted out
The country, believing in the strength and
enterprise and expansive energy 01 freedom,
maoe answer, tboagn reluctantly: J$q
so: let there be nn strife between brethre
let -freedom and Slavery com nets for the ter
ritories en equal terms, in a U'v field, Under
an impartial administration;"' and on, this
thory If otj any, 'the contest might have
been left to tbe deoiAon of time.
DRED SCOTT DECISION.
The 8 wth started beok in appalmont from
its victory, tor it knew that a fair competi
tion foreboded its defeat. But where sould
it now find nn ally to save it from its own
mistake? What I have next td aajM po
ken with no emotion, but
ntgret. Our '
mooting to day is, - as it were, at the grave
in the presence of Eternity, and tho truth
must be utu-re-l in s ibernom and sincerity.
in a great republic, as avas observed more
thuti two thousand years ago, any attempt
n uei iiiru ins main owes iissirengtn to SIU
from soma branch of the Government, The
Chief-Justice of the Uuiu;d Slates, without
any necesatiy or occasion, Volunteer, d to
come to the rescue of the theory of Slavery.
And trnm his court there lay no appeal but to
the bar of humanity and history. Against
the Constitution, against tho memory of
the nation, against a previous dec'iMon,
against a series ef enactments, he decided
that the slave is property, that slave pro
perty is entitled to no less protection than
any other property, that- the Constitution
upholds it in every territory against any act
of a local legislature, and even against Con
gress itself; or, as the President toracly pro
mulgated the saying: "Kansas is as much
a Slave Stato as South Carolina or Georgia;
Slavery, by virtue of the' Constitution exists
in every Territory." . The municipal charac
ter of &Iavcry being thus taken away, and
slave property decreed to be "sacred," the
authority of the oourts was invoked to intro
duce it by tho comity of law into States
where Slavery had been abolished; and in
one of the courts of the United States a
Judge pronounced the African slave trade
legitimate, and numerous and powerful ad
vocates demanded its restoration.
TANEY AND SLAVE RACES.
borate opinion, announced what had nevor
been heard from any magistrate of Greece
or Roraewhat was unknown to civil law.
and oanon law, and feudal law, and com
mon law, and constitutional law; unknown
to Jay, to Rutledge. Ellsworth, and Mar-
shal that there are "slave races." The
spirit of evil is intensely logical. Having
tne autnonr ot this decision, five. States
swiftly followed the earlier example of a
sixth, and opened the way for reducing the
iree negro to bonaage j the migrating free
negro became a slave if he but touched tha
soil of a seventh; ami an eighth, from its
extent and soil and mineral resources, des
tined to incalculable greatness, closed its
eyes on its coming prosperity, and enacted
as by Taney's decision it had the right to
do that every free black man who would
live within its limits must accept the con
dition of Slavery for himself and his pos
SECESSION RESOLVED ON.
Only one Sten more remained In ha tabsn
Jefferson and the leading statesmen of his
aay ncid last to tbe idea that the enslave
ment of the African was socially, morally
and politically wrong. The new school was
rounded exactly upon the Opposi'.d idea ;
and they resolved first to distriot the Demo-
oratio party, for which the Supremo Court
bad now furnished the means, and then to
te establish a new soverntuent with X'eirrn
Slavery for its oorner stone, as socially,
morally and politically right.'
As the Presidential election drew nn. one
of the old parties did not make its appear
ance ; the other reeled as it snnohr to nr-
serve its old position ; and the candidate
Who most nearly renrescnted its best nnininn.
driven by patriotic zeal, roamed the coun
try from end to end to speak for union.
eager at least to confront its enemies,
yet not having hope that it would find its
deliverance through bim. The storm rose
to a whirlwind : who should allntr its wrath?
The most experienced statesmen of the
oountty had failed ; there was no hope for
tnose wno were great alter the flesh ; could
relief come lrom one whose wisdom was
like the wisdom of little children?
EARLY LIFE OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
- America fell on a man horn
west of the Alleghanies, in tho cabin of poor
peopie oi narenn uounty, Kentucky Abra
His mother could read but not write : bis
father could do neither; but hit parents sent
him, with an old spelling-book, to school,
and' he learned in his childhood to do both.
When eight year old be floated down the
Ohio with his father on a raft which bore the
family and all their possessions to the shores
oi Indiana-; and, child as he was, he gave
help as they toiled through dense forests to
the interior of Spencer County. There in
the land of free labor he grew up in a log
cabin, wiih the solemn solitude for his teach
er in his meditative hours Of Asiatic lit
erature he know only the Bible; of Greek,
.Latin-and mediaeval no more than the trans
lation of .Einp's Fables; ofEuglish, John
Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress. The tradi
tionsot'Geerge Fox and William Perin passed
I.! -1- l . I .1.1! n . .
to ii 1 01 iittiiiy utong me lines oi two centuries
through his ancestors, who were Quakers.
American. The Deal a ration ot Indepen
dence was his compendium' of political wis
dom ; tbe Life of Washington his constant
study, and somotbiugof Jefferson and Mad
ison readied him through Hunrv Clay, whom
he honored from' boyhood. For the rest.
from day to day, ho lived the life of the
American people ;walked in jts light; reason
ed with its reason ; thought with its power
of thought; felt the beatings of its miehtv
heart, and so was in everv way a child of
nature a child of the West a child of
HIS PROGRESS IN LIFE.
At 19, fueling impulses of ambition to get
on in the world, he engagod himself to go
down tbe Mississippi in a flat-boat, receiving
$10 a month for his wages, and afterward
be made tbe trip onoa more. At. 21 be
drove his father's cattle as the family mi
grated to Illinois, and split rails to fence in
tho new homestead in the wild. , At23
he was a oaptain of volunteers in the Black
Hawk war. He kopt a shoo: he leirned
something of surveying; but of English lit
erature he added to liunyan nothing but
Shakspeare's plays. At 25 ho was elected
to the Legislature of Illinois, where he served
eight years. At 27 he was admitted to tho
bar: -In 1837 ho chose his home at Spring
field, the beautiful centre of the riohest land
in the State, lo 1847 ho was a member of
the National Congress, where be voted about
40 times in favor of the principle of the
Jefferson proviso. In 1804 ba gave nil in
fluence te elect from Illinois to the Ansri
cart Senate a Democrat who would oertainly
d3 justice to Kansas' Ia IN58, as the rival
pf Douglas,, 'be went before the people of
the mighty L'rairio State, saying I "TUia
union cannot permanency enuure nan siava
and halt iree", tbe union 'will not be die
solved,.; but thf house will oease to be di
vided ; " and now in 1861, with no expo-
eisrrae whatever as an executive officer, while
states were madly Dying from tueir orbits
ind wise men knew not where to find coun
sel, this descendant of Quakers, this pupil
of Bunyan, this child ot the great West,
He measured the difficulty of ihe duty
that devi lved on bim, and was resolved to
HE GOES TO WASHINGTON.
As on tbe 1 1th of February, 18C1. bt left
Springfield, which for a quarter of a Cen
tury had been his happy home, to the crowd
of his friends and neighbors whom he was
never marc.'n uieot, he spoke a solemn
farewell : ''I know not how soon I shall see
you again. A duty has Heoed lupon me
greater than that which has devolvd upon
any other man since Wai-hinzton. He never
would have succcrd'd, except for the aid
of Divine Providence, upon which he at all
times relied. Ou the same Almighty Be
ing I place my reliance. Pray that I may
reueive that Divine assistance, without
which I cannot succeed, but with which
success is certain." To the men of Indiana
he said: "I am but an accidental, tempo- j
rary instrument : it is your business to ne
up and preservo the Union and liberty."
At the capi'ol of O'jio be said : "Without
a name, without a reason why I should have
a name, there has fallen uon mo a ta-k
such as did not rest even upon the Father
nf his Country." At various places in New
lork, especially at Albrtny, before tbe Leg
islature, which tendered him the united sup
port of the great Empire State, be said :
"While t hold myself iho humblest of all
individuals who have ever been elevated to '
the Presidency, I have a more difficult task I
to perform than any of ihera. I bring a '
true heart to the work. 1 must rely Upon
the people of tbe whole country for support;
and with their sustaining aid even I.humblu .
as I am, cannot fail to curry the f-hip.of i
state safely through tbe storm " To ihe i
Assembly of New Jersey, at Trenton, he I
explained : "I shall take the ground I deem '
most just to the Noith, the East, the West. I
the South, and the whole country, in good j
temper, certainly with no malice toanysec-
tl0D- I am devoted to peace, but it may be
necessary to put the toot down nnuly. lo
the old Independence Hall ot Philadelphia
he said : "1 have never had a feeling no- i
litically that did not spring from tbe semi- ;
ments embodied in the Declaration of In-;
dependence, which gave liberty not alone '
uj ma pcuiiiu ui tins uuuiiu v, vu: tu tuts i
world io all future time. II the Country
be saved without giving up that priu- ;
. . u - t c . i . . i - .
to the :
ciple, I would rather be assassinated on the
spot than surrender it. I have aid nothing
but what I am willing to live and die by."
IN WHAT STATE UE FOUND TUE COUNTRY.
Traveling in the dead of night to escape
assassination, Lincoln arrived at Washing
ton nino days before bis inauguration. Tbe
outgoing President, at the opening of the
session of Congress, had still kept as tbe
majority of his advisers men engaged in
treasou; had declared that in case of even
ao"ifiaginary" apprehension of danger from
notions of freedom among the slaves, "dis-
union would become inevitaWe." Lincoln
and others bad questioned tbe opinion of
Taney; such impugning he ascribed to "the
faotious temper ofthe times." The favorite
doctrine of the mnjority of the Democratic
party on tho power of a territorial legislature
over Slavery he condemned" as an attack on
"the sacred rights nf property. " The
Stato legislatures, he insisted, must repeal
what he called "their uncmslifutionil and
obnoxious enactments " and which, if such,
Were "null and void," or "it would be im
possible fur any human power to save tbe
Union." Nay! iftho.se unimportant acts
were not revealed, "tho injured States
would be justified in revolutionary resistance
to the government of the Union. Us
maintained that no State might secede at
its sovereign will and pleasure); that the
Union was meant tor perpetuity, and that
Congress might attempt to preserve, but
only by conciliation; that " the sword was
not placed in their hands to preserve it by
force; " that " the last desperate remedy of
a despairing people weuld be an explan
atory amendment recognizing the decision
of the Supreme Court of the United
States. The American Union be called
,' a confederacy " ot Slates, and he thought
it a dut7 to-make the appeal for the amend
ment "before any ot these Mates should
separate themselves from the Union.
The views of the Lieutenant-General, con
taining some patriotic advice, "conceded
tbe right of secession, " pronounced a
quadruple rupture of the Union " a Bmaller
evil than the reuniting ofthe fragments
by the sword, . and eschewed the i lea ot
invading a seceded State. " After changes
in the Cabinet, the President informed
Congress that matters were still worse ; "
that "tho South suffered serious grievan
ces, " which should be redressed " in
peace. Toe day alter the message the
flag of the Union was fired upen from Fort
Moultrie, and the insult was not revenged
or noticed. - Senators in uongress telegraphed-
to their constituents to seize tbe
National torts, and they wero not arrested.
Tbe finances of the country were grievously
embarrassed. Its little army was not
within reach tbe part of it in ' Texas, with
all its stores, was made ever by its com
mander to the seceding insurgents. One
State after another voted in convention to
go out ef the Uuinn, A Peace Congress,
so called, met,"1 at the request of Virginia,
to concert tbe terms of a capulation for the
continunnoe of the Uuinn. Congress, in
both branches, sought to devisa conciliatory
expedients; the Territories of the country
were organized in a manner not to couflret
with any pretensiooa-ot' the South, or any
decision of the Supreme Court: and never
theless the seceding Slates formed at Mont
gomery a Provisional Uovernmcnt, and pur
sued their relentless purpose with su6h sue
cess that the Lieutenant-General feared the
City of Washington might find itself "in
oluded in a foreign oountry," and proposed
among the options for the consideration of
Lincoln, to bid the seoeded States "depart
in peace." The great Bupublio seemed to
have its emblem In the vast unfinished
Capitol, at that moment surrounded by
m isses of stono and postrate columns neter
yet lifted into their planes-seemingly tha
monument of high but delusive aspiratiou,
the confused wreck of inchoate magnificence,
sadder than any ruin of Ejryptsiu Thebes
. . The 4th ot March came. With instinct
iv wisdom the nsw President, sneak
ing to the people on taking the oath of
office, put aside every question that di
vided the country, and gained a right to uni
-yersal support, by planting himself en the
single idea tuition, jnai union ne ac
ts) arc d to be unbroken and perpetual ; and
announced his determination to fulfill " the
sample duty of taking care that the laws be
faithfully executed in altthe Slates." Seven
days later, the Convention of Confederate
States unanimously adopted a ConstiKrtino
of their own ) and the new Gc-vfrninent
was authoritatively announced 't Im founded
on the idea that Slavery is iho natural and
normal condition l tbe negro rsee. Tils'
issue was mads up whether the 'teat Re
public was to maintain its providential place
in the histoey of mankind, or a rebellion
founded on Negro Slavery gain a recogni
tion of its principle throughout the civilized
world. To tbe uisafTdeted Lincoln bad said:
"You can have no conflict .without being
yourselves the aggressors; " to fire the pas
sions of the Southern portion of the pco Id,
the Confederate Govet ninsiitt hose to hecome
aggre.sors ; and on tbe morning of the 12ih
of April began lie bombardment Of Fort
Sumter, and compelled its evacuation.
UPRISING OF THE PEOPLE.
. , i , . r , i, t
rmht to sharo the life and hope of the Re- j
public, to feel their responsibility to their :
the glory nf tbe
ho had perfect faith in the perpetuity of the
Union. Supported in advance by Douglas,
who spoke as wiih the voice of a million, he
instantly railed a meeting of Congress, and
nuuibiom d the people to come up and re
possess the forts, places and property which
'd been scizjt from ijjejjnion. The men
of the Naixkwere trained in schools; in
dustrioui aud frugal : many of them deli
cately bred, their minds teeming with ideas
and fertile in plans of enterprise ; gktn to
the culture of arts ; egcr'in the pursuit of
wealth, yet employing wealth less for osten
tation than fur developing the resources of
tbeir country; seeking happiness in the
calm of domostio life ; and such lovers of
pcaco that for generations the' bad been
reputed unwarhke. ow, at tbe cry o;
their country in its distress, incy rose up i
with unappeasable patriotism ; not hire
lingsthe purest and of tbe lest blood in
ihe land; suistifa pious ancestry, with a
clear perception of duty, unclouded faith
and fixed resolve to succeed, thfy thronged
round the President, to support the wronged
and beautiful flag cf the nation. The halls
ot theological seminaries sent forth their
young mqn, whose lips were touched with
eloquence, whose hearts kindled with demo
tion, to serve in the ranks, and make their
w.v t.i mmminil nnltf as itipo tarned tho
art of war. Striplings in the colleges, as
well as ihe most gentle and the most stu
dious; those of sweetest temper and love-
"est character and bngbtist gens passed
from their classes to the camp. Ihe lurn-
oerman spr.r.g lorwaru tr-tiij tnc nire.-ts, iub
mechanics from their benches, where they
"st oeen iraiueu iy tuu rxeic:s? ui (luiiucai
lorciu' uers, meir posieri j auu iiiiinaiiiu,
wont forth, resolved thnt their dignity as a i
eonsti-ui-at part of this Republic should nt
be impaired, rarmers and sons ot fanners !
loft the land but hall plouzhrd, the grain
t-it tne lanu uut nun piuuntru, nic uraut i
but half planted, and taking up tlirir mus
ket, learned to face without fer,r the pres
ence of peril and the coming of death in the
shocks of war, while their hearts were still
attracted to the chirms of their rural life
and all the tender affections of home.
Whatever there was of truth, and faith, and
public love in the common heart, broke out
w;1" "" "pre"""- unsmy nmua
l'luw fiom every quarter to fan the flame of
the sacred and fire,
THE WAR A WORLD-WIDE WAR.
Fur a time the war was thoutht to be con
fided to our own domestic aff-tirs, but it was
soon seen that it invalved the destinies of man
kind, and its principles and causes shook tbe
politics of Europe to tho center, and frotn
jjisoon ro.reMti uiv wts iub uovsnimeuia 01
There was a kingdom who?e peoplo had
in an en n tnt degree attained tJ freedom !
of iuduttry aul the sscirity of persin and i
property. Its mi Idle class rose t great-J
nesi. Out of tint clasi sprung tbe noblest ;
poets and philosophers, whose words built
up tho intelleet of its people ; skillful navi-
gators to find out the many paths ofthe
oceans; discoverers in natural science,
whoso inventions guided its industry to
wealth, till it equaled sny nation or me
world in letters, and excelled all in trade
and commerce. But its Government was
become a government ot land, and not of
men ; every blade of grass wasreprescnted,
but only a small mimrity of the people. In
the transition from, the feudal forms, tho
heads of lha social otganization freed them-
selves from the military services which
were thj conditions of their tennre, and,
throwing the burden on the industrial classes
kept all the soil to themselves. Vast estates
. i . l ii 1 u ,
that had been manigjd by nmastarie as
endowments for religion and charity were
impropriated to swell the wealth of conrticrs
and favorites ; and the commons where the
poor man one had his right of pasture
were taken away, and, under forms of law,
inclosed di.stributivfly within their own do
mains. Although no law forbade uny in
habitant from purchasing land, the costli
ness of the transfer constituted a prohibi
tion ; so that it was the rule of that country
that the plow should not be in the bands of
its owner. The. Church wis rested on a
contradiction, claiming to be an embodi
ment of absolute truth, and yet was a crea
ture of the statute book.
ble contrast between wealth and poverty;
in their years of strength tho laboring pen-
. . ! ii i : . i.
pie, cut on from an snare in ituvurmtn mo
State, derived a scanty support from the
Siverest toil, and had no hpe for' old age
but in public charity or death. A grasping
ambition had dotted the world with military
posts, kept watch n'er our borders on the
Northeast, at the Bermudas, in the West
Indies, held the gates of the Paeifie, of the
Southern and ofthe Indian Oocans, hover
ed nn our Northwest at Vanojuver, held the
wbolo ofthe newest continent, and the en
trances to the old Mediterranean and Red
Sea ; and garrisoned forts all tha way from
Madras to China. Tint iiristepiey had
gazed with terror on the growth of a com
monwealth where, freeholds existed by ihe
million, and rt-ligion was not in bondjge to
the State; and now they enuld not repress
their jiy at its perils. They had not one
word ef sympathy for the kind hearted
poor man's son whom Auisrioa had chn-a-n
lorohiet; they jsered at ins large nanus,
and long feet, and ungainly ettun; and
the British Secretary of Sate for Foreign
Affairs made haste to send ward tbroosh
the palaces of Europa that thu great Re
publio was in ita agony that the R-ipuMio
was no mere that a head-stone was all
thfrf remained duo by the taw of nation 4
"the late Union." ! But it is written t i' Lit
the dead bury their dead:'' they, may not
bury the living. Let tbe dead bury their
dead : - let a bill of reJortu retiif v the wrn-
nut government of a elass. -an,) tufas iwtr
life into the Uritih-CVotttutior by jxmi
fi ling rightful power- to tho people. -n, ' 1 1
- But whilu the vitality f ;Aueri is o
destructible, tho Rtiteh Goveromeet hurried
to do what never betor bad been dene- by
Christian powers, : what, was in i direct aon
jfcc wjwa, WBejpviyn of $ ublwJaw i
THRMS OF AllVCliTHItU.
On tiiar., (tea hn.a or lea.l on. or tl.ro. Inaar-
. tioaa . ,., ....ft W
Fsrli Mli.ftiueni inaeriioii , nti
On, nunr ilirr moniLt . I M
' : ' . . I I
Hiaiaaa. Caaua,( lu loarvaitlirMw. I yeaat ... ,
' jmi4t.' ravtnv i. nowtoertlln rtiw fotirrt (
a r.w.u.e ,i an r nm. avat r,r nrt A .ell cM.a.
iiotirri,r l, ti,lnga, M. A Ct.uuvi. Mtitaa
lour changes, Sou. "T '
Kaaawa annatnaaiiian nw In t. rv rf. o paid
in Jd v am t, or guai .u,-.tU b4 ri.jioi,,,!. Ir (sarua an, w
ServiAL NinKti and TVuaLt Ci t. m innwi.
it. once and a hall Ilia rule, of (military advortisw
the time of our strurgle for MdrndttM.
Though the insurgent Sratsi had aot a ship '
in an open harbor, it iovested them with all
the rights of a belligerent, even on the
ocean ; aad this, too, when the Rebellion
was not only directed against tha- geotlese
and most beneficent Oowrnmnt on earth,
without a shadow of jntifiabto eaassv bt
when the Rebellion was directed against h as
wan nature itself for the perpetnai enslavet.
toeiit of a race. And tho effort this ivrwg
mtion was that sets in themselves pi retinal
found shatter in IJrilish cmru ef law. : Tha
resources of British capitalists, th-jir work
shops, their artooties, thir private arsenals,
their shipyards, were -n league with the iav
sargents, and every British harbor in tha
wide world bacame a safe prtrt for British
ships, mannel by Britit.li sailors and armeel
with iiritish guns, to prey on our peaceful
commerce; even on our shins coming from
Kntisb ports freighted with British pre
duete, or that had osrried gifts of grain
the Knghsh poor. The Prime Minister in
the Hi-use of Cemmnns, susta ned by cheers,
scoffed at ihe thought that their laws ooold
be amended at our rquosf, to as to pre
serve real neutrality ; and to remonstrances,
now owned to have been just, their secre
tary answered that tbey could not ebaogs
their laws ad infinitum..
RELATIONS WITH ENGLAND.
The people ot America then wished, as
tbey alwavs have wihhl. a. thou .;n ;.w
friendly relstioos will. England ; and notr.an
in j.ngiaoa or America can somh it
air.mgiy than 1. ibis country has
yearned tor good relation with England.
I hrice only in all its history has thai yearn
ing been fairly met in th davs of,Hampdea
and Cromwell ; again it tbe first ministry ot
the elder Pitt, and one, again, in the min
istry ot bhelburne. Not that there hsve
not at all times fx-cn just men among tbe
pwrs of Britain, like Halifax in the days of
James II, er a Granville, an Argyll, or.
Houghton in ours ; and we cannot be indif
ti'Tent to a country that produces statesmen
like Golden and Bright; but the best bower
nchor of xieace, was the wot king-class of
jMig.Und, whrvK-ifTered most from onr civil
war. but who, while they broke their dimin
ished bread in sorrow, always enceurageei
us to ptrncvfre. ,.
FRANCE AND THE MONROE DOCTRINE.
i i . , . . , ,.
beloved in Auieuca, on which she bad crm
cannot 'err-Hi the greatest bent fits that one people
The act ot recognizing the Rebel beliigr-
tu.i. 1-iiii.tmcu witu rranoe; Trance, an
-' mmtuwi uu anutnrr; i ranee, wnioM
stands foremost en the continent of Europe
f'r the solidity of her culture, as well as'f'Jr
tne bravery and generous nn pulses of her
sons ; I-ranee, which for centuries had tn
nioving.steadily in its own way tewsrd intel
lectual and political freedom. The policy
regarding further colonization of America
by E.iropean powers, known unmsinnls
the d.ietrin ofMonrue, bad its origin in
i.auec, auu ii it takes any man s name
should bear the name of Turgot. It was
adopted by Louii the Sixteenth, in the cab
inet of wbtch V ergennes was the Boat im
portant member. It is .emphatically tha
policy of France, to which, with transient
deviations, the Bourbons, the First Napo
leon, the House cl (J.luao, . Late aver adhered.
THE EMPEROR NAPOLEON AND MEXICO.
ine mi .'resident was perpetually- barn
assed by rumors rlmt tha Emperor .Napole
ucsin u lormaiiy to recognise,
the States in rebellion as - an independent
power, and that England held him baok by
ber reluctance, or France by her traditions
nf freedom, or ho himself bv his own better
judgment and clear perception of svcb'sv
But the.Republic of Mexico, en onr hordey.
was. like ourselves.'distract'd by a rebcjSon
and from a simi'ar c-iu. The mn.Wehy
of England had lasieoed upon m (Slavery,
which did not disappear with indepDdeio-;
in iikc manner, me o:?!e-ia.sncl4o!irr
established the bpauis-h Citunnil f the
inuies. in tnc uays ot unark-s toe Firth,
aud Philip the Second, retained its vigor jn
the Mexican Republic. The filly year of
civil war uuder whiclrnlie had aiiguiatetl
was due to the bigoted rvysteia which was
the legacy ot monarchy, just a heie the
inheritance of Slavery kept a'jva, political
strife, aod culminated iu civil war'. As with
us there ould be no quiet but through the
eni ot Slavery, so id Mexi o there could be
no prosperity until the crushing tyranny of
intolerance, should ceae. The t.rfy ,of
Luqh, ;n ii,. r v.: . . i . . . . i
emissaries' to Europe to solicit .aid j amj go
w,.ww in iiir sjuiircu plains ?i!uk isteir
did the party of the.Cl cro'i in iitxiw, as
organized Ly tho . Snapihh -Council of the
Indies, but with a differeiii'mulk .lust as
t'ie R 'publican pirry had nude au end of
the Rebellion, and was CjUablL liuihe best
government ever known in that region, and
giving promise ta the nation ot. order, peace
and prosperity, word was brsught ujvu he
moment of our de-'peat afiljcaou, tbat.the
Fretuh Emperor, moved, by a ile.sire losrcot
in North Anijrica a buttress lor- imperia-r
ism, wiiuld tninsforni the republio of
Mexico iuto a sccunibS-genittics, fur , tbe
house of llupsburg. America miht .com
plain; she cou'd not thin iujtcrp-iif-4 aod
de'sy seemed justifiable. It was seen (hat
Mexico ould nor, with all its wealth '. ef
land, (limpe t in cereal r. roduo'-s with , onr
tlt .Liir .. . - i i . --,
rorin tvesi, nor in irojucu. proijjci wim
Ctbaj nor co'uiJ it,, tinier, a; depute;!
dynasty, a' tract capital, or create. puUie
works, or develop mines; or luinjvv iiumnyj
so that the imperial, systvtn i.f,AIoxjco
wbiuh wasjjrccd otbnct to r tpgniae be
wisdom . o the eoliey ofthe 'rcputiio,, Ly
adopting it, could prove ouly an uareutuay
ating drain ou theFrt-nth treasuryr'Jbr'tbe
support ot an Austrian adventurer.' j tVi
THE PERPETUITY OF REPUBLICAN INSTITUTIONS.
,' TUTIONS. , , ?"' ; rj
Meantime, a new scrips of niomftpna
questions grow up, ; aud force tbeu.s Jvos
ou tbe con-ideraiion of the ' thoujjhtlul.
Kepullicniiistn has learned how to introduce
inlo its Constitution every clement of o'der
as well on every element -nf freedom ;.J;ut
thus far tbe continuity" of its pfivernnrt-iit
has seemed to depend in tbe continuity ef
elections. It is now to be con-flilered how
peHpetnity is tn be serun-d' 'sgsiust1 foreign
oceupattfvn. " Th iirees-or of Charles ifce
First ot Kne'ind d ittd'jti,retgit frnrft the
death of his f.ithtry !the BpeHxiti, ornirtvt
bank after ' a fang ; Stries;n;rt.Vll!u,tbw1,
daimed ibat tlio Lm's bi','biil!ime''Ittrg
was the lHth of that naine,"- The fies-Qt
K,inperor of the Freiioi. disd-liiiisp k' tiff
from oleotion alohe,'i-t'c'i4fe-f 'the' thirst f
his name. Shall a irepublirt he.'Je PW
1 er of con'innanert wheninvsding rrS's
ptwvent a Tieaeettil yesort the ha'to be?
What foic- shall jt' attart i t-irtveniia
legialaiioo? ' What vdiy itvhw evu
traced fjr its overlhrowf ' Ttese aierstfria.
one questions sre by tbe itrvat-ioti '.isVMsg
ioo thrown up f'nr anlut inn.; ' A -fre te
onoe truly eooarited should Ive as sJyie4
ss its people f-tbeRepuWioof Mexico wasr
risesgaw" i" 1'-V4
THE PERPETUITY OF REPUBLICAN INSTITUTIONS. (Concluded on Second Page.)
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