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'-.Ji -, Asssssssuzr.
W. L. BRISTOL,
RoopH everything pertaining to
lit n linn rf Qfn nln nnrl Pnfv CX t"-
sorios, Woodonwaro, VogctublCH,
i'mits, &c, &c.
Try My Now Stylo Mixed
Different Combination From any
Beforo Oll'orcdin tho Market,
and of Excellent Flavor.
Central Hop Yeast
A. train Thin SumraT.
No.32 EIGHT STREET
ST. JOHN'S and
Orders for Coal by tho car-load,
ton, or in hogsheads, for shipment,
promptly attended to.
tray-To largo consumers and all
manufacturers, wo aro propared
to supply any quantity, by tho
oaonth or year, at uniform rates.
' CAIKO CITY COAL COMPANY.
tT-IIullMuy Itro 'it oflici;, No 70 Ohio I-cvee.
rt-llairiiUiy liro 'a vvharfboat.
t Kvi l.'syptlaii Mills, or
jJAt ihctoml Dump, foot of Tlihly-Kiglit
EJ-l'oit OlEcc. Drawer.
lUhill Dealer In
Imported from Now York City.
No. 178 Wntihimrton Ave.
Conior Klovontli St.,
Ever proHont "Rest for tho Woary."
.M.illrcc , Pillow mid llnMer t
f G. W HICK'S
liiiicr !' Nhicleciith unit 1 !. i- pIiiiIh, hc
Htccn lliu New Voil; Moiv uml I'ol Tut Inr's of
IliT, in follow-.. 1'xcelslor uml Mim ic .Vlat-ne-'i'S.
full alc, cotton top. v '' iccnml size,
-oilnii lop, .- pnul plain .lini K Mtillic-cs, l
int i?'t l.oiiiw, Musle, uml Lilli .Multic v at
i tduccd prices to Mill llir Irani lliue. Tcim,
strictly lllshest nitli price paid I'liroorn
.hack, dtilveicd al i ) i l.ietnit
Ibo Prlvnto Presort jitl on Booli,
bei.TC (.VU.ilHUii'.uV .i.-iiior inr I 111011'
lo aii'l Heiuat VUomcHm .l.iluim,
lirti.tl.uii. t'.i.rtii, i!.i.i.iiii.i.i.,ril.'.l
ll'luln, Vmlmi-tl., Iliilrm-li'. Her
J Bfl "".KJIJiamiJ.U.lBklH IHlOUM., l.ti
lillllVailrt Kili.iiallni. tmrnlxii.
I CJ, oloil.Mnciuie ki-.I nil .1 l.t u.i . .i
iu Hum ceuN 01ll luiiirm out
SlfabUl. .ava t mi., u.. .... I ... .1.1.
III KWI,i SB Otlltl l..r 11.1. Vrlinln
Prorlption Book, i liu
iliii.Vul iircicrlHiJiNcw Mclliodi of Trci,UCut I. r
tbi Iwuii, tMt c SO ycr oipcrlenoe, nunr.
.Ittr who or wh.l ell. li frUxl. A rilULW luM. Iur
M.rrl.4 nlllio conlmiplntlnf Uirrlw. lUtrHloc lui.
jrltot f.ru rouci J la nootber work. Mille4 uivlcr .1.1 ca
rttliU( J5c.un. H&rmt
. THE AMERICAN REMEDY CO..
' No. 703 Wu Street, HT. .oriN.VIO,
St he 3ulltin.
J3STO. SI. OBEKLY
Fiftta. Cay a 3-w.ly, 1S7S
on tlic occttslmi of tlir cflcbrallon of
Aini'iUaii liiilci(!iiili'inv, at .Mur1iyo
iruii, illlllOI1, oil .Miiint.i ln-t (tin'
roiulli oofitnlti mi Siimlay). Mr. .lolni
II. (Jliirly, Hi ir.ilof of I lie day."
'I mkc a follow :
fiVii'i"; III 'NOH- U " lii I1I1
.Moiiuilf-i, .1 Hi-rwMi Mty : " I Ikim- 'diiic
liiiH'i' ukcil niy.-i'ir. whcllicr my i:ouulry
U tlic Ix'tliT lor my lialn-; lived nl nil."
Willi tin- iiiii.iri'iii liiiL'iitlnn of jiillfylnjr
liliiio-lf In xlvlii an nlllinintlvu ivjily to
liii own tlon. he ity : " I liavf bi'i'ii
lli' iii'triiniiiit of ilolnv (lie following
tlilny;" and, In llici'iiiiiiii'iiitloti, ii.-iiip-tin-
Oi'iilnnillon ol liidi'iK-iiiUMicf. And
not witlioul ivicoii did In1, In tliN coii
ni'rlloii, tiii-nlioii 1 1 1:1 1 limit I'.iin-. fur,
llionjth he U cntitk-d In icini'iiiliniiii'
lor many oilier M'l'vii-c-. tin; tuct that hl
1 -ii v rote It lia- itiimortnlii'il lii- name,
made It a liou-eliolil word ainon lit
eonlitrymiii, and .'aered to 'tni,ssHn
Immanlty In every land on ulileli ) t
full- tin- ''liadow of a erown.
known, mi m;ii inrin-.
It via-once eavlkil, that the Deelata
tlon eontulii" known not new tinth-;
and, at a later ietlo, ft was dc-
nuiina'd n a nia of 'lltteiln piiicral-ltle-.
To a cit, not di-eover, tllllh-,
Hie piirpo-ti of the men who iro
tniilfrtil the Declaration: ami thctx'torc.
ns been r-alil, It eoiitalin no new I
truth-; and the old one- It eontain- were
inert until .leMVrron had punned them,
and hy the vote ol the (.uii!n of the
Ami rlfan eolonip'' they had lieeomc the
titteranco of the American iMiile. A--hreatli
of thepioiihelelotln'd the dry
hone- a the valley with ile-h, and In-,
formed them with life, -o that vole vital
l.cd, jfavo life and power to, the truth- of
the Di-el.iratlon, whleh, a ecntnrv ii"o.
tlciKiiidencc and empire, nw 'u" iVitclj
through a ino-l Moody eoulllet to free
dom and the t (ju.ility of nil men hc
forc the law. Mill vital, they "litter
in the van of the advaiiehj;,' column of
WIIV UF.CI..tlIVTII)X ASU NOI CONMIII-
Aimii.dly wc eclehrjtc the day upon
whleh the Declaration became the act ol
the colonic-. It jr.tvi.' to u- nojroveru
mcilt; It did not c-lahli-h the 1 'nion ; It
did not ,-ecure to any citl.en hi- Ilhcriy,
or him in person or property, a- did the
Constitution of Why then do we
pass by the day on whlcli tlic Coii'ii
tulloii went Into operation, when Ihc
fouiid.itiou-of Ihc l.'nlon were laid broad
and deep, .mil thcl.Tnltel States became
n nation, to celebrate Ihc day n which
the colonics uttered the trite truth-and
threw Into the face of the world the gilt
tcrin;: generalities ot .Icller.ionV Tor
the bet of reason'. Itec.iu-e, more lhan
the Constitution more than any of the
other words, written or -noken, of the
Fathorsof the Itcpubllc the Declaration
of Independence has liilhienccd thcil's-
tiiile of thl- people.
AN ITI'M IN A I.O.Nii
lie who will review the event- of our
history cannot doubt thi-; and much ev
idence might I educe hi proof, but let
one Item In the long 1M .-ulllcc.
In the original draught ol the ron-tb
tiitlou was the following elau-c :
"Huli.li umkisI cincl iv.irin.tlii-t liiimm na
ture ll-cll", lolitlni; in ino-t Nien-I rliilits of
lllVr.ii'l lllwrty In tlic poroiiKit"u ill.t.int lieople
who liav iii'MT ollVniUil lilni, eapllviilliiK mi'l
i-h i j iiitf tin in lulu Hlatciy In an illicr hi'ials
pliiii'.or to incur iiiUti'iilili'ili'iitli in iln-lr li-.m.-porlalloit
UiilliiT. 'I III- piratical uuilaic, ll.e
iipprelniiiiii of iMisnr.i. wiicis, U hi watfinv
of the iiiii-ti.w Kin;; ol (iie.it llilialii. Deter
inliMil In keep iiHii it inarkcl tilu-ir linn
nhnilM lie IhiiikI'I ami nM, he his prolllults
Ms m-Kiitlvu furiuppri-liificr IcK'Isialiiciit
linilil to piuhlliit this I'Mviahli. coinmcrcc.
.Viullh.it tlii.iiM'inlil.ii;iMit horrors iiilh'ht want
no lad ol 'IMInstil-hnl ille, lie U uoiv Incllhu;
Unite vi'iy piHiplu lo iri In iinin unions u-, uml
to piircha"-. that libel ly of iihlch he has ile
pritisl lliein, hi muivleriiij,' I lit- pcoplu inion
whom he iil.-o olitrii'lisl lliini thus paying oil'
forniercilini'- coninnllisl naln-l Ihc lllwiiies of
one people lilt ci lines which he mires II.. m l..
I'oliilllil iiKnlll-t the lili- of another.
Thl-', wo arc informed by .IcIVcr.-ou,
was. struck out In complaisance lo .South
Carolina and Ucorgla; and he adds:
" Our Northern biethien, nl-o, I believe,
fell a little lender under tho.-c censure- ;
for, Ihoiioh their people had very few
slave-, yet Ihej had been piclty con-id-crablc
carriers ol lhciii to nther.s."
lilts COMPIIO.MIsi; Willi SI.VVI.IIV
was. eoutliiiicd lu Ihc Cnn-lilutioii down
tlirougli all tho eventful years of our
history to the liitbcllloii; but in all that
time, ringing hi the euro ol the, people
and eon-taully confronting .Slavery, were
thoso other words of the Declaration :
" All ini'iiaic.civali'il opinl they iiicciiilowcil
by their Creator w ilhceilalu lliallenalilc liltilil-i
anions llioi' me Life l.llierly ami llic I'lir.'iill of
i in; fiirroN uin,
Four year after Hie adoption ol the
Coiistllutlon, a Mas-achit-ets man, I'll
Whitney, invented the Cotton Glu, and
tho snowy Maple of the South was
crowned King. This great Invention
not only redistributed population lu
England, ami built up In that country
great innnufiicturlng cities, but also gave
to slavery vast lnllueiicu lu America. II
created a revolution In Industry, hut Hid
not, powerful as It was, break' tho force
OCao, X3-J.lloti.tT. 33u.llila.cr. Csxaaor T-.-.-olftlJ. Ctret an.A Wato-Tils-irs-to-. Airoaue.
CAIRO, ILLINOIS, WEDNKSDAY,
of the words of .leller-oii ; and, al last,
.1 ...I I .1 nlni'Iov tf d.lt'ltrf (t
('' MimiH'll 1111- HJUim-.-'M .'.tin -j , ... i 1
power and left them poor Indeed. forty-thrce patent lorngricu tural liuple-
vviin uoriitH nut,' menls had been taken out In America,
" Ii wi ' nvs Draper. "Ihc eifceU of au.l thai tlucc limes that many have.
' ' ' .. ........ .....1 I I., lu'l'l llw. Iinreoil.
l. in i i.re nf t ie Nor I t int loin !
'with -neb fearful clfecl upon ln-r antag
onist, and firaugled the hlave I'owerby
maintaining a blockade along three thoii
aud miles of coaM." lu one sen-e IhN
Is true; but who In'tlevei, thai If. when
Ihc Continental emigres struck from
the original draught ol the Declaration
the clause denouncing the African
-lave ttadc. it had also struck out the
clau-c declaring Liberty In be one of Ihc
Inalienable right" of man, theic would
ever have been any occa-iou to ihc Ihc
machinery of tho North agaln-t the Slave
Power? It was the purpo-e of Ihc lead
ers ol the Confi'ileiale movement to con
(nlidalc that power by creeling a govern
ment upon the idea of the lueiiuallty of
limn ol the Mipeilorlty and Inferiority
nf nice and clae, upon tne Idea ol
cyte. "The -lone rejecled by Ihc llr-l
builder.-,' .aid the Vice President of the
Confederacy, di-eiu-hig lid- -ubjet t. " U
become Ihc thief tone lu the corner of
the new I'dHlLe." Hut the attempt va-tui-iicces.ful;
and what tlcfealcd II'?
Not the machinery of ihc N'orih. but
" W'unl", won, woril- "
the immortal word.- of the Declaration of
Independence. Tliesu wire, indeed, tho
fountain, Iroui whieh Mowed the rill of
aiitb-Iavery, that gicwa- ll ran tlirougli
the year-until it became a great torrent
and swept from the 'oil ol the l.'epublie
the di-gniec of human boudnse.
v i.i:.m;i: u. ih.i;s-im..
Hid not upon Ihc .-lave alone did the
Declaration confer ble-sng?. Its word
became Idea- who-e subtle Ine-i-tlble
power ha- defeated every a'.lempt lo en
graft upon our political In-lilulloiis any
mouarchlal or ari-tocralie fcatuie.-.
Thc-c idea- have exalted Ihc people Into
the -eat of sovereignty, and adherence
lo them will not fall to -eeiire lo it-, and
to our po-terity, to the latest generation,
the iuc-timahle hieing- of Liberty.
The words penned by the great Demo
crat ol America, in 1770, have become as
powerful a- an army with banner
stronger even than Jhc
" VV'onl- wl-e liucuii ami brave ll.ilcUh,ke."
mi: ii.unii.u iaki:n i'p; ini: nii i.r.
The Declaration was the gauntlet
thrown down before Great Kritaln. she
look. it-up, and the strnle that ciiMicd
rc-ulletl in the Indepcndcnix' ol' the Cnl
onle. and the establishment of the gov
ernment of the I' lilted States n... i
ImiKirtanl event," nsl.onl nrut(iiuiiibu
trutniiuiy aui. "in tne History ot our
-pecte-." I'oreibly and Iruthfullv he
II cJlerlj iris. ,.iillni-.l lo .VllKrini It
ni.iii........ iii-Tjiit-ii uii iniT lit. tlt.rl.l I.. trl.f
oplili'ssloii. Itsaxean example of 11 ureal (,
pie not only i iiuncipatliiy Ihi-ni-eiifj., bill i,v
criilii? Iliniistllil w llhoiil cithern Jlonarchy or
an Arl-locmcy to rr-trnln thenii ami it Ueiiion
etrated, for the llrt time lu the hl-lorv or the
iiorhl contrary to all Ihe i.nsllcllons of stntes
nifii unit the Ihtsirles ami ( nilathe Impiiries,
that a limit nation, l.ru iluly prvpaitsl fur the
tiiik, is riipahle of M'lf-yiiirniiiicjit ; In i.il,er
iturils, that 11 ptuvli Kepiihllcau form of trot em
inent ran In- foiimleil sml iiiaiiitiiintsl in a coun
try of vat rMMii, lrf"iplis l,y millions of in-haliltal.l-."
Illtll.l.I VNT VII.1.IFR AHO.S.
Hut not favorable Is tho opinion of all
men concerning our political institutions.
There aic even among ourselves those
who believe that the predictions ot the
statesman, and the theoric- of the specu
lative Inquirer referred to by Hrougliain,
will yet be verilled hi the downfall of the
liepublic. To this sentiment, Thomas
Carlyle, the great genius of Snarl and
c-tlmablc blackguard of English litera
ture, who scolds like a llshwoinmi in
prose a mu-lcal as It is rugged, gave ex
jireion, a quarter of a century ago, in
brilliant villlllcatlou ot our institutions,
lu his Latter-Day Pamphlets, replying
to the Inquiry: "Why should not all
nations tubrl-t and llourl-h on Democ
racy as America has'" he says :
"S1110 enough, .Vineilca Is gnit, in many
li'.-pich :i hoHl'ul pheiinimiiou. Mire enoiijih
thc-e hanly inillion-of Aolo-'-nvoii men prole
tlieiu-elies worthy of their Kin'-'loiry; 11ml
w ilh u uiul iloM'nnil h.uuiiier, If not jet with
any much liner In pleiueiits, me triumphant!)
clnirlliKOlll Wiilc. spaces, scislllchls for the mis
Icuanii' ami ii l'use of m.iukinil, iiienas for 1 1 10
inline hl-tory of Hie ivoild, iloinx lu their ilay
timl K'lur.illoii a cnililulilc ami cheeiiul;
thins; umler the sun Hill iu 11 .Miel I'epubllc,
as a luoilcl llliylliiii, Ihc w ite unions UuIIIm his
know tlieie is notliiiiu' to lie. calil. Nnv, Hie
title hlthcilo lobe 11 C'oiiiiiioiim callh or .Nation
ut nil. Is, liicilj t'tnislitfivilllll 11 tiling ihey
me stilling lor.iuiil imlecil haiu not jet limit'
lunch towiinl iitl.ilnlnj;. What new t l
tiiienl of national pi. Illy or iiiitiouhooil, what
liohlc new plia-cs of hum'aii mniiip iiienl, or
Micl.ll llellce Mol'lllt ol I '1 1 111 lit I ill is or of l'.il
liietheils. el comes lo lliiht In Ameiici? Cot Ion
ciops mill luillan coin nnililollars come to lliihl;
uml half 11 M01 M of iiutilhililc laml, while pop
ul.ilion thai 1 f.-j .lets Ihc cou-l.ible can llic, lor
tlin pieM'iil, ulthoilt liott'l'liliieiil Hits ciimes to
IIkIui uml the proroiiml mm run of nil uoblir
heails, licit' llllillliii lletlf us .lleul palll-lit
imutter.ilile ciiiuil, llieii'lciuuiiiK out as valine
flfjjiiif ualllns tli.it thtie in iicm lo liiilhili
iiioic. IV.i-e to Inns to mo ol .Vnu'iicii
ami lis umilil institutions nui coti-fitutioe,
'l oiniii lu their rivi there l nollilnj; jimntisl
111 mis uoiiiii in 11 11 1 1 ik. or us v'ooii as noiinns,
1 to men lli.it lt Idly caiicu-liii ami liallot-ho-I
Ins 011 the liiaves of their liciole uncc-ilor-, i-av-I
I1111: ' II Is well, II Is well." My
fileml, Inns not yd of our .Vmeiicaii roii.-lu-!
I lu ll iu.iutlly of cotloii, ilollais, liulii-ir) uml
looiuce- I hcllcM' to he iilllln-l lin-pctikithlc;
I hut 1 can hy no menus imi'-IiIi ihc like of Ihcse
What jSii-M human colli, what mint tlioiijjhl,
ithal steal uohlc lliiuir Hint mic toiilil Wor.lilp,
or In; ally inbuilt', has ! been proiliiccil Iherc V
. .Nolle) I lie American cousins huu'iil ilonc none
of llitv-etlilui'i "
I Willi AN AND PLOW VNH ll.V.MMIllt.
'Hie I ileal Snaiier inlght not lalsifv
hi Ihc very face of the miu, el-e would
he have denied lo our -oil oven fertility ;
bill, wilh Ihc fact In the eye of tliu whole
world, he has been compelled lo admit
(hat 011V ivsouiiv-are uii-pcakablc ; that
there is mud enough, and fierce sun
ciioimh, hi llic Mlsst-.-lppl valley alono to
grow Indian corn for all (lie extant pos
terity of Adam ; that wo are clearing out
Fecdllelds lo be a refuge and provide sus
tenance for all mankind to be arenas for
the future hKtory ol I lie world, llutitll
tills wo are doing, says our traducer, with
with implements no litter, as yet, than
the ax mid plow and hammer, Tho facts
run counter lo thl- as-ettioii. They tell
aunlher ami a more Mattering talc. They
wiv tli.it tin In lsf-:. two thousand iiml
oeen liiiienn ii -one. in i.-
lug o'f grain by Improved machinery was
llrst elfected In this country ; and hi 1S.1I,
the year after Thomas Carlyle wrote as
I have quoted, at a great exhibition at
l.opdon under CarlylcV cry no-c
American reapers eaiiiid oil Ihc palm.
Wherever Amcilean agricultural ma
chines have come into direct competlllon
wllhtho-e of Itrill-h or l'uropean coti
stiucllon, llic American machines have
Ik on proved to be superior. Tlic value,
In 1S70, of the agricultural Implement
and machinery of thi-country amounted
to about $:!0O.0CO,0C(i, and in thi" esti
mate Ik not Included the ax null plow
and hammer, nor cotton gin?, scythes,
hoe-, nhovcN, spades, forks, wagon",
c-irti or wheelbai'iows. "Willi ax and
hammer mid plow, if not yet wilh much
liner kind of implement," :.y Carlyle.
The snarling author of the Latter-Day
Pamphlets must permit the tact-of 1870
to correct his falsehoods ot K10 !
w nr spAcr,-' ir.nufinii- tiu.NAs.
Wide -jiaccs .-ccilllchls tor the sti-lc-tiaiH-e
of mankind arena- fur the future
hl-tory of the world ! Tho-c we arc
prepaiing hi Aincilca. Let u thank, for
thc-e words, thl- Shy lock of literature,
who would take from nearest our na
tional Ileal L the pound ol lle-li. Whiil
greater pral-c could be betoed upon
Us'r There, In the Kasl. Is lairopc: lu
the Wt-I, Aia. In l"uio.'. tlic old
phase.- of tyrannical violence and eru-h-iug
ilc-iioli-iu stand iu bold Hicf m I lie
light of Ihc present time; ami lu A-ia.
national apathy and pcisoinl degrada
tion, lu the Wt-t i- seen tie' ennui of
human -la-;natlon: and in (lie Hast U
heard mil vague elegiac wailings, but
luud lamentation- over llic condition of
mankind. From the Ka-t and Ihc West,
from all Ihc clfetc de-poti-nis. of the
world," u ho-t 1- lloekiug to the wide
'pace8, the -cedliehls of Auiiiiea. the
arena- of future hl-toiy. From (ircat
Hritaiu ha- come, since 1S-D, about three
nilllloiis of .-mils, and from other conn-trie-ol
Kuropc a great ho-t : nut to com
plain In silent patient unutterable ennui,
or iu vain elegiac walling.-, that lu Amer
ica no new elements of polity or nation
hood, no noble new plia-c- ol human
arrangement or ocial device worthy of
Prometheus or Kphnethott- have come
to light, but to throw oil" Ihc Old, to
Jiu-h the moan of dl-contenl, and, with
a whole continent for a theater, to
uwalicn to i. w -en-col Hie dignity of
man nun learn to .-lug the clioorful -ongs
oi pro-penty anil lllierly ; to be participant-,
equal with us iu noble ncwphacs
of human arrangement and social device,
n .ii 1..,- nit. .filler of JVoinethcus, inon:
benellcitd to us than the lire wilh which
the god armed man; worthy, ton, of
Fpimcthcu-, ihc Fplmclhcus of the old
civilization, with power potent enough
to de-troy all the political plagues that
have o-caped from the jar of the god,
opened long ago by the Pandora of
tin: worn; or hm: inn: CAt ci -mis and
These come to u. and do not timl u
inen si'tins: idly caiieu-ing -mil ballot
boxing on the graves of our heroic ancestor-,
saving, la.ily. "It is well. It is
well,'' but men active in the alfulr- of
" In the living pi'.'i-ent
Ileal t within ami tmil u'etlieail."
Little do we of America indulge iu the
pleasure- of indolence; and, contemplat
ing tLc re.-ult- of the valor and witdoin
of our heroic ance-tor.--, wc say, " It I
vvell, it Is well," not iu the tone of the
Lotus Katers. "Ingitig wearily :
" l t us iilonc. What pleasure can wc have
'l'o war Willi c II v I tin ix' nny peace
lu eur clinibliiifiip tlie cllmhliis wave? " '
but proudly, hi Ihc voice of men who,
even through sore trial and great travail,
are unalterably determined to maintain
what was -cciuvd to them lu the gloomy
hours of the nation'- birth; of men who,
with bu-y minds and ludiislriou- hand-,
arc making the wlldciuc to blnoni ti
I- thi- doubled? Then look around
you. Here, in the wllileine-s of Aiucr
ea, ha- arisen, willilu how brief a period,
a grand empire, embracing within Its
bonier-three millions two hundred and
lllty Ihou-aud ,-qtiare ndU-.an empire
larger than till Kuropc, inhabited by
tuoro than forty millions human being-.
These have occupied and are cultivating
million- of acres ; have liullilcd cities a'
magniliceut as tho-e of the nation, boast
in" tliiiii:iniK nf v, mi' i v I
.... . ,
have gridlioned Ihc liepublic with rail,
road,: have wuriueil the river.-, the
greatest In Ihc world, with sleaiuboatR;
have swung across Ihou-atid- of nilles
the electric telegraph wire; have opened
a gold bearing region slretehlug through
nearly eighteen degrees ol latitude and
more than twenty degree of longitude,
forming tin area of more than a million
square miles ; have opened mines of sli
ver ami iron ami lean ami coai ; inivc
givcu to the world thousands of wonder
ful Inventions; have made labor not only
honorable but grand; and, with wcap.
ous lu hand, lu huge battle and wrc.-tlc,
have vindicated tho work douu by the
battle-lighter-- and cou-tllullou-mtikcr.-of
our revolutionary era. Tho work
tills of tho idler.-! of Carlyle, of his cau
ciiscrs and ballot-boxers, sitting on tho
graves or their heroic iiiicesnrsT?aTlngT
" It is well, It Is well !" The sceno'ls be-
vvllderlng upon which to-day tho ilur-
quenching angel of tho dawn looks down
as ho travels with broad slow wing from
tho shores of llic Atlantic to the shores'
JULY 7. 1875.
of the Pacill. The story of American
development .sounds like tale told by
a inti: vi Tiint'iim.
Who Is It that says tltl wonderful peo
ple have produced no great thought V A
great thought Is an event. Few have
staitled ihc world. The great thinkers
come only at rue interval'. Hut here
In America vvn born the great thought
thai charter" ol power should be granted
by liberty. From time Immemorial,
charters ol liberty had been granted by
power. The victorious -oldlcrs, fresh
from won batlle-llcld-, crowned and
secptcicd, had .-aid to I he people: "Voir
may." At llunnyinede. tho bold barons,
to King .John, aid : " Vou tnii-t. permit
ii". Liberty thu came by cither the
favor or the feir of povver. Hut our
wise ancestors thought another thought,
a great thought, Indeed. "America,''
'ay .Madi-on, " ha- .-ct the example of
charter.- ol power granted by llbetiy.
Tills icvolulloii lu the prailce (if tho
world may, with an houc-l pral-c, be
i...ti.,.Mi,, ...I ,1... i t, in, . ii.i, ! ..,....l. !
I"" ii'-'." iiiv-i in. "mi hi 1
ol it.- ni-iory. ami tin: most eou-oiing
pre-iigeof It' li.'ippltie . Wc look back
aheady, wilh a'.toul-lnueul, tit the dar
ing outrage" committed hy despotism on
the rea-oti and the l ight- of man : wc
look lorward with joy to the period
when it shall be dt .-pulled of il- u-urpa-tloii',
and hound I'm ever iu the chains
with which II 'a- loaded Its ml-crablc
victims.'" The people of America were
the llr-l to -ay to power: " Ymi may ;"
and not lu vain, for the people of other
cotinliic-. Ihc people, the only earthly
ourcc of authority, have commenced to
think lid- great thought of otir's, which,
lu time, will topple all throne.-, and
vvecp them, witli re-i-tles- force, over
N'lagara. -battering them.
a hi:i:a'i iir.viA.v sun..
H ho is it that say.- thi- Uepublle,
horn of political and moral revolution,
li:i- produced no gical human -oul? lie
litis not seen what all the word ha", the
imposing form of Washington, standlm:
before the marked men of the world, lu
the clement- of human noblcne.-.s. the
greatest of them all. The cham
pion of thi- llbertle- of tlic peo
ple, Wa-hlugloii compelled the
admiration of the advocates of despot
ism : and, at this day, even tnonarchs on
their thrones name him but to pral-c.
The people everywhere reverence Ids
memory. In defeat, lie did not despair ;
in victory, lie was modest. Having
achieved the Independence of blscountry,
at tlic head ot a victorious army elated
by succe-s and proud of it general, lie
-tood the guardian of the liberties of Hid
people. Thrice, upon the Lupcrcal, was
C.-e-ar oll'ered a kingly crown, which he
did thrifts rell-e; but to Wa-liiiigfnu a
crown was offered but once. Ho did not
put It iiocl; vtlth a hesitating hand, bin
firmly and tleelslvely cast. It down,
humiliating, by a forty rebuke, those
who had thought lo honor film with tho
bauble. I am at lo-s to conceive vvViav
pari of my conduct could have given en
couragement to an addre.-s which to me
seems big with the greatest ini-chicf that
can befall my country. If I am not de
ceived iu the knowledge of niy-elf, you
could not have found a person to whom
your schemes arc more disagreeable."
Thc-e were hi- words. With them he
dadicd the oll'ered crown to tho earth.
lu civil olllco he was n- much a blessing
to his country a he had been at the head
of the army, lie was tundc-t, wise and
llriu ; and. iu the language of Fox, " de
rived honor le"s Iroin the splendor of his
situation than from the dignity of his
mind." No greater human soul ever ex
isted. Hu w as even worthy of Ihc word"
that Kt'skiuc penned, when, iiddrc-'lng
hhn, lie wrote :
Sim I have taken llic Illicit; lo hilroiliiiT
-.our misust ami immortal inline in u unlciue
which will be foiiuil lu the book I semi oii. I
h.ieiilai'';eiit'iiialnlani'u anions the most valu
able uml exalliil ut'incn; hut you ate the unit
being for whom I ever feltiiiinwl'ut letercnec "
August and Immortal, Indeed, is the
name ol this great human soul, for
who-e memory mankind will feel an
awful reverence till the last sllablc o(
'I'lic whlleiii'Mi of hi- -oul, uml so men o'er him
ii.vvi; wt: a iiovi;iiNMi;Ni ?
Hill, though II bu admitted that we
have a quantity ot cotton, corn, dollar",
rc-ourcc-5 unspeakable; that with l!uet
Implements we aro clearing the arenas of
future history, and even thai wo may
bott't'1 of great thought-' nod ical
human -otils, yd, it Is -aid, we have no
right to bo called a Nation that wc arc
running on without a government "Ii icily
considered, This Is the eiitlel-m ol.a
monarchist who believes there inu-l boa
scepter to make, government ; bill it has
no foundation In fact. Wc have a gov
ernment that ha- been equal lo every
j emergency of peace and war. It' Is trim
that, at Ihc time of il- organlat! II-
I success wa- problematical, but " under
J the guidance of some of the most virtu
I ous stalesincn ever called to adminl-ler
j national all'air.-," It was put into opera
I tlon, and experience, has proved II lobe
belief Ih.ui It" tnii-t sanguine admirers
1 believed It would be. II lias Micces-lhlly
maintained its mithuiily and lias never
failed to vindicate lis honor.
; PAI'IIII K IIIINIIV'- I'lIVIls.
It U also true that at It, organl.allun
Needs of dissension were -.own in the
j failure to abolMi slavery, and iu tho iio
' ni'iioiiviicds! We. the People." This
expression was denounced hy men llko
Patrick Henry, who recognized lu It tho
hideous features of consolidation,
" Should this Constitution go Into
force," exclaimed Henry, "what will
Hie State-i have lo do? Take care ot tho
poor, repair and make highway.", erect
bridges, and n on and so on, AbolUh
the .Slate legislatures nt once ! For what
purpose should they be retained?"
A government uch as Henry feared,
Hamilton desired, lint he did not licllevo
it would bu obtained by the adoption of
the (.'(institution. It would not bo, he
did not he-llatc to ay, p groat enough
(Icpaituie troul the Confederation. He
feared It would not have power ulllelcnt
lo unite tlic different members together
and direct the common forces to the In
terest and happiness of the whole.
.ii:m:ii-oN and madi-so.v
had eonlhlenec In the merits of tlic Con
stitution, and believed the government
established by it. to be what It has fluce
been de-eiibcd hy Cooley, who says :
"In roiilniillsllni'lloii lo llini-e gnvernmviitft
v necc (Hitter is uiiiici'iiiiin-si in one mnu, or one
or 1'ioi-c liyillcjt o men, wlio-c Mi.orvllon uml
ncllti! control rMeiul to nil the nhli-els of iiov
criimenl, wllhlii the territorial ifjnlt, f n.
"lilt"', llic American mMciii Is one ol comiilctc
iIis'i.iitnill.itloii, the prlmiry anil vital Pica of
tiiiicii is, tn.it local air.ilrs IimII he miua-ifil hy
lotiooi on-., miu Kciicnii iniiirs unit- oy rnr
Cell leal ,mcillllCl.
nip xt t.i.irii:i:-i and .sKci:jsio.i-i".
The identity of the legislative power
ol'lhe States with, or rather the substitu
tion oflt for llic -overcignty of the peo
ple, between which there Is all the (infer
ence that exl-li between the creature and
creator, Wits asserted by the Nulllllcr." ;
and the Sece-donl-ts held that our politi
cal -y-tcm wa" a mere league, lu which
the member- had delegated, but had not
.-turcudcrcd, certain attributes of sover
eignly lo a common agent, and 1 1 tat each
had retained the right lo resume the dele
gated ,'iitilbulcs of sovereignly when il.
nil; w Ait nf -i:ci: ion.
The pai liamcuttiry battles upon the-e
qui-lious were hotly coute-lcil ; and ski
very, alarmed al the growth of the antl
la very sentiment of the North, wa- cas
lly luduced-to lidl in witli Hie Idea that
such State had a light to resume, sit any
time, the delegated power". .Cpou the
election of .Mr. Lincoln to the Prc-ldency
of the I'tilon, tin- -law States acted upon
till- idea and the w ar ot !-ece"-inn rc-
Tills Wii-i the ciisi- of the Itcpubllc.
All the Carlyle-of the world shook their
wise head" and -aid : "The rope of sand
hti" been separated. The days of the
Model 1'epiiblic aro numbered." Hut
they were tal-o prophet". Kvents proved
that the government had the ability to
maintain Itself against most tremendous
forces. For a time It hesitated, but at
last it drew the sword and advanced upon
the enemies of the I'lilou.
The story of Ihc dreadful war that en
sued I will not tell over. During its
progress the very foundations of American
society were disturbed by the mca-iircd
tread of millions of armed men ; thou
sand" ot eltlens fell hi tho fratricidal
conllict : taxation was alarmingly Jn-crea-cd
and a gr-at debt thrown upon
lie, -boulder-o! the nation. Uut Scce-slon
wu-.tvttti..i, .i... n.vnlted State" were
compelled to lay down their arms ; slav
ery disappeared, and evidence the most
Indubitable wa fiirnlhcd that the Repub
lic 1" a power- a government possessed
of ability to maintain lisauthoiity within
Its own border-- and compel, if need be,
the repeet of the most powerful -nations
of Ihc world. "We, the People,"
triumphed oyer "Wc, the Stales," and
all the snarling Catiyles were abashed.
Over the battle fields of the war for tho
Union you may walk to-day, and see no
evidences ot the conllict. Where the llory
squadrons charged where the blue and '
gray avalanches of valor met with dread
lul .-hock where Ihc battle hore tram
pled the bloody ground where tho torch
was busy wiicrc Patriotism made a hol
ocaust of human lives, to-day till l peace.
There ,-taud- the shocked wheat, and the
farmer whistles a" ho works, Upon thu
calm beauty of the scene upon cities re
built that were dc-troyed upon collages
lilting their roofs above eueoinpanslug
orchard upon docks chopping quietly
tho herbage upon verdant Ileitis upon
trees, iu which llic singing bird is heard
pouring front Its inueal throat a song
ol'joy, ami among the leaves of which
the btcc.e I- running with nimble feet
whispering a- il goc" upon all thl", tho
all-beholding hiii look" (town to-day and
sees no evidences of the conllict between
the North and South. Nature has for
gotten ll, and wc of thu North ami sth
should IiiiJi.ii.' hrr example.
i'i:sii!vi.i..viiiN--i" tiiniii. PANnnii?
We have p.i--ed through this moment
oils eoulllcl, and tho cou-olld.illou feared
by Henry ha- not re-ulled; but Mill a
warning volccciie-: 'Hcwarc of consoli
dation ; the process I" going on." And
s there redly any danger? Where then
docs II lurk ? Not, I'ellow-cili.ciis, where
wo are wont to look for It in Cougrc-s
and the aiublllou or :'omiillouof the Kx
ceuilvc, bill where wc have been taught
lo believe our .-ecuilly abldc"--ln Ihc
court- of the country.
piiwim or mi. i iii'iii.s.
Under our system the courts aro all
powerful ; and neither the Cou-lHiitlon
nor Ihc ualute law 1- tht law, unlc-s It-chime-
with thcopinlon of the Judge, and
the bar. In Ihelanguageof Lord Hroug
ham: " 'I he Stales' (.oiti'U, in il the Mipii nif Uoiirtu
ciicc'lnlly, hate the rlsht. ami It U their houmlen
duty, to ilti'l.iitiiinyslvt'ii fuivv which may hate
been made, wilhull the uppollileil forms of les
Mature, unconstitutional, m "Ha 'nut the IliuiU
mental principles nt lliu Ktslenil Union, or in
iuralnst Hit' lawn of nny Klvcn Statu, ami to re.
fuse It nil niHii-iitloii uml t'llet't. . Hut, a law, u
.minim Act tiv the nuiircuie IcitlKlatHe power In
one Stnlf. or hy Ciinirrt-'s Itself u sutut
clotliett Willi nil the leiful Hiilciiiiillltt-ii Uvv, Ibr
cvampU, to which Hit" two nouses oruoiii
mid Hie I'lTHldcnl ot Hit) Union ha to slven
illsthict it!i-iiit--ls ilwlan.il .illrml. I .1'"'
niiii,...,l In lu no law. I., ml uilirul not lo ho
blndliiK, Is trvutcil in ii inert! iiillllly, Ikhhu
contrary to the lYm-llttttlon i ami this 1$ dote br
.tiiil-mi itppolnleil toctecut th liw""Wn&.
l-ter JiiMin-iinilrrll " Jilw ,
I'ndcr this great power the United
States courts always, as all cotirta are,
grasping for greater jurisdiction htu be',
come dangerous. Tho Constitution? arts
what the Judges say they arc the laws
nre what the judges say they are; and, It
Is a fact, that for overy law made by the
legislative branch of the government,
there Is n volume of laws mndc bv the
Judgesrule.-' established, as Austin ex
presses It, tx propria arbitrio ,-1. e., accord
ing to their own notions of what ought
to bo law.
In this our courts are but following
In the footstep, nf those of England,
where such men as Hcntluuii have de
nounced judge-made law. Our whole
chancery system the entire body of
equity lurlsprtidence Is the work of the
Chancellors or Judges. The, whole sys
tem has been built up since the Juris
diction of tho Aula Kcges the Supreme
Court of .Titdlcattiio ot Kiiglaud was
Marcelled out and distributed between the
KlngVs Bench Court of Common Picas
and the Court of Exchequer. In thi!
days of llronton, (llanvillc, Hrllton and
I'leta, ancient writers of the Common
Law, nothing was known of equity as
a distinct branch of the law. Tlic truth
is, It was mane by the courts ; and the
law-making mill of the judges Is still
grinding on grinding on In Kngland,
grinding on with particular industry. iu
America. The grist that has been fur
nlhetl to m by tlie. I'ultetl States courts
is not to our liking.
mi. i.vw or viii;i itninrs.
rnderthc provi-Ions of the Constitu
tion, forbidding Hie Slates front passing
any law hnparlng the obligation ol con
tract", the Judge" have enacted the law
ot vested light-, behind which all the
grasping monopolies of the country are
hiding Ihcin-elve- w bile they rob the peo
ple. Says Cooley, In a note to hU Con
" It Is iiiulcr llic iirotii'lioii of tin; tltclslon hi
Ihc tl.irlmouth l ollciic c-t.-c that tlic limit enor
mous uml threatening power hi thin country
have ln'i'11 rrcatisl ; inniie nf the great unit
wealthy corporation ni'lu.illy bavins S?i eater
liitlueuci! lu ihc country ut large and upon the
It'sislnlloii of Ihc country than tin- Male to
ttnicli ihey owe their corporate exlatenu1.
Kver) piltili's.' similed 1, llsht confelltsl nn
mattrr by it hat mean, or umler vt hat pretence
lielns nude liitlolabk' by the Constitution, the
Sotermut'lil I, IVtsiiently found strlppoil of Its
authority lu very Important particulars, by
uuitisf, calcic or cm nipt legislation; uml u
otau-t" In Ihc Iristrntl CuMlitulion tthosc pur-lio-i-
wits lo preclude, the ri'iuidlatlou ot debts
and Just Ci-utl.if.t4, piutcct-i and iierietiute-t the
It I- not thi clause of the Constitution
that protects and perpetrates the evil, and
it is not true, as litis been "aid, that these
Improvident grants arc beyond tlic reach
of the people. The evil was created not
by the Constitution but by judiciary law,
mid mut be repealed by public opinion.
which, It has been truly said, sets bounds
to every government, and l? the real ov
crclgn in every free one.
Judge-made law stretched the word"
"eltlens of a Slate" to cover the corpor
ations of the State, and wc have seen here
iu Illinois the United states courts ap
point receivers of railroad companies,
and authorize them to utterly disregard
Injunctions of tlie State court-.-, tho -statutes
ofthu General Assembly and the or
dinances ot titles. These courts, within
our knowledge, have been used by Kuro
pcan railroad mortgage bondholders, iu
eolhtsloii with tlin contractor." to build
the road, to m-MwiUu eltlens of tho State
out ol just debts; and we have seen them
command the arrest of tax-collectors, ac
ting under the advice of tho Attorney
General and guilty only of an attempt to
collect taxes due from a railroad com
pany to the State that created it. And
all this has been done under the pro
visions of Judge-made law, which ha"
thus broken down the ordinances of our
cltlc", tlic Constitution and statutes of
our State ami tlic processes of
our courts! It is now being
.sugge-teil that Congress shall be evoked
to give to the States authority to collcet
taxes from corporations in the hands
ol receivers appointed by United States
courts, and enforce upon them the stat
utes of the Slate that tire daily being en
forced upon the citizen. This fact speaks
volumes. It proves that thu cry of Cen
tralization is not'a wolf cry. Heretofore
It has liecu the States that have surren
dered power to the general government ;
but now Congress Is to be asked the
judge- being willing ! to glvo to the
Sttites authority to resl-t the usurpations
of thu monopoly-protecting United State
Hut thesu arc clouds. Let us not look
iqiou them longer on a day llko this. In
the present, with all its .shallow-', wc
hitvo numb for twifc'i we should be thank
ful and tho future Is certainly secure.
Thu same guardian spirit that has led us
thus far In prosperity, warding off dan
ger." that threatened our destruction, will
not deerf us will, If wo aro but trim to
ourselves, walk with us to tho end. To
no other people have such great luter-c-t-
been Intrusted, and tho eyes of
the people of the whole world are
turned upon us in hope?. Let us endeavor
to not disappoint that hope; for, If wo
fall in tho race, Liberty will perish from
thu earth. Let it", remembering the sacii
llces of our ancestors and their heroic cn
di avor." hi lliu eatt"c of human liberty, ad
miring the vvi-dom they displayed In the
organization of thu government, do till
that lu its lies to transmit tootirposlerlly
this heritage ot liberty unimpaired ; and,
standing In the centennial Ihyo of U e.
publle, about to (io-e the vohnne ol tho
first century of our existence nfj It nation,
upon the pages of which Is written the
story of succcs'ful euiteavor )n tho cause
of humanity ami of a greater prosperity
than was ever below vouchsafed fo any
people, let us pledge ourselves to bo true
to tho prluclplea of our government. W
aro patliwakers for the nations, Rud unit
not bocomo weary of our work or be
turned aside by the Insidious whisperings
of the enemies of the people.