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gUwibtllt fojlcckln Chronicle : (Mctmcslrnp, Jftbnxnrjj
THE WEEKLY CHRONICLE.
WEDNESDAY, FEB. 24, 1675.
FIKLl) and FAllM.
"THE DOG WARFARE."
Under the above caption, the
MoMj Rrport of the Department of
Agriculture, for Januarj, contains a
uggestive article, in which facts are
wanted that should arouse the peo
ple of the whole country to an ap
preciation of the folly of maintain
ing a hord of worthless dogs to de
stroy valuable flocks of sheep. Stn-iiic-
are presented from .Wi coun
ties in 35 States, showing that in
twelve months previous 79.485 sheep
kad been killed by dogs. This does
ot include the maimed or injured.
ad presents only a pnrtial view of
Ike discouraging picture. The direct
loss sustained annually by the peo
ple of this country, in wool and mut
ton, arising from this cause. U not
less than one million dollar-. An
'redirect loss of even a larger amount
A report is presented from 'I
ountics in Tennessee, in which there .
sheep kilkl within a j
year, distribute J as follows :
Khet, -Jl ; rrf-p. 40o: Giles 1,760 ;
frmllivan, ISO; Perry, WO; Hancock, 100 : j
Hardin, 100: lirsjfrr. .ti; Montgomery,
O0: Jai'ks-m, Vlh; Usywood, 1,147;!
Bantu, 100; wrrD. 100; Monro). 150;
cMinn, :i00: Carter, 75; 1'entiei", 10
Washlng'ton, 400; Wayne. .MNI; Robwl j
mm, 1.114; Se.pm.chie. .W0: Deciur,
IT- L-1' ;?lr. !
anion, ib: tMiiuiirr. SOO ; Moreari, 70 :
total, 11,417. fiumt.T of sb p, 2js,f.:5.
Thus it will be seen that in these
ountic-s, more than four per cent, of
all the sheep are annually destroyed
ky dogs. We have no doubt but that
foil and accurate report from all the
unties in the State will show a
ratio of losses equally us large us
that shown iu the 27 counties
above mentioned. And as an offset
to thin great loss, we have absolutely
oo gain whatever. The dogs are id-
out entirely worthless
Tet we have never had a Legisla- j
lore wise enough, or bold enough,
v take hold of the question
of protecting sheep by practical, vig
orous legislation. At the last Legis
lature a law was pa-seed giving tbe
County Courts the power to tax dogs,
ut it has been done in very Jew, if
in any single instance. In a Court
KOtnfsDsed of from forty to sixty Jus
tices of tlie Peace, there are always
enough found who are afraid of the j
vote and influence of the ihy-Oicni-rx. j
to dVfcat hv practical measure of!
this kind. In that way this fearful !
Joss Is saddled upon our best farm-
ern, anil they have no way of pro
tecting themselves. Thus a most
IKafitable branch of husbandry is left
to wafer and to languish. Thus hun
dreds of thoasandu of dollars in cap
ital areaauually lost to our State.and
the. people are crying ' hard time,"
while they seem to be blind to this
We earnestly hope thai our present
Legislature will have the good sense
and the courage to pass some act tax
ing the worthless dotrs out ot exis
teuoe and protecting the sheep. We
trust that the St;ite Grange, now in
session here, will take some action on
Thosk who havk imagined that it
would le easy to secure proper legis
lation to provide for a better system
of public roads, wi.'l find themselves
mistaken. The oople of East Ten-iu-si!
who are about a unit for better
roads, must remember that Middle
Tennessoe Las good turnpikes, and
that West Tennessee has no material
to make good roads. The interests
f the three sections therefore are
rorjlicting. We have wretched roads,
but abundant im-.terial to make as
j-ood and cheap roads as make Swit
zerland famous. If we were a .State by
oiirseives, we would have no trouble to
legislate to meet our wants. We see
no reason, however, why there should
be trouble about it. The wants and
demands of East Tennessee are so
plain, that legislation can lc devised
that will meet our case and the
watts of the other section, so far as
they may choose to avail themselves
Hut in the meantime let i;titious
fo on to Nashville, to make our East
Tennessee delegation a unit and u.'
uux in the matter. We still have
wine blanks. We get letters daily,
urging on tit good work. What is
wanted now is, in the word of a cor
r&spodcntj "action." Let t-very
county send iu Representative in
structions, and let the want Le no tm
pronsod upon legislators, that it will
be constantly before them and force
them to act.
THE RTATK URANfiE.
IM KMntoH II I4 Wltk Vt94 Roar
Kiasr Dat Wednesday, IYb. 1
Tbe sessions of the State Orange are
held in secret, so we have uo report of
our own to make of It deliberations,
but we are permitted to publish tbe
following, which has been furnished
us by one of the reporters
Tbe third annual meeting of the
Stale Orange or the I'alrons or Jius
bandry met pursuant to adjournment,
in Staub's Opera House, ami whs called
to order at o clH.'k p. m. y worthy
Overseer J. M. Head, Worthy Master
V. Mai well, not being present. The
roll of tbe delegates was called by
counties, by Worthy Secretary J. H.
Curry, when it appeared that twenty-
three counties answered ana the dele
gates presented their credentials,
which were referred to the proper com
mittee. On motion of C. W. Charlton, John
M. Meek, of Jefferson, and T. 11.
Reeves, of Washington, and John
Handle were appointed reporters for
the two daily papers oi kuox vine ana
the linion and Anwr-.can, Nashville.
Seventy-three delegate-, three prox
ies and live lady members were re
ported by the Committee on Creden
tials, which report wa received and
Ou motion of C. W. ,'harlton, alter
nates were allowed seats In the State
Orange in lieu of their principals,
who were absent.
On motion, the hour fur the meet
ing of the .State Orange was fixed at
9 o'clock in the morniog, and a and 7
m the evening.
creating the usual
'committees was adopted, and they
will be anuouueed to-day.
On motion, adjourned to meet at
The Grange met pursuant to ad-
JTne"1 , k f
of "Thai rxdud n
who werenot' delegate?
from the ruling
g all Patrous
delegates from partici
pating iu tbe proceedings, and tbe de
cision was not sustained : whereupon
the Master invited all Masters and
Past Masters, and their wies to seats
in the Orange.
Mr. Hubbard moved that me hear
the report of the Secretary ; adopted.
Report shows that 1,053 Oranges have
been organized iu the State, and that
$11,00000 had been paid into the
Treasury of State Orange by tbe sub
ordinate Oranges, and that there are at
present 36,000 Patrons in the State of
Tennessee, and closed with a touching
and eloquent appeal to the members
of the order, to keep alive and per
petuate the cherished principels of tbe
Mr, Hubbard moved that the reoort
aotb1Tre''5Ur',f l" Wt'ch
The report showed that $.579 had
been paid tbe Executive Committee of
tbe State per diem and mileage, and
tl.liOO to the Secretary for services and
clerk hire. The report also showed the
tlal receipts for the year to be $ 12,
273.37, and the total disbursements to
be 4-8,837.41, leaving a balance in tbe
Treasury of $3,435.9?.;.
Mr. Charlton moved that the State
Grange adjourn to give place to Prof.
LindsJey to-morrow night to deliver
an address on tbe subject of Education.
A division was called for aud lost.
nion and waTcrViea.0" "'"
On motion, adjourned till 9 o'clock
Hie following are the representatives
present : Anderson county W. S.
f reei"-t. Bedford A. 1 . Rankin lieu
I ton, I. Farmer. BleUioe, It. K.Urowu.
I'.lount, S. F. Bell. Bradley, J. B.
Hunt. Cannon, J. D. McKuight.
Carroll, J. p. Broinly and Mrs. Brum
ly. Carter, T. E. It. Hunter and L. E.
Hunter. Cheatham, Wm. Shearom.
Clay, J. K. P.OilleUud aud Mrs. Mag
,ie Oilleland. Crockett, B. F. Boyd.
Cocke, J. H. Morris. Ooflee, O. W.
Klcnaraon aua Mrs. KichardHOii
Davldnon, J. H. Currv and Mr-. M. E.
Curry. Decatur, J. H. Brou. De-
Kalt), J. I'. 1osh. Iicks4ii, Samuel
Siueer. Der, J. E. McCorkle and
Mrs. i. a. Mcuoraie. f ayelte, L.. H.
Heinly aud Mrs. Elizabeth Heisly.
Franklin, W. O. Miller Oibson, L. P.
McMurry. Oiles, J. E. Abeniathy.
tireene, J. O. Weems. Hamilton, It.
J. Moore aud Mrs. M. J. Moore. Ha--deman,
E. E. Low. Hardin, J. K.
Kitts. Hawkins, H. B. Clay and Mrs.
N. B. Clay. Haywood, N. A. Currie.
Henderson, J. C. Smith. Henry, P.
Looney. Hickman, T. S. Easley.
Hom-tou, L. S. Skelton. Jefferson, It.
I. Anderson. Knox. W. C. Bowman.
Lake, It C. Hail. Lauderdale, F. S.
Uice. Lawreuce, H. L. McClain.
Lincoln, A. C- Markiu. Ixudou, W.
A. Simf sod. Macon, J. W. Adams
and Mrs. r . A. Adams. Madison, A.
It. Read. McMinn, 11. K. Brown
McNairy, J. O. Conib. Marion. C
W. Mooie. Marshall, W. M. Itobin-
Hon. Maury, Jan. li. Askiu. Meigs,
tt. r. narp. Aiouroe, v.. a. lay
lor. Montgomery, F. M. Itey
nobis. Moore, A. J. Simpson
Overton, Klitiu Walls. Periy, J. F
Catiliin. Polk, V. K. Carner. Hhea,
W. M. Clack. Hoane, H. t. Walker.
llotierii-on, llolivir fay u auil Mrs. M.
L. Pa.vn. Uutherf'inl, J. S. Oooch.
fepiiii:liie. Joliu Alley. ."Mevk-r, Lr.
J. M. Hummer aim Mr.. K 1). Ham
mer -heioy.W. II. Waiker. Smith,
J. K-Jaiue, Stewart, L. D. Hargio.
Sullivan, It. P. Itlie. Sunnier, YV.
P. Moore. I ri.u-(l;ile, J F. Wood.
Warieu, J. li. liuglifi. Wushiiutou,
A. it Motilton. Wayne. J. W. Huge.
Weakley, II. J. Miaou.. n. White. M
L. Clark hii.I uir. Mary Urk. Wil
liamson, W. I. Fu ton Wiie'.n, J.
W. Mi: a) Kii. I
Nlllllher I'lllile. le;.ri-rllt(-d,
sevenly-two. N u id !- of ! l-gne in
a' tend , in e, it h i y -one.
Frore- i ! ir I lie N. ronil lia r rih
The following report of tin- proceed
ings have been furnished u by the
Orange rejfirter :
The State Orange met pursuant to
adjournment yesterduy morning, and
was called to or !er by the Worthy
Overseer, Jas. M. Head. Pruyer by
the Worthy Chaplain, W. 0. Waiker,
The Committees to whom was r.
furred all buaiuees aud resolutions are
an follow :
CouiiUtuUoiis and Jtirit-pru.lonoe
Aiken of Maury, Bell of Blount,
Hughes of Wayne.
Committee on Resolutions Millet of
Frankliu, Reed of Madison, Moore of
On Salaries Gooch of Itutberfo'd,
Looney of Henry, Khea of Sul ivm.
Finance and Accounts Robinson
of Mariball, Brown of Decatur, Pan
TraiisKirtatoii and Direct Trade
Dr. Maxwell of Oibson, Taylor of M.i
roe, McFarland of Wilson.
On Agricultural Publications C. V.
Charlton of Knox, Orlftltu 'of Nrt,
Ville, Farmer of Benton.
Oood of Order and Sub-Orangef
Rankin of Bedford, Brumly of Carrdl,
Brown of McMinu.
Banking and Insurance W. V.
Fulton of Williamson, Beau man of
Knox, McCorkle of Dyer, Heal of
Trade, Regulations aud Co-opeN-tlon
Walker of Shelby, Beauman )f
Knox, Harwood of Davidxon.
Memorials and Petitions Clay if
Hawkius, Hall of Lake, James f
County Roads Moore of Sumue-,
Stiaunou of Weakly, Hammer of Se
vier. Manufactures Hubbard of Jeffer
son, Richardson of Coffee, Low f
Agricultural Education, Ate. At
derwoti of JefTerxon, Kice of Laudei
dale, Clay of Hawkins.
Educational Interests Walker if
Hardin, Hammer of Sevier, Moore T
Order of Business McMurry cf
Oibson, Martin of Lincoln, Weems of
Mr. Clark, of White, offered a re
lution to repeal tbe by-law authori
zing mileage acl per diem to dele
gates and providing for tbe pay men .
of actuaCexpenses in lieu thereof. A
motion to table this resolution, on i
call of ayes and noes, each delegatt
being allowed one vote for eact
Orange in his county, was carried.
tsmitb Couutyicouiicil A;resolutiot
from this Council, suggestiug certait
amendments to the constitution, wai
referred lo Its appropriate committee
Reluliou by Charlton praying thu
LegUlature not to suspeud the work
on the F'ast Tennessee Hospital for th
Brother Charlton eupnorted bis reso
lution iu a manly and eloquen:
Brother Walker, or (Shelby, opposed
tbe resolution, on account of hiirk
taxes, Ac. i
It waa moved by Brother Rhea, o
Sullivan, to lay tbe resolution on tht
on final vote, tbe resolution whj
He-ol ution by Brother Charlton in
reganl to Centennial Exhibition, in
1876, wac leferred to proper commit
Brother J. O. Griflitb arose to a point
Resolution by Mr. Charlton, askinic
aid from Oeueral Government for aid
in the construction of the Texas
Pacific railroad. Adopted.
Resolution by the same asking aid
for opening the mouths of the Mis
sissippi river, from Congress; amen
ded by adding Muscle Shi als aud Har
petb river. Adopted.
R. J. Anderson, of Jefferson, reso
lution to memorialize the legislature
to change the standard weight of a
bushel of oats from 33 lbs to 32 lbs.
Moved by Mr. Charlton, that the
Chairman of the Executive Commit
tee, Mr. T. (3. Mosely, make bis re
port, which was ordered and presented
by Mr. Hubbard, which showed a very
satisfactory business arraugemeut be
tween the Oranges and business bou
ses of the State for the purchase of all
necessary supplies of Patrons.
On motion tbe report was received
and referred to tbe proiier committee.
Resolution by Mr. McFarland, of
v lisoti, to prevent aua punish horse
A resolution by Walker, of Shelby,
from Melvan Grange. Referred.
By the same, memoriallziue the
Legislature to pasa a stock law, requir
ing every person to Keep his stock ou
his own premises. Referred.
By the same, iu regard to killing
stocn tiy railroads. Referred.
By the same, for tbe instruction of
By Gooch, of ltutherfod, axkiug the
repeal or the conventional interest law.
By Taylor, of Monroe, asking the
Legislature to reduce the height of a
lawful fence from 6 to 4 feet. Refer
red. By Goocb, of Rutbeiford, in regard
to location of business houses iu the
State for the beuelit of the order. Re
ferred. By Moore, of Sumner, uskiug for
uniform crop reports. Referred.
A petition was presented by C. W.
Chariton, aud referred.
By Gilieland, asking an appropria
tion by Congress for the improvement
of the Cumberland river. Referred.
By Abeniathy, of Gi' ... i resolution
asking the State Grange to memorial
ize the Legislature to pass a law re
strietiug the barter of produce after
Adjourned to 1! o'clock.
Note: The above proceedings
were furnished us by one of the official
rejKirter" of the State Orange, but the
afteruoou proceeding- were not eut
us for publication, lie in forme. I us
that perhaps he would h ave the ci:y,
but we r-upposcd of c .ur.H some r
rangemeut would Is- maiSe to supply
his pla.-e, and nerve IkhIi city paper
alike. We had suppooi-d the CjlUON
ICLK uas ho identilied with t lie mate
rial interei'lH of Hie Stat-; an I II-.
superior circulation tlwougboui East
Tennessee so generally iec gnlxid,
that an organization iicnlilid with
the people would bejilud to publinlt lie
declarations in its column. lint as
the doors of the Giuuge are cn.,.-il
agaiiiht us and we ale dcpedeiil upon
its olllcers for a report of the proceed
ings we must submit, to their ilixcriini
natiou aguiust us aud in favor of our
contemporary. The fact that the
Chkomcle is always ahead when the
field for enterprise is open and luloror
money will secure it news will ex
plain that In being rhut out now by
tl.e Grangers is not through anv want
of diligence or enterprise ou our part.
-r im, lHH Nltl.K.
A ri for KannaJ llat and fmpm.
lar MsrUM, hj J. IWrlra
Llalej, n. It.lt.
n"J B. TknaiM nn IK, t n'lnr r'
IFruia KnoTUle I)lly 'hrtBio'. Fb. is.
Tbe Opera House wan well filled last
night with an appreciative audience,
lo lixten to an educational addrei-s by
Dr. Lindsley, a gentleman who h
made education his study for many
years. Being Introduced to the audi
ence, be prefaced bis address by slating
that If he had (he selection of an audi
ence, he would certainly clifxne the
one before him. He would at any
time travel a thousand mile-, for an
opportunity to address the representa
tives of six thousand fanners of Ten
nessee, and though having prepared
himself to address tbe citizeuN of
Knoivllle, he thought the farmers
present would lose nothing by hearing
it. Having concluded this preface, he
By reference to the report of the
Commissioner of Education for 1873, I
gather some facts concerning Normal
Schools in the United States which
show how important is the rank al
ready attained by this new department
of professional education. The pro
gress is indeed striking when contrast
ed with the slow development of the
idea and its recent practice in America.
About 124, Philip Lindsley, Vice
President of tbe College of New Jersey,
and a few other educators in the East.
first clearly called public attention to
the logical and practical necessity of
special education for teachlngnx a pro
fession, in ls.sy, tne nrst formal
School in America was opened by tbe
State of Massachusetts always the
educational pioneer under the able
management or Cyrus Pel rce. In 1873,
we find 119 Normal Schools ou the list,
which is also constantly growing
longer. Of these 6-5 are supported in
whole or iu part by State and by city.
and 4 by county contributions. The
remainder are private institutions, or
attached to Colleges and Universities.
The appropriations by thediflerent
States for 1873 were as follows:
Alabama, $5,000; Arkansas, $2,000 :
California, $15,000; Connecticut, $12,
000 ; Delaware, $3,000 ; Illinois, $37,600 ;
Kansas, i8,ouu; Louisiana, 52,000 ;
Maine, $U,A00; Maryland, $11,500;
Massachusetts, $63,000; Michigan. $15.-
000; Minnesota, $15,000; Mississippi,
?!i,oO0; Missouri, $30,000: Nebraska, I
$10,000 ; New Hampshire, $o,000 ; New
Jersey, $10,200; New York, $151,000;
Pennsylvania, $41,300 : Rhode Island,
$10,000; Vermont, $4,500: Virginia.
$9,000; West Virginia, $7,600; Wis
consin, 128,000. Total from 2.3 States,
$510,700, being for the annual support
of 55 schools. In threeof these Slates,
New York, Massachusetts and Illi
nois, large amounts are expended by
Boston, Chicago, and the city of New
As giving a clearer insight into this
Normal School field, I will now look
at what was done in 1873, by four of
tbe great States, to-wit : Massachu
setts, New York, Illinois and Wiscon
sin, deriving my statements from of
Massachusetts has for man years
maintained four State Normal Schools.
This year a fifth opens a splendid es
tablishment at Worcester. Tbe city
of Boston, which has long conducted a
Normal School iu connection with its
Girls' High School, has just erected a
very large edifice at tbe cost of $300,
000 for its separate use. Where Jibe
Public School system in most thor
oughly imbedded in the organism of
the community, aud when Normal
Schools have been longest tested by ex
erieiice, do we Mnd tbis emphatic
endorsement of their utility. "Our
present Normal Schools are excellent
institutions, and it is safe to say that
there are uo educational institutions
iu the State so thoroughly rooted in
the sympathy, confidence and regard
of the people as are these schools. It
is not easy to overestimate their value.
If the sum of their cost is considerable,
the amount of good they are doing is
Tbe State of New York lias eight
Normal Schools. Tbe total value of
the lots and buildings is $719,318. The
average annual oost of each school
$18,000. The one at Albany opened
1844, is the oldest, aud has always
ranked high iu the educational world.
Its corps of instructors are a President
aud Professor of Mental and Moral
Philosophy : a Professor of Natural
Science ; a Superintendent of the
Model School ; a Professor of Mathe
matics ; a Teacher of Mathematics ; a
Teacher of Vocal Music ; a Teacher of
Geography, Map Drawing and Pen
manship; a Taacher in tbe Model
School ; a Teacher ot Ethics and
Elocution ; a Teacher of Rhetoric and
Euglish Literature ; a Teacher of
English Grammar and History ; a
Teacher of Arithmetic sndGeometry ;
au Associate Teacher of Rhetoric and
English Grammar; a Princi;ol of the
Primary School ; a Teacher of Arith
metic and Algebra ; an Associate
Teacher of Elocution ; sixteen in all.
These teach 624 pupils in the Normal,
102 in the Model aud 4o' in the Primary
The design of the Institution is to
furnish well qualified teachers for the
Public Schools of tbe State of New
York. StudeMn receive a thorough
drilling in all the branches, which
they will be called to teach, and
in -uili other studies as
experience ha- showu to
be hot adapted to discipline, and
develop the liiiml. Besides receiving
in.-triictioii in tiieart of teaching from
the fuculty, the pupils are at the prop
er stages ot their progress, required to
teach iu the model aud primary
schools, lor a term of nine weeks, un
der the supervision and criticism of
the Suiierinieiideril, and the teachers
of the Normal School.
For udmi-ioti to the school, ail iuii
didub s must furnish satisfactory evi
dence of good moral churai.t-r. Jf
Iadie, to enter the lowest cluw, must
be not less than sixteen years of age,
aud, if gi-ntlemeu, tint its than eigh
teen. 'I hey must pa-s a satisfactory
examination iu sjelling, reading,
writing, geography, arilhmctio ami
English grammar, and must subscribe
a declaration thai their object, in con
necting themselves with ti e school, is
to prepare for the work of instruotoiu
in the public schools of the State.
Iu the seven other State Normal
Schools of New York the corps of
teachers ramies from rourteeo to eigh
teen : with salaries varying from $000
to $2,500, and with large academic,
intermediate and primary depart
ments attached, for practice In training.
These seven Normal Schools were all
opened between 1807 and 1871. So iu
this great Empire State we see that af
ter a long and patieut experiment at
Albany, the Normal School Idea has
made deep and wide lodgment In the
Illinois, pre-eminently an agricul
tural common-wealth, has made very
handsome provision for Normal in?
structiou. In 1851 the State N .rmal
University was established. Blnom
Ingtou and McLean county, secured
the location for which there waB very
animated competition, by the offer of
$140,000. The buildings and outfit are
first class. Tbe annual appropriation
for its support $29,000.
Wisconsin, one of the large, new
Northwestern States, with a population
gathered from all purl of the world,
has a very complete system of Normal
Schools, recently three, now four in
number. That at Osbkosh last year
bad ten teachers, and 527 scholars en
rolled ; 2j8 of whom were Normal,
aud the remainder in the Grammar,
Intermediate and Primary Depart
ments of the Model School.
I have thus shown what is done for
Normal Schools by two of the great
States East, in whiuh commerce and
manufactures predominate ; and also
iu two of the great States West, main
ly agricultural. These four prosper
ous and progressive States are types of
the advancing class, iu all of which
Public Schools, with all kindred ap
pliances, are liberally fostered. How
great the contrast to our own beloved
Tennessee, in which our legislators
and even our laws, have always prom
ised more than the people have enjoy
ed! Tbe speaker then alluded to tbe ef
fort made by the gifted and eloquent
Albert Halton, in the General Assem
bly sessiou of 1865-60, tu pass a bill for
a State Normal School. The bill pass
ed tbe Lower House, but failed by one
vote in the Senate.
At tbe last sessiou of the Legislature,
Dr. Wm. P. Jones, Senator from Da
vidson, introduced a bill providing for
Normal Schools in each division of
the. Slate. This bill passed the Senate,
but too late in the session . for the
House to act upon It.
Thus it appears that the advocates
of popular education In Tennessee
have been fully aware of the value of
Normal Schools, and if heretofore
their efforts have been without fruit,
the failure must be attributed to the
general indifference to the, whole
cause, and not to opposition to this
special feature. The very ureal pro
gress which tbe cause of universal ed
ucation has made in Tennessee during
the past decade, as well as the aston
ishing expansion of university educa
tion within our limits, furnish power
ful motives to tbe friends of Normal
Schools to be be up and doing. Tbe
year 1875 Bhould witness the establish
ment of a system of Normal Schools,
commensurate with the wants, posi
tion and dignity of their common
wealth. Nearly ten years ago Governor
Brownlow colled a oonvention, which
became the State Teachers' Associa
tion. Governor Brown low's obje:t
was so to organize the advocates of
popular education, as to keep promi
nently, before the voting masses, a
fundamental topic of legislation,
which had hitherto been slurred over,
by being freely endorsed in word and
ignored iu action. So far tbe Govern
or': idea has accomplished all, if
not more, than be could have hojied.
Look at the century's history of tbis
goodly Slate, and tell me in what
other ten years has the subject of edu
cation for the toiling masses been so
fully discussed iu the newspapers, so
much referred to upon tbe stump, so
much acted upon in the Stale House?
As a fact, during all this eventful and
exciting two years, it has been second
to no other topic whatever. This of
itseif indicates progress, wonderful
He then spoke of the aid the cause of
education had received from the differ
ent Christian denominations, all of
which have now or will soon have
Colleges in the State, and of the aid
received from the Pea body fund,
which has acted as a prize money, and
has stimulated the people to noble
works, which would have otherwise
been left undone, and added : From
the statements above made, tbe
friends of education in Teunessee
can very well take the broad position,
that the State as such can afford to
have superior or University Instruction
to tbe churches : Secondary, or the
Academy and High School to counties,
cities and incorporations endowed by
Individuals ; conOentrating, at ail
events for the present, its whole ener
gies upon the development of the Pri
mary, Elementary or District School.
The Coinuioa School, and the Normal
College as essential to Its efficiency,
being provided for by tbe State, and
the other great divisions tsking care
of I bemselves, as I believe is Infallibly
certain, Tennessee will have a system
of education as complete as that of
He then stated that Dr. Sears, Trus
tee of the Peabody Fund, had agreed
to give the State $0,000 for a Normal
school one year, provided the State
would give an additional u,000. A
bill had been Introduced in the Legis
lature to appropriate $10,000, provided,
however, that none of this money is to
be expended for the buildings. Al
ready liberal offers bad been made by
different i-ectionsof the Siate to furnish
buildings, and be hoped that Kuox
ville wwultl also make a bid.
Wo regret that our space Is too limit
ed to give Dr. Llndfiey's lecture in full,
for it was certainly a rich treat. He
sskens though he felt every word he
uttered, and held his audience spell
bound for nearly two hours, closing by
expressing bright hopes for Die future
educational interests of Tennessee.
W K. DOK-SKY Jl. THOMAS
wus then called upon and spoke for
about a half an hour. He indorsed all
that the previous speaker hail said and
would not erase a single sentiment he
bad uttered from the minds of the au
dience. He held that population did
not make the country, but intelligence
did. The productive power of Massa
chusetts is estimated at $100 per cap
ita, while that of Tennessee is estima
ted lit $iiO per capita, aud Massachu
setts is not blessed with as good a cli
mate and productive soil ai Tennes
see. He then referred at length to tbe
healthy climate and the natural udvan
tUL'es of Teiiheesce, the mineral wealth
Id our mountains, but it will not do
for Teiinesseeans to Idly wait for capi
tal and enterprise from other countries
to come and develop our natural re
sources. He referred lo barren fields in Ten-nes-ee,
and held it wan the fault of
iinproer culture of lbs soil. The
man who leaves sMir land in the suc
ceeding veneration which was once
rich, has done a poaiiive Injury to tbe
country. He held that tbe object of
tbe order with which be was con
nected was to build up these waele
field", and here gave lengthy explana
tions of what he ooucelved to be the
aim or the Patrons of Husbandry, at
tbe conclusion of which tbe meeting
A4vaata-M f ftiaall rma
A correspondent writes to the Depart
ment of Agriculture from Van Buren, la-,
that he is running a small farm of 40
acres, with !W under cultivation in fruit
and vegetables and Kmnll grain.
" My income varies from $1,500 to $2,
000 a year," he appears proud to ac
knowledge. The more industry and In
tellect one put Into an acre of soil, the
more money he is likely te take out of It.
His judgment should tell him that wheat
crops will pay best in the markets within
hi reach, wilh a unall farm close In
hand, small taxes, and small outgo for la
bor, feed and working stock. There U
both art and good sense in keeping down
expenses on the farm, aud in other
branches of business.
Success in tillage and husbandry de
pends on the capacity of the human brain,
rather than upon the size of one's planta
tion. One family, by t-kUl, industry and
economy, becomes rich by cultivating 20
acre only, while another family grows
poor by the bad management of 2,000 un
der the plow. It is not the pursuit, but
the man, that Ls a failure. The farmer
often grasps more acres than he can han
dle to the best advantage, and all are
more or less slighted at certain times and
seasons to the injury of his cash income.
Labor is misdirected or neglected till out
of season, when vitality in seeds and
plants does no good. On a small fan
every blew may lie sruck at the proper
Every perou has but a limited quanti
ty of fon-e, physical and mental ; and it
is the most common of all mistake to
dilute and Fprcad this force over too largv
a surface. It Ls not the diffusion of mus
cular strength, but its concentration that
lsjres artesian wells, and draws a fount
ain of living water from the strata of
rocks hundreds of feet in thickness to the
surface for the use of uneducated man.
Diffused labor on a large farm is like the
scattered rays of light iu tbe. interstellar
spaces before the telescope collects tbeni
together, and thereby extends human vi
sion and knowledge to millions of surv
and worlds before unknown.
The cultivator of the earth needs thus
and opportunity for profitable study.
How i-hall he command suck an advan
tage t Not. surely, by holding more land
than he ucs with any benefit to his fami
ly, or to mankind at large. The Demo
cratic dK'triue of seeking " the greatest
good of the greatest number," forbids all
hind monopoly. Seventy-five men are
said to own one-half of the soil of Scot
land. Such a state of society can not last
many centuries into the future. Live aarf
let live Ls a principle good for all time.
Nashville Union and American.
Dairy Haitbautlrjr In ibe hontb
If we are to have any improvement in
our old system of planting and farming,
it is time to consider the ways and changes
open to our adoption. American farmers
will cxiKirt in the year ls74, now near its
close, not far from 100,000,000 pounds of
cheese. Seven years ago our export of
this article was only 34,000,000 pounds ;
and a few yeju-s before that, we imported
more chee-e than -we exported. Our an
nual butter production is estimated -.it
about fourteen hundred million pound-,
and the forelgu demand Is not supplied.
At a recent meeting of the New York
Dairymen's Association, Mr. itlanchani
stated that he knew a dairyman who,
during the past season, had made an aver
age of 303 pounds of butter from each of
seventeen cows ; that he had sold it for
forty cents a pound ; and that this result
was readied by special feeding. In this
case the cows eat w ith bran and corn
meal, all tbe butter-milk after the butter
was extracted. One cow of this extra
dairy is re)xricd as making 404 pounds of
butter in 173; receiving all the gra .
bran, and of other feed she would eat.
Mr. Ucall, of Philadelphia, said hi
friend Mr. lioyce, of Illinois, keeps 400
cows ; stops milking them about the first
of July, and has them come iu about the
first of November. His object Ls lo pro
duce fresh butter iu the winter season,
when he gets 45 cents a pound for all be
can make. Hy high feeding and the best
of care he averages over 300 pounds of
butter to the cow. Call It at that figure
and each brings in $135, and the 00 the
hand-onic sum of fifty four thousand dol
lars. Can any good reason be given why
cows may not ls kept as well in Tennes
see as in IllinoLs'f We need some varia
tion to our present agricultural industry
Can we do better than to raise dairy
stock, and share with our brother fanners
of the more Northern States in the bene
fits and profits to accrue from this depart
ment of husbandry ? With most of them
it is a new industry ; yet, so far as we can
learn, all arc satisfied and doing at least
rea-onubly well. Our lack of self-confidence
and enterprise will have a discour
aging effect upon immigrants, if any are
inclined to come and settle In our State.
Union and American
Hon as a Uarilcu t erllllzer.
Perhaps it may have occurred to sonic
of our lady readers that the refuse soot of
our chimneys is one of the most valuable
stimulants ar.d fertilizers they can have
for their garden llowers. The following in
cident of practical experience is from a la
dy contributor to the liuial Vuritlininn:
During two seasons we mused, fed and
K-tti:d the Hartford prolific grape vine
as much for its shade over the. window us
for its fruit but it pcr,i,t,-l iu remaining
a stunted cane, yellow, and refusing to
climb, lies-pairing a shad.-, grapes anil
roes, we linully b-lhought ourselves of
wsit as a manure, and forthwith made
"soot tea," by steeping a teacup of soot
In a quail of water. This we admini-ter-ed,
two doses each, b both the trees and
the vine. The vine grew six feet in
hiighth iu the space oi six weeks, the rose
bush four feet in thu siunc length of
time both therefore rejoiced In living
f ir t, , .. . m . .
iur. v. n. ruiion, or Kingston, waa
elected Justice of the Pesos, to till tua
vacancy causeu i.y uie UeatU ll Ud
bert Christian, Ksj.