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The Vinton record. (M'arthur, Vinton County, Ohio) 1866-1891, September 03, 1874, SUPPLEMENT, Image 5

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The Issues Fairly Presented.
Speeches by Senator Sherman, Gov.
Noyes, and Gov. Morton.
Delivered at Columbus, Sept. 2d, 1874.
FrLLOTf-CiTtiKm: The two great parties hart
Sww by their SUM Conventions In Ohio nominated
th.tr candidate and announced their principles Tbe
people ol Ohio hare rejected the new Constitution and
thiu bar postponed (or the Urn all question, ot Stat
policy. No Governor la to be elected. The officers to
be chosen are purely ministerial or Judicial, and no
local question can be decided. The people of Ohio are
now called upon to choose between the only two ex
isting national political parties, and at au election
when their immediate Representatives in Congress ate
to be chosen. It la, therefore, a national election.
The Issues and results, whatever they are and may be,
affect the whole people ol the Doited States as much
a. the people of Ohio.
And, follow citizens, I ambound to aay that at no
period of our political history have the people of the
United States been more free from embarrassment in
the selection of tartlet than at this moment All the
treat overriding, fundamental questions that have
given rise to political parties are practically settled by
the progress of events by popular acquiescence and
judicial decisions. The Federal and Republican
parties of Adams and Jefferson grew partly out of the
tendency of the Federalists to aristocratic forms and
linages and partly from' differences as to the powers
it the General Government. Tbe strength
M the Republican party .of Jefferson was
In its adoption of simple republican forms.
The ideas and habits which csme to our ancestor
from England tended to keep alive distinctions be
tween citizen. Them were encouraged by the Fed
tral party, but were swept away by the success of the
-wpuuiicau party, on me other hand, the powers ol
the General Government, as held by the Federalist,
" esusoiisnea 07 successive decisions ol the DU
, preme Court, and, though disputed from time to time.
are now recognised by all parties and all classes. Tbe
supreme authority ol the national Government over
national Questions, and the exclusive autlmritv nf
Bute Government over local questions are now ad-
miiieu oy au, ana tne Boundary between Ins two has
been carefully defined.
The questlona that gave rise) the formation of the
Whig and Democratic parties of Clay and Jackson
Were ecouonila questions questions about a national
bank tbe public lands and tariflk. These agsin have
vtku nmuwi. ii o one tuinas 01 a national bank.
The public lands are no longer regarded a a source of
revenue, but by common consent are now held for
settlement under the homestead and pre-emption
laws and the tariff question is purely a matter of do
tall, in which revenue is regarded as the primary ob
iect, and the encouragement of domestic industry the
mwwmuj aim piuper luctueut.
The great, and I may say the only, question that
ave rise to tbe Republican and Democratic parties of
our day was the slavery question. Under Democratic
management the political power of slavery had supreme
control of all departments of tbe Government. It
was violent, arrogant, and insulting, and Anally re
- pealed the Missouri Compromise, and undertook by
force and fraud to extend slavery over the Territories,
and threatened if resistance was made to dissolve the
union, un tnis question the Republican oartv had
Its birth and took lu stand. The successive stages of
un. couiroTersy were nut tne natural
and unavoidable, development of an irre
pressible conflict. We declared against tbe extension
of slavery. '1 his led successively to a local con II let in
Xansaa-tlie election of Lincoln the civil war the
abolition of slavery and the citizenship of an einan
llpated race. In this cod fl let the Republicans won a
clear victory. They gained possession of all tbe pow-
vr. ui m. vruveruuieut we liegisiaure, executive and
Judicial. Every promise they made was faithfully
performed. There political creed is ingrafted in the
vousiuniion oi mo uniiea amies, ine general sum
mary of results is so well stated in a recent address by
tbe National Republican Coininitte that I will ven
ture to read it to youi
"At home and abroad the Union waa proclaimed to
te dissolved in 1801. The Union is restored now.
"Nine States then claimed to have left the protec
tion of the Constitution forever. They have all re
turned to that protection now. 'Those that thou gavest
mm i iwtb ep, sun uoue is iusi.' saia tne saviour ol
men. The Republican party has preserved more than
tbe States you committed to its keeping. It has found
those which were lost.
"In 1S61 the 'Confederate State of America,' so
vtuicu, www vjaimi&iii tor sumission into tne lamuy
of nations. There is no looser anv such nratanan.
Each one of those great but misguided communities
now ha honorable recognition as an integral part of
tbe United States. '
"A raee numbering millions ha been raised from
the condition of chattels to the state of man. Human
lights have gained the sanction of three new chapters
j .InA tn I'll a Vatlnn.l f1An.tll..ll II a. . .
tuusjm wo j.mi.uju'u vumwmimu. niuuer organised
in tereral States, be&rlnff the nam nf k-...l-i
rtogth6nrb and jplykg the trade ol fiends, bai
n wmt.uwui yuuuucu.
"Fellow-citizens, when Ton sommltterl tho iTninn
to the keeping of the Republican party It seemed on
the verge of dissolution. Many hoped and some feared
, It had received an Incurable wound. We present the
Union to you to-day every whit whole. The Republic
is at peace throughout all her borders; she Is at peace
with all the world. Her rightful authority is dis-
pum jivnuiinij uer ujjiuious sre respected every
where. She stands in the very vanguard of sovereign
States. We challenge history to produce another In
stance of a country raised from such humiliation to
such grandeur in so short a time. And this trans
formation has been wrought not merely without the
aid of tbe Democratic party, but In spite of it utmost
Such, fellow-crUzens, are the admitted results of the
last great division of parties in this country. Our
policy ha been approved, our principles have tri-
And now the question remains, Shall we abandon
the Bepubllcan nartv and seek either in tha rwnn.
cratic party or in new parties a representative of our
views, hopes and aspirations for tbe future of our
country T It is to this Inquiry I now invite your con-
I said that all the fundamental questions that
,five rise to the Republican party are
settled, so far as the guarantee, of the
ConatitUtiou can settle them; but there are
guarantee not yet enforced, and unless
they are enforced, much of our success will be but
wasted energy. One is the guarantee made by the
fourteenth amendment, which secures to all citizens
equal rights and privileges and the equal protection of
the laws, The same amendment gives to Congress the
power to enforce it by sppropriate legislation. This has
been done to some extent by securing to all citizens
white and black-native and naturalised,
the equal ' enjoyment of the right to
sue and be sued, to testify, and to acquire and hold
property, but ic some of the States the right to travel
on railways, to stop at Inns and fairly to share in the
benefits of common schools has been denied. These
rights are common Incidents of citizenship, which all
can enjoy without impairing their enjoyment by
others. And especially the right to enjoy eqnal facil
ities in the education of children Is a right of primary
importance, not only to the individual, but to the
whole community. The education of youth Is bvfar
the most costly object of local taxation, freely borne
because It is essential to the maintenance of a repub
lican form of Government. In the old Constitution of
Ohio, as well as in the new, which has been rejected,
it It provided that "The General Assembly shall
make such provision by taxation, or otherwise, as,with
the income arising from the school fund, will secure a
thorough snd efficient system of common school
throughout the 8tate."
Our system of common schools has, in Ohio, been
fainy secured to all allke-unless voluntarily re
jected from pride, creed, or prejudice. It is a monu
wisdom. It is a stream of perpetual ser
in Populous communities where the number of
colored children is sufficient for a separate school it is
otten preferable to form separate school by local
authority ; but wbere there are few such children they
K-i th nl enpol with white children end take
lf?tlP 8?,ke.th Practically no difficulty
"" Sa,wh,ite n Wack are in the same class and
5hKL tS nun"'. favorite, with the
SihSr.Jfnui'7. not 1t-hool or with
the scholar, but with the parent in th blind nu
reasoning spirit of caste, the debris of slaver y and Is
Btrongest with the most Ignorant and vlchZ
At all events the blacks are citizens of the United
State, armed with the ballot and eqtuU righS aid
privUeg-itttled to equal Immunities ana adv".
tapV?.? " , 11 ,OT f, BPUna to deny them
yoyof their rights essential to their manhood from ui
feeling : of caste oi r prejudice arising from race, oroolor
or wdlUon. They hare borne their partS thecoi
teste through which we have passed, aid we must not
shrink from fairly enforcing th guarantees we have
given tbtm. The Bepubllcan party is the only on, so
constituted that has the courage and disposition to en
force thU guarantee, and we owe it to our honor as
well a. to the logic of the lofty principle that baa
guided na. Equal right to all to do so. I voted for
the dvil right bill now pending In the House of
Representatives, not only because I thought it waa
tight, but because I felt bound In honor to stand bv
W asfarew Ust ' peat SjVmandBieat to th
Constitution, th prid and boast of th
Republican party and the connecting liuk
by which th immortal Declaration of Independence
was made a part of our Constitution' of Government.
I bsve seen, one by on the narrow prejudices ol cast
which denied to the black rac the right ol human
nature melt away without evil results, and I wish to
see this work complete and perfect by securing to all
men,,T, ,r? cllln of the United States precis
equsllty In all civil and political rights, whether th.y
land to protect his person and property, or lift him
abov degredstion by local orbtat authority. Th
unavoidable influence of wealth, birth, caste, and edu
cation in lifting men in social Ufa sbove their fellows,
sre .surely enough to create inequality among men
without appealing to local law or prejudice to force a
man to occupy a lower plane than hi native abilities
sod equal opportunity would give him. The Repub
lican party of Jefcrsoa demanded equality before the
law ol ail white men. How strange it te that w
have to contest with a party calling itself Decaocratie
for the right oi all to hare equal opportunities to rise
and be a man, the equal of other men.
Not only are then rights disputed, but in some parts
of the Southern State, th right o live and labor, and
to enjoy tbe fruit of labor, is practically denied. The
spirit of Ko-Kiuxiam Is only smothered. W bear
dally of murders, outrages, and wrongs that may lead
at any time to a war of race. If the Democratic party
waa now in power, the tendency to restore a condition
of slavery in th South would be overwhelming, and
then, instead of a civil war between sections, we would
have a war between whites and blacks. We now hear
of fraud, force, and violeneeJn the South. These can
only be arrested by peace and time. Rut If you add
to these evils an open war between distinct races of
men living together, wsged, aa such wars always are,
by assassination and the torch, you will have San Do
mingo over again, with all its nameless horrors. Tbe
easiest way, the only way, ia for the law to place all
the rights, privilegos, and immunities created by the
Isw upon precisely the same footing to all citizens.
Then, with equal opportunities, let them rise or tall,
according to their merit and industry. .
-cltlzena, there Is another guarantee which
we, aa Republicans, are bound to see fuldlled. It i.
section four of the fourteenth amendment to the Con
stitution ol tne united states, aa follows:
"The validity of the public debt ot the United
States, authorized by law, including debu incurred
for payment of pensions and bounties for services In
suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be
quwiouni. out neuner tne united States nor an r
uMNBu.il iNuiuawjnfiur uw or ooiigatloo ln
curred in aid of Insurrection nr mhallinn .!... th.
United States, or any claim for tbe loss or emanclpa-
..vra ui ..it ith out an suca uoms, obligations, and
claims shall be held illegal and void."
no one can doubt but that th. Rannhii-n n..i.
will falihtutly and honestly observe this guarantee -
'"- muwij certain inai mere are large por
tions of the Democratic party that openly seek to Im
pair the validity of the public debt of the United
Bute. Direct and open repudiation would probably
be sanctioned by a majority of tb Democratic party
. " " iwi ouiux. bui nils iorm ol attackiiiB
the validity of the nublln debt I. not (ho m
ous. The Indiana State Convention adopted a aerie
ot resolutions, of which theseare the first three:
1st "That we are in favor of the redemption of the
five-twenty bonds in greenbscks, according to the law
.UUQ4 which mr j wore IMUeu.
2d. "We are in favor nf the rone.! nf th l f
March, 1869, whlch-asstimed to construe the law so as to
make such bonds payable exclusively in gold."
3d. "We are In favor of the repeal of the national
bauking law, and the substitution oi greenbacks for
.u. imtiuutu mue currency.
These resolutions taken together would directly in
validate and repudiate the great mass ot the debt
of the United Slates. They declare: that the
o-mi uuuussu.ii oepaia in greenbacks, and not only
with greenbacks issued when the bonds wero issued,
but new greenbacks Issued now, in express violation
of the loan acts. By the act of March 18, 1809, the
publlo faith was pledged that the bonds would lie paid
in coin. This set waa not only in accord with the
public judgment, but has been acquiesced In for Ive
years, and the 6-20 bonds have risen in market value
jj pr iu koiu, i ney nave ueen bought and sold.
Five hundred millions of them have been paid in coin
by tbe Government and new bund. ini An ...
tempt now to disturb the settlement made by the act
of March, 1869, is a wanton and foolish breach of pub
lic faith pledged by that act. .And the proposition
now boldly made to issue new greeubucke in express
violatlou of an act under which tbe 6-20 bonds were
uauuu, iu oruer to pay tnem on with notes not bear
ing interest, is a direct renudlalinn nf th. nni.iin .!...
If it were possible to commit a crime by the announce-
lueu.u. .u aunciuiis political aogma, ibis would be a
crime. It will create uneasiness snd impslr Amerlcsn
credit to the precise extent that it gains strength snd
belief. And at this day I believe then r7l,.nnn.
present the opinion of tbe disloyal elements of the
uuMwi, auuui iuuwj iu me norm wno sympathized
with such opinion. .
Tbe platform of the Indiana Democrats has been
uupieu oy uie Democratic uonvenuon of Tnnnns.es
The current ia widening and deMnenltiff and nnw In
Ohio which never shrank from the burden of her
ueut never ror a moment violated her faith never
even listened to such advice, except in the almost for
gotten days of Bylngton and McNiilty, and then, re
jecting their counsel, sold her bonds st fifty cents on
the dollar to pay nor Interest even in Ohio, which w
proudly claim as a model State, the Democratic party
in tbelr recent Convention annlntiinw.-rf ...,!...! .
but do not boldly, like tbe Indiana Democracy, assert
noil iui mnwj Ml UUUlullS IS. 1UQ UU10 lAJUlOCrfltS TO-
solvedsa follows:
"That the Democracy of Ohio reiterate their ecla
ratlon that the 6-20 bends, by the letter and spirit of
the law, and the general understanding of the com
munity, were payable iu legal tender notes, and tbe
ui sun;., ioui, WIIIUU piDUgeU II1B 01110 OI tOB US-
tlon to their payment in coin, waa an nniumunn an.i
wicked sacrifice of tbe interests of tbe tax-paying la
borers for the benefit of tbe noa-tax-payinic bond-
The Indiana Democrat assert aa follow.!
" That we are in favor of the redemption of the 6-20
bonds in greenbscks, according to the law under which
they were issued."
Tbe Ohio Democrats do not aay they will pay the
bonds In greenbacks, but they stop short and denounce
the act of March, 18. They aay that the bonds were
payauwiu green Dacars, ana ao net say whether they
may now be paid iu greenbacks. It is a moat lama.
pitiful snd impotent conclusion. If this policy of re-
vTiuiug ui. kihi oj me sec oi Atarcn
1889, is not sheer demagogtsm it Is bv far the moat
important Issue of this canvass. Prior to 1S69 there
were some honest differences of opinion as to the con
struction of our loan laws. Mr. Pendleton claimed
that tbe public debt In the form of bonds might be
r vu ui "u uuiiiuuwi roue or KreenoacKs. and
thus practically repudiate the whole debt. Governor
aonou ciaimea mat oonus might be paid in srreen
backs kept within the limit of 1400,000,000
authorized by the losn acta, but the great
body of both the Renubllcan .nil . Tw.n.
crane parties ueiu mat oonus couia only be paid in
gold coin. Thisdangerouscontroversy greatly affected
the public credit and entered into the nnu nf iu-..
The act of March, 1869, waa universally regarded as
forever settling this question. It declared that the
public faith was pledged b the payment of both bonds
and notes in coin. It was passed by a Congress fresh
from the people, by a vote of 98 yeas to nays In the
House, aud in tbe Senate by 42 yeas to 13 nays. It
was the first set approved by President Grant. It was
universally acquiesced in. The effect of the net was
Immediately to advance tbe puhlio credit It led to
confidence and prosperity and the rapid payment of
the public debt. Under the poller thus inaugurated
three hundred and eighty-two millions of tbe debt haj
been paid, tbe rate of interest has been reduced on five
hundred millions more of the debt atill dm and an
aunual saving of interest has been made of over twen-
ty-uve minions, a penoa oi unexampled prosperity
set in, which has only been checked by a too rapid
development of distant and unproductive railroads.
Gentlemen, the reopening of this, controversy is a
real calamity, i ne iaiiure ol confidence In railroad
investments was the cause ol the recent oanic. This
swept away fortune like a hurricane. It receding
waves still paralyze business, and especially in the pro
duction of iron and manufacture, of Imn. What than
will oe tne enect oi destroying confidence In public
cuntie ana tne public faith r What wourd be the
effect of hurrying home our discredited debt? What
win ue me result n tne unitea states should now, in
violation ol tbe public faith, begin to pay out its newly
printed notes in payment of bonds f It Is this danger
to tbe public credit that ounht now tohAiminniui Tih
and throttled by the people of Ohio with the fierce en
ergy they gTapnled and throttled Vallandlgham in
1803. Untarnished honor, bonor so-pure that it Is not
only from open fault, but from even tbe shadow of itr
this is the pride of a State men may not attain ltdbut
uiaiuwu uwtoi nu. i-ciivw I'ltizeus, in is movement,
whether under the open flaz of reoudl.tinn rai.ut i..
the Indiana Democrats, or the covert, evasive threat of
repudiation In the Ohio Democratic platform, la dls-
iiuuvi, .uaiuuicro, paiu.uie sou nogrant, with Which
we nave tnis usy m&de
Again I call your attention to the second .i.na. r
tne ouneeutu arueuument reoauyme. It provides
thst neither the United States nor any 8tate shall as
sume to pay any deltf or obligation in aid of tbe re
bellion or any claim for the loss of any slave. This
provision u auso in constant aanger ot violation.
Claims have been assumed by States under the control
of the Democratic- party which grew out of aid to the
One of the dangers that now threatens our future ia
tbe assnmptlon by the General Government, through
the agency of the Democratic nartv. nf an onnUn.
lng mass of claims growing out of the war. Hereto
fore, by the careful watchfulness of the Republican
party In Congress, the payment of claims in the Con
federate Stales bss been confined to supplies furnished
to our iruij-aai to sucn claims as oy the well de
fined laws of war a beligereut ought to pay for sup
plies in an enemy's country. Even these sre enor
mous. I read you a statement'recentl v mad. bv J.i
Lawrence, of Ohlot -
"some idea oi the magnitude of tbese claims may be
bad by the lact that the claims presented to tbe Com
missioner of Claims' reach (90,033,764. Those now
pending before Congress reach about $20,009,000, many
of which are test claims, which, If successful, will be
followed by very many millions more. The Judg
ment of the Court of Claims for the) year 1878
amounted to $489,034. Tbe claims paid under relief
acta by Congress for the same year were 1797,748, I
can not state the amount paid on allowance of the De
partments, but It waa Immense, and included 11,960,
679 for claims for captured and abandoned property.
Senator Davis, In his speech of Way 13, estimates that
all pending war claims before the Departments, th
Commissioners of Claim and Congress number 8J.242,
aggregating 188,547,121.
This vast volume ot claims might easily be enlarged
by the adoption oi plausible rules so as to Include sev
eral hundred millions of dollars and thus add many of
the losses suffered by the rebels to the burden of our
public .debt. This tie Democratic party-it in power
will be sure to do, for tier kaa beta ao caaw or class
Of CaaeS that the DenuMratt RMmkm a-al iaU for
ft Deal?'ic Congress means a vsst enlargement of
pm r . ln easuuipuon u rebel claims.
auia i. .ui . lancuui aenger.
Rot only is there dsnger of th National Govsrav
ment being overburdened with debu caused by the re-
uumowoaiiy ue actual services rendered snd
Sacrifices Suffered bv iaailina n.hl. .r Maihlni hv
the Democratic party not lor acquiescence in to re-
ajui us me war, aa in tne ease ol iamgstreet and
others, but it is a direct reward and eousueuaation tor
services rendered to tbe Confederal but., and as a
mark ot houor tor duty done. Person without
uuuner Hare been appointed ana elected
to offlos ia Democratic Slates, solely be
cause they were active, zealous and able
omcera and agent of th Confederals Stales. Such
service U almost a pre-requisite for office in torn, of
the Democratic States. It may be said that the right
ium pmuuucs ui question oi in. reason lor a vote,
but When fl. ra I n i t wt In lln h- It I- . w
we may well inquire into the motive that inspire,
and tbe Influence that control, that party where it has
full power. It sometimes, in the Northern States,
adopts a resolution similar to that adopted by the
Democrstlo Convention In Indiana. "That we bear
In grateful remembrance the sacrifices made and the
service rendered by the gallant soldiers of tbe 1st.
war In defense of the Union," but in a great majority
of the Democratic States resolutions ppltuding the
services and sacrifices of tbe rebels agalusl the Union,
would b received with unbounded applause. The
animating and controlling motive of the Democratic
parly la now, aa it was during the war, either to
apologia for or defend the rebel who sought to over
throw the Union, and to decry and undo what was
uvu. ui ueiciin. ui iu union. .
FellOW-ReDubllcana. th (ma nalk nf anrf
duty demands ttiat we who have written these guar
antees upon the Constitution and the laws should
stand together In beany and warm political aasocla-
nun unui airoi mem are executed and euforied. un
in men tne mission ot the Republican party is not sc
compllshcd. We know that the Republican serty will
maintain and enforce ths rights guaranteed by the
constitutional amendments. It will prrtect and
ueiu me punnc laun irora dishonor and repudiation.
It will prevent In the future, u In th. m ih. naw.
ment of losses incurred by rebels during the wsr. It
will not silow the burdens which the Confederate
Slates incurred by the rebellion to be dumned upon
the shoulders of loyal people. The results of the wsr j
Its achievements and Its honors sre the pride and glory
of the Republican party, and it may be trusted with
every question that may hereafter grow out of Ibe
war, while the Democratic party will Insi.nctlvvly
wast the fruits and fritter away the resu.u ot ths
But, fellow-cltlzens, I perhapa have occupied too
much time with the still unsettled issues of the wsr.
Allow me lo say that we can not and ought not to rely
solely upon the honorable record of the Republican
party in the past. A party that assume, u .dmlnl.ter
a Government Ilk ours must keep pace wltb the
changing events of the time. Every year has Ita is
sue; snd even good principles and good conduct do
uot aiwuyi mi to witn success new luuea. In a very
short period the whole cycle of political questions
cbangjs. ibis is remarkably true now. Twenty vears
ago, in the warm enthusiasm of s great snd prendiig Is
sue, we entered the lists to curb the political power of
Biatuir. wwr we cuuuucieu wsr on a giguuiic scale
to preerve the Union, later we succeasiully solved
all the ' difficult questions that grew
i wi lewusinivtiuu. Ana auring ail
this period we devised, mnld.il. ami aiiintnia.
terod with success all tbe financial agencies of atrtod
of unexampled energy. It ia only within a xery
short period that we have approached a state of peace
no overriding issues to rally us, and nothing but th
quiet .uu u.uui pursuit oi productive industry to oc
cupy us. Under these circumstance. It I. Anr ilntv.
while guarding the result ol the past, to thoughtfully
examine and master, if we can, the questions of the
tuture. it utile nope to come mat animates and In
spires a race like ours. I believe the Republican par
ty is so organized and composed that it can, better
than anv other party, old or new, meet the require.
muntaof tbe new condition of affairs a state of rest
and quiet, when industry, economy, and prudence
take the place ol courage, vigor, and audacity. We
are now dealing wltb quiet citizens, each endeavoring
to earn an honest living, and with the hope of saving
a little fur a rainy day, and not with men excited by
Mow, if I were called upon tosocclfv the first rnnul
site of a party to administer the Government now In
inese new times, i would say economy, economy, econ
omy. . This is the most difficult virtue to practice,
especially uiier penuu oi great expenditure. It
wihld han.a. In iKi .mi MntUiu. . V. . . i . . Ti
" " " " . j,., BD.it.uicui ."at iu. nv
publlcan party in Congress has eutered upon th true
course oy reuueing me expenses oi the National Gov
ernment lor me curreut year at the rat ol twenty'
aeven millions a year, but there is ample room and
verge fora greater reduction, aud I believe than n an
honest purpose in Congress to carry out this policy of
vvuuuuiy. n ust we must ueeu i. a very large
uuction oi local taxes ana still mora
very great limitation ol the power ol local taxa
tion. uw muuruerauie local auiuoriues, counties,
towns, cities, districts, boards, and so forth, have
authority to levy taxes until this amounts, in many
cases, to confiscation. Altbouith this does not eutur
in our canvass, yet it answers ,at once all this cry of
uuiiwuBuiuc laiw. luo siv lucai, not national, ana
here tbe people of Ohio, whenever the IWA
chance, ought to put in the plow of the Granger. JIas
tbe Accidental Democratic General Assembly of Ohio
siiuwu .uy cupacity to reuuee taxeajor expenses T I
think not. It was too eager In the chase for the Inm
offices connected with our Penitentlsry snd asylums
touo any net 01 useiuinoss. ine nignest compliment
1 can pay 11 was mat 11 was so suatiercd Into lactlons
mat 11 couiu not ao several evil thlmrs it aticmnu,!
Tlmn Ihlinnuailnn nl l.ui.1 lav.tln
v 1 " " v. .v. w Mnuuu. wo uugu. tu U.TS
no party, or soon all income will be aborbed by
Ml a tin.
The next object we ought to have In view Is tn nu
turn to a specie standard as rapidly as practicable,
Now, I know upon this point there is a wide dlderenc.
of opinion, and we must not be intolerant with each
other when we differ. Still I believe the intelligent
voice of the people la that we can not attain real pros
perity, when no man can be cheated with falsa values,
until our Isbor and productions are nunml hv tha
gold standard. We had mioths of weary talk on this
subject in Congress, and although we took no positive,
direct step toward a specie standard, yet we did pre-
uii auu a uiui luravur, uy retrograue step in tne
opposite direction. Tbe general result is thst no
measure can be adopted that will lead us from
a specie standard, wuue we will in due tune agree
upon some aecided though moderate measure to
nasten tne time when tne dollar of our paper money
will buy as much as a dollar of real money. Hot
will thia result when produced deprive us of the use-
1111 agency 01 paper money, whether In the form of
banknote or United Stales notes, or of both: hut
only that it will make this paper money whst it
promises it Is an equivalent to coin and when the
only lest ot the quantity of the paper money will be
the amount of ft that can be maintained at par with
coin. On this question, though, 1 am sorry to say, we
a. xv.puuiic.us are uot entirely agreea, nut we are
far better off in that respect thau our adversaries.
ihe law of tbe last session of Congress, though
uot what any one hoped for, has and will result
Beneficislly and is in the right direction. The
long standing sectional compldlut sbout the
aiatriuution 01 national bank circulation has been
honorably settled. New bfuks may be organized in
any of tbe Southern and Western States, and this not
by the increase of depreciated uou. but bv th trana.
fer of circulation from the East, where they hsd more
tu.u ui.ir .uare, to tue vvest, woere tney naa less,
Our grievance was not that we needed the circulation,
but that we were unjustly deorived of our rlirht in it.
This law also settled the danaeroua dowbt claimed ha
tha Secretary of the Treasury to Increase the volume
w paper money to tne extent 01 lorty-tour millions ol
dollars at his will. It also provided . v.iaui ,,f ann.i
redemption of bank-notes, by which tbe people will
Set clean, new bank-notes for the mutflsted, dirty, and
efaced notes we had. Oh, 'for on step further to
make these notes as good aa gold I and It needa
only courage to take it. I hope aud trust that the
Republican party will take thia step. It will
complete the cyolo of great financial measure
wmcn 11 na naa me nouor to propose and adopt.
The next most Important and difficult question that,
BSSDSrtv. WA must ment 1. tha rnHittnn -nil -I 1 1
fication of the national taxes-and upon thia point th
ijcuuiv uavn tue assurance 01 wnai wo uave don In
the past as a guarantee and guide for the future. W
have ranidlv and wisely aduioat inn tin.tll njauj
miuwiiuau Mtjtoa. . -viu iaca uu .11 income ana
productions we have come down, with few exceptions,
to taxes on anlrita. tobacco, beer, and imnnrtiul a-nnH-
The few exception of stamp taxes unrepealed will
Eivuaui; uv rcjjnuvit uext winter, ana no aouui woula
ave Been last session exceDt for the eontinuad Influ
ence of the psnlo in redocing our revenue. The pres
ent excUe taxes on whisky, tobacco, and bear hare
been carefully matured, and are, I believe, a hcoesliy
levied and collected aa la Dossibia. I think 1..
change ought to b made in these except
to supply defects In the machinery as
discovered. As to tbe duties on imported good I can
ssiely alarm that the present tariff ia far more certain,
specifio and productive than any aver before exlatiag
iu uu. country, jn comparison wita the tariff of
1842, 1846 snd 1861. it is better in every particular, ft
is better than the former tariff. In Ih. mi Hlil..
that it can be still further improved. More of th da.
ties sre Specific Snd tha Claauifintinns ara mnra aln,nU
Still in these particulars our present tariff laws can
and ought to be im proved. In every case where the
nature of th article will allow, the doty should be
specifio and all similar, articles should be classified
into schedules sad with descriptive words lmpoasibi
to be misunderstood. These laws ought to be codified
as many additions and chantrea have bean mail with
out snecluc repeal of old laws. The duties end powers
of the revenue officers ought to be defined and slmplr-
"i ."vuju .ui. waa largBiy uooe auring u
hut session. This subject of the tariff, which forty
years ago ' threatened revolution, and which for
years was tbe- leading division between national
parties, ha now become a matter of detail, sorut
tlmes qnestlou of locality, and frequently Is the sub
ject of tbe meanest demscrmruelim.' It .hmiM ha
treated purely as a baslueas question mode of col
lecting revenue in the cheapest and easiest way. I do
not fear that any material change in the principles
upon which the tariff I framed will be made, though
new details of rate and classification may be mail.
As a mean of revenue it baa proved it success by
furnishing us steadily near Su0,000,b00 of gold a year'
snd as measure of political economy it has largely
contributed to the nnexambled lnu nt all fnm. nf
domestlo Industry, making us, already, with our brief
ikuuiiu uuiry, me secona nation in tn civilised
worm in sroaucuoo. - partly u tali branch, oi or
paUonal politic th Republican party may cter th
UU with our old adversaria.
Tber ST tWB tODlC. thai .nt Ilka In anlaa Inln ...
political controversies that have not yet been so de
veloped bv discussion ss to Justify ms In defining tbe
position of th Republican party, It indeed thsy are
capable of a political Issue. I mean th transporta
tiuu and labor question. And as to both of these I
know no better rule of action than to leave them to
the law of supply and demand, without Invoking the
power of the Government la control either wages or
"' It Is tha right of every men to gets much for
bis Isbor as he can, and to avoid undue competition,
. u, ta M Per,ec liberty to agree or combine
with others, to refuse to work or do any lawful act, te
make his work more valuable. But any act done by
him to prevent others from working, or to deter or
hluder s like liberty in others, is an uulawful act, to
be prohibited aud puuisfaed according to its degree,
lawyers, doctors, preachers, literary men or laborers
must be governed by tbe sama law, and that Ihe
highest law, lo work when, wbere, and aa much or as
t!.Kl? f n' 'booses, and to get at much aa ha can for
bis labor. Actual freedom lo all to employ or 10 be
employed at auy lawful business, without fear or
favor, without threat or intimidation, and to
get all ha can jor his labor, is the primary
law that sprang from- the curse that fell
upon Adam. This applies to eorporatious aa to
individuals, with this essential difference: that
eorporatious being crestious of law, have no rights but
what are conferred by law. Tbey bare no natural
rights. It is perfectly within she power ol the State thst
creates theiu, to reserve the power to amend their
charters, and to exercise that power. In view of the
"strikes" and th "Grangers" Ih one to promot
tbe Interests of mining aud mechanical labor, aud tbe
other the interests ot tsruisrs it Is obvious that w
are to deal with the vital issues ot the hour, we must
study the new phases of political strife, and be pre
pared to meet them. No party organisation is better
abl lo deal with them than lbs Republican party
There is another ordeal to which the Republican,
party haa submitted itself, to degree never hereto
fore adopted by any party namely, the duty of self
exsmiostlon. It has freely and proudly courted. In
vited, aud conducted investigations into ths conduct
of its most trusted agents. It has never evaded or re
fused such ana'iivestigation. No encborite ever car
ried his self-examination further than Ihe Republican
Early baa. Aud what baa been th result No doubt
ere snd there misconduct, neglect, and vlolatioua of
Isw or of official delicacy and propriety bay been dis
covered. When waa it otherwise? When will it be
otherwise? While Governments must b conducted
by human sgeuls such (suits have existed, and will
exist. When were they aver mora severely
punished than , by lb Republican party?
or perhaps 1 ought to say, by a healthy
puhlio opinion, that will now sxcuse less snd de
mands more of publlo sgent than ever before. I
have been a member ol tea Congresses, and I can
truly say that neither of them has been as exact snd
careful in Derlormiua- cublic dutv a. Ire. Inn .11
just suspicion or taiut ol corruption aa laborious and
painstaalug nor aa able in the general average ot
ability, as the present Congress. And I can also say
from history and from iiiy observation, ao isrsslt
?oes, that there never assembled lu this country a
fcugress more froe Iroti the vice of Intemperance. I
beiieve, gentlemen, that while the issues we sre to
present and discuss are cbanuina. that the moral ton.
the educatioual ttaudard the general intelligence
of our people ia higher, better and more adjranccd
than ever before, and that tliey ara prepared to de
mand from their political leaders and organizations
more considerate measures and more thoughtful dls
dtKcussiou, without pretense on the one hand or dein-
agogiani on in. otner.
And now. gentlemen, in conclusion. .Ilnw ma in w
a few words upon a subject that ha never been a po
litical one, that ought not to be made so now, but
which will, whether we wish or no, greatly affect po
litical results not only in Ohio, but in many States of
the Union. I mean the temperance question. Thst
intemperance is the monster evil of society, especially
la English speaking countries, is a fact which no man
candtsputa. It is presented daily by tbe blear-eyed
whisky seller dealing out bia alow poison to a depraved
appetite by tha drunkard bloated and reeling, robbed
of bis mind, bis manhood and his honor by what be
haadrank by the poor wile growing dally more faded
snu w.n, more oopeiesa ana nomeiuss by the ragged
children, neglected, pinched with hunger, and shrink
ing with shams from healthful play by ths thought of
what they see st home. Multiply thia by millions
v... ,h v.-, . "j u. , .11. ui.1 a . mj uar, .11.
penitentiary, the scaffold and tbe poor-house, and you
have the evils of Intemperance. God knows they ara
fearful enough without adding th exaggeration of
rneioric no woouer maigooa men and women de
mand wltn nerce energy that all tbe agencies of life,
the Church, th Bute, political parties, prayer, speech,
Mag, th Uare of sou aud th courage nf men
siiouiu us .rrsyeti airainss mis monster. They de
mand that the Republican party shsll not only under
take to destroy this evil, but shall do It In a particular
wji "j pmmuiung tue sie 01 an spirituous, vinous
and mslt lkiuors. Now. whlla admlitinw iha iaa-r.,1
evils of intemperance, while willing aa a citizen to
uu .11 1 can oy moral suasion or by law
10 caeca mes vii, 1 must reply thst a
political party ia not the best agency to deal with this
question, sua tost sosoiute sna general prohibition is
not tbe best means to effect the hoped-for result. Let
us think of these oroDosllions s mnm.nt. Pnlltinni
parties are formed ol men ot widely different opinions
ou religion, politics, morals, and th liks, but who
agree in some common principles effecting the frame
work of the Government or its administration. From
the composition of tbe Republican party It no doubt
embracee a great portion of the temperance men of th
country, but it also embraces a multitude of other
men who may diner as to th principle or mod of
dealing with ths evils ot inteuiperauce. Must w
abandon our political principles and drive from us
those wbo sgree with us in political topics, merely to
do a a party what we can now do as citizens? Aa
citizens w can vote for temperance men we
can use our moral, social ana political lnllusnce to
make and enforc wis temperance laws. We can in.
vuke th aid not only of Republicans but of Democrat
or mat wore, w can onran se ancletlm. Iwuu
speak, pray, exhort and get others to do likewise, it
is sneer iony, in my numbie Judgment, for those who
would destroy - Intemperance to iuvoke tha snencv nf
yjt t 1 ,v'- pat. iu avoiuw tuv pwasge oi a proniDiiory
law. It Is fsr better to leave such a Question to thn
constantly improving, morale and education oi th
wnoie people oi uiuo aa represented in our General
Assembly. It is purely a local question to be decided
oy incai law, ana anecting alone the people of Ohio.
Political Parties represent national aueaiinn. .ml na
tional interests. We sre able lo deal with our local
questions wiiaout mingling tnem with our national
As lo the measures to be adonuvi than I. . win a iiii.
ference of opinion. We know bv exoerience in mm.
Stales thst a general prohibitory law can not and will
not be enforced, it h the form of law, but not tbe
ion), m isw. in communities woere a strong senti
ment exists against the sale of liquor, such a law may
be enforced, and thia caajtt fully accomplished by a
ivtai upvinii law. rruuiuiy uuaervsuoQi in UineTeUl
States and in Enron. I am aatlanod . much aridnr rfia.
tinetion should be msde by our laws In th. nu nf
spirituous ana vinous sna matt liquors. Distilled
spirits, ss now mads, used as a beverage, ara necessarily
juuuu, wuu. ueei-uu wine may oe narmiess, and
n many cases are beneficial. W know that in Kranm.
unuwi;, wuu iuht, wudis wiu. or oeer enter in
to the eousuinpUun of every household, as
tea and code do ' with us, a drunken man
is rarely seen, and I promptly arrested as
a criminal. While in Scotland. Ireland and Kmrl.nd
and In many of tbe States, where whisky is a beverage,
drunken men daily stagger, with th unquestioned
right to Ihe public highway. I giy you, aa my
opinion, for which no one else is responsible.
mats careiuiiy imposed tax on liquor sellers, yielding
to the people of Ohio not leas than one million of dot
laraof revenue, and carefully discriminating against
the whisky seller, with a local ontion lav. anil th. an-
enforcement of lb Adair law, would be a far better
system of temperance lawa than any prohibitory
liqnor law that can be framed and enforced. But.
.. I T ...... J Tl ... .. '
am,. . wiiicim m.t .vary xtepuoucanoi any
creed or nationality shall be free to rote, believe and
act on this question a be thinks right, being responsl-
uiu w mi. puuuc upiuiun ana tne law zor.nis conduct.
It Is not a political Question, and can not and ounht
not to be made one.
Let the Republican party, then, with its honors bll
record, meeting fairly every aueation of th. hmir
evading nothing, following, as of old, its instinctive
love of liberty snd equal rights, with strong sympslhy
for those that labor in every field of employment, with
a love of country that will not for a moment listen to
disunion or dishonor, without prejudice of race or
caste, and with the practical common sense that haa
guided It thus far fet this party enter the lists before
the people In th usual way, and the despondency
caused by th. partial defeat of a year ago will disappear
ilk th mists oi tbe morning, and Ohio again be, as it
has been for years before, th bead ot th Republican
column. .
Delivered at Columbus, Sept. 2d, 1874.
MT FltXOW-Cmxaira; Ths Rmuihlin.. tail, nl
Ohio, conscious of th integrity of its purposes, feeling
aj ust pride tu contemplating in put achievement.,
has to-day Hung iu banner to th ones again, sud
now calls upon Its friends to rally onca more under thu
old flag. It is not necessary, tor party which baa
confessedly done so roach good, to claim that it haa
made no mistakes, or thst all of Its members, leaden,
and subordinates have been above reproach. There
never was a political organisation on In fan of th
earth, which, after fourteen years ol govern mental con
trol, could justify such pretensions. Ws make no
such claim. But w do assert and maintain that th
Republican party, aa a whole, has been pure, patri
otic, Intelligent, and efficient It has been tried as no
other ever was tried, and has proved faithful equal
the requirements of every emergency,
1861 it received from tha weak anil feamhllna
bands of tbe Democracy all that was left of the Gov
ernment, which was so lacking In th respect of
tae world that it could nowhere eommsnd respectful
attention. Other nations filed their own terms in all
negotiations; notably so, with regard to postal con
ventions, boundary questions, tbe right of naturalised
citizens, snd lb status ot Independent State. Our
Treasury was bankniDt after a Ion Inlerv.l nf vmn.
fouad peace; Government loans in 1160 and 18t, were I
the order of th. day ; our oonds sold few 4 in th open I
market, while purchaawri wwr. few and timid: .or I
tfwrtJ wisUasm m tysrywher rtotlved with
contempt, and our army and navy excited th ridl
cul of fureian Dowers: whams aumbar of fit.u-a rna.
plo revolt, almost before lb rebel armies war. or-
r.niawu, cugnuu Butanea to recognii in kiwi,
ious section a a separata and boatil. Uovernment,and
did not fear or bestial to furnish material of war to
the insurgents; a Democratic president, taibacilser
treacherous, had been looking on wuii rebel armies
were assembling, and tb nation was
beiug robbed ia pre para Uou for civil
war; and la pursuance of a heresy which ia no longer
otertained, declared bis lack of auUority and ability
lo rata a finger lo defense of the Uuiua; the moo
arcbs and atauismen of turop. predicted disaster snd
ruin to Ibe republic, a wsil Ihey ailgbt, when It was
sxailrd by one-third of Ita citizens, whom more
than ons-halfdea led tbs right ot ths Government te
coerce. It I difficult to picture a situation more lis
coureging or mora appalling. I shall oot dwell a
single moment on the .rents of th wsr. Tb grand
result Is known and read of all men. History haa re
corded, and will continue for all time to tall, whsf
political organization sustained the war, and what
party discouraged and opposed it.
When th wsr wss ever when lb Union hsd
been saved, and slavery destroyed our debt
bsd reached lb. .lartliog figure of lbra
thousand million dollars, to provide lor the payment
of which required profound wisdom, clear judgment,
and uadauoved courage. Taxes were necessarily
heavy and burdensome, end aa army of civilians
slmost as Urge aa that of tb disbanded soldiers ws
called into requisition as tax-gatherer. Before th
war th civil administration was conducted by com
paratively w men, wbo could be selected wltb care,
and easily supervised snd controlled, while for ths
Isst twelve years tbs Government haabeen obliged to
employ a legion ot subordinate, who qualifications,
in the absence ot experience, could not always be de
termined. This should constantly na nm.mbared
when here and mere a cast of official corruption 1 die-
ciosea. it naa aiwsys oeen tne habit, and undoubtedly
will continue to be, lor the parly out of power toasssil
tbe administration of their political opponents, it is
easy lor irresponsible newspaper writers snd nnoon
sionsble political orators to charge corruption and
fraud upon honest and upright men; and If these
publishers of libels are persistent, snd mak their,
charges conspicuous nongh, tbey will find readers
listeuere, sud believers, f have great respect for the
press of our country, snd recognize its mighty power?
perhsps I am as ambitious aa most men for its com
mendation; but I do deprecate tbs license to which,
in exceptional cases, so ins of our editors descend, for
the gratifies lion of nenonal malice, or for th. ad.
vanceraent ot party interest, at th sxpeus oi justlce-
uimhw;, auu uui uoaiiu.
In less thsn ten years sine tb close of this war, we
have paid off a third of the public debt: have reduced
me taxes i-iiw.uuu.uou a year; nave readjusted the re
lations of the rebellious States; bsve provided for tb
colored race so far as the circumstances surrounding
them permitted; have re-established Ihe public credit
so that our Government bonds sell for sixteen or sev
enteen per cent, sbove par; ha v. effected large loans to
European financiers st five per cent with the prospect
of a reduction to four at no distant day, and have so
established ourselves in the respect of th world
that, without war we can command repara
tion for injuries, and dictate th terms of
just and honurble international regulations. Any un
prejudiced man would ear thia was rasaonahl. lueraa
ia administration; that foreign nations and banker so
regara u, is certain, troin tbe estimation In which tbey
bold our securities, snd the readiness with which they
listen to our suggestions. Now what have we done, or
neglected, which entitles the Democracy to assail us,
or to succeed at this time in the management of Gov
ernment affairs? Whst capacity or disposition hsve
our opponent at any time displayed, higher and
better than our own, which entitles them to tbe confi
dence of tbe people? Ia It not fair to say that with
mem it is oniy s scramoie lor place and power, an ef
fort by misrepresentation and sbuse, by subterfuge
snd fsllacy, without regard to unity or consistency, to
monopolize once more the honors and emolument of
official position? -
Th management of th finances of th country.
Cnesp transportation In the.lnterest of both producer
and consumer.
Tbe thorough pacification and development ot tb
prosperity of the South.
The elril rights of the colored people, and
Tbe promotiorfof such moral reforms as are neces
sary for the public good.
And it is for the country to determine whether th
Republican party, which has already don so much, 1
better prepared to master the important matters, or
the Democracy, which has done nothing, and at
tempted nothing in all tbese years, except to smbar
rasaxh beet efforts of ths administration. ,
Tho Democracy have held their Stat Conventions
this year In Maine. Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illi
nois, and Missouri on Eastern and fiv of thagrest
Central States; and lnasmuchas they are clamoring to
overthrow the present system of financial management,
it is worth our while to inquire wbst tbey propose and
offer in ita place. II there is substantial agreement
among the members ot a party so large ss that of th
uptnxmiuu, tucir ineurr ueserve a caouia ana aeiib
erat consideration. But let us see. The Democratic
oiai. convention ot Main declared In unequivocal
terms for absolute free trade and direct Ui.tlnn
These Democrat by the sea will tolerate no tariff what
ever, protective, revenue, or otherwise; tbey would
abolish the duties on Imported luxuries, which yield
us (80,000,000 a year, and the Internal taxes on liquors,
beer, and tobacco, which give us $100,000,000 more, snd
levy upon your farms and homes for revenues to carry
. V. . I ' , ill I .
uu ui. uuToruuieui, .uu ueiniy it necessary expenses.
Tbe Democratic Convention of Pannaviv.nl.
is for once silent upon this subject, though it Is well
known thst the Democracy of that 8tate are in favor of
a protective tariff, and thev have. heretofore n duel. pad
Missouri, Ohio, and Indiana Democrats, according
to the resolutions ot their Conventions, favor a tariff
ior revenue only, and, by necessary implication, ara
ujfpuaw mi .ue uirect taxation propoaea in Maine, ine
Ohio snd Indiana Conventions declare for Inflation of
the currency to meet what they are pleased to term
the demands of the business Interests of tha
while Missouri. Illinois, and Pennsylvania Democrats
and tor the early resumption of specie payments. Ohio,
muiaua, auu niavuu uemocrais wouiu pay 0u tne
bonds in greenbacks, while their brethren in Illinois
are outspoken in favor of payment in gold; and the
Democracy In New York and the other Eastern State
are understood to symnathize with the Illinois
declsration. The Democracy ot Ohio, in the
third resolution ot their platform, denounce
national Danxs, ana propose that th Govern'
ment Itself shall become one grand
banking institution, lssulna and reeulotinr all tha
currency of tbe country, and leaving it in tbe power
vi pviiuuiau. iu vuugrcM, or oi me omcers oi in
xreasury, to control tha money market, to change
values, to Interfere with leiritiinate Drlvau .nurnrlu
toinnuence.elections. to dissnooint tha muanahla
expectations of trade and camnierc, to render busi
ness transactions once rial n and hazardous, to imperil
investment, and, generally, to overturn that stability
and settled policy which' are necessary to the prosperi
ty of our people. In other States, where the Democracy
oppose the national banks, they seem to contemplate a
return to the old scandalous system of State ana wild
cat banks, under which no man knew the value of the
note in nu poctet, without a .bank not detector, and
then only for a ahort nerlod nf lima. I anneal tn am.
intelligent man In my audienc to say whether more
insane financial schemes were ever Protected in this
cuuuirj, aim wnetner a greater muddle was ever
known, than that Into which tbe opposi
tion hsv fallen in their wild reaching for
straws to save them from drowning. No two Slat
agree, and the leaders of the party in no one State
harmonize. Senator Thurman. who until recently was
understood to be the leader of bis party, not only in
doctrine, is opposed to an irredeemable currency, and
ia favor of a return to snecte. while Gov. Allan, th.
vuiu. uut in tne uauon. aun.rfl. to tn. mil juimb
new lesder, who, by bis own admission in tbe Conven
tion Isst week, is before the people aa candidal for
the Presidency, is in fsvor of inflation, and holln.aa
the present volura of currency to b insufflient to do
tue ouainess oi in country. Ana so th convention
declared. Whereunon the Cincinnati Enmiira. un
it Is announced that Senator Thoaman will take na
nan in we campaign, inouga now tar the Enquirer
Is authorized to speak for him, I am not advised. And
this ia the great national organization that, with divi
ded counsels on all imoortant monaw ouaatlnna. with
Its crude opinions and wild schemes, proposes to sap
plant the Republican party, and which Dromlsaa to th.
seopie oi me uniiea states individual prosperity and
fortune out of too conflict, contusion, and chaos which
would follow It accession to power. Can it be trusted
before it presents a theory of finance, whicb will com-
mauu tue respect, wmi u cnauenget to criticism, of
thoughtful ment , .. . ,
While th leader of th Administration nartv da
not entertain opinions precisely lndentlcal as to minor
details, they are substantially agreed as to all Im
portant and vital issues. While they recogolz th
propriety and necessity which existed during th war
for the tssne of a volume of currency that could not
at the time be made redeemable In coin, yet they be
lieve in the ancient Democratic doctrine th at mlif .nit
liver are tbe money ot th world, and the fixed
sisnoara oi value; tney belter that the normal condi
tion of a solvent and Drosneroua eoantrr la to haw. ita
currency interchangeable for, and of equal vaine with,
S" "y vppuow wiy aim vTtjry avovemew waicn IS
calculated to postpon the dsy when in th United
States a fly dollar bill shsll be worth and will buy a
fiv dollar plec of cold; tbey believe that when thai
tlmeehall come, the fluctuations of trade and In all busi
ness affair w HI be diminished in frequency and extent;
that while stock gambling and recklesi speculation
may find tew.r opportunities for robbing tb people,
legitimate transactions will prosper better, snd both
capital and labor will have surer foundation on
which to rest; tbey do not believe the time has eome for
a return to specie payment, nor would th.y do it pre
cipitately and Immediately, but gradually and in such
tim. ss will create no violent shock to hnsl naaa .
interrupt th ordinary coarse ol affairs. To this end,
while tha amount of currency should be kept
within tbe limit heretofore fixed, nsmely, 6382,000,000,
contraction Is not necessary; but th growth of th
country, and abov all, and mora than aU, ths In
crease of public confidence, will hasten the tim w
hope tor without interfering with the prosperity ot
any class or condition of men. Wa shall hav llttls
use lor gold whan we know we can set It. And In
order that this conBdeoc may be felt at home and
luruau, tu. itcpuotican party is in lavor ot malntain
ag the honor and rood faith of ths nation nntarnl.h-l
and Inviolate. W believe in paying tb debt ot tb
country, precisely as honest men pay theirs, axactly
la accordance with xisling contract. It baa long
bean understood between the. bondiiolder and tbs)
Th!sazremst shontd b. Mrrlnrl ant n tv. ui
wlher tb securiU wow by nsuiooaUlaaaki'
and foreign capitalist, or by tb turner and mechanic,
wbo hsv purchased them out of their bard
arulii the guardian. who holds tlieia
tor hit orphan wards, aud th widow,
wbo Is helped to Hv by the sale of her coupons, ll
w. hlggla sbout this, snd discredit tha bonds by mak
ing lb. manner snd measure of tneirpayineoldoabla
ful. a. put off indefinitely Ih day ot currency r
W sr sis ot tb opinion thst th ''
hav. bean of great utility to th penpl. They bay
furnished at with a uniform and safe currency, good
erywbre,alelor ths note holder, tocsius th. gov.
eruut.nl stand, behind tb bank bill; uie for lh.gv.
ernoreoi, because it Is secured by a depuutof lisuwa
bonds. The cry thst we psy interest lo Uu banka on
lb bond tbey hold is ss Muse leas a. ih other charge
made for th purpose of creating distrust. The bank
buy their bouda la th market, as oilier purchasers do,
ana they east us so more in thetr hands by way of in
terest than they would in ths posmuIoo of oilier hold
ers.' Bonds were Issued to enable us to rslss money,
and th Government was glad lo bare th banks by
lKm. at . tlnii whan rartAlii rlaaan. in ll.a ..... -
wer denouncing sod discrediting them.
Suppose we should do what th Ohio Dsssocreti
Coov.ntioa recommend wip out th national,
banka, and lsau currency in ths plsc of nations!
ban notes, directly from the Treasury of Ih United
Slat. Ws now hav In circulation $Ji,iwO,ooO ot
greenbacks, fer th present Irredeemable, but rapidly
spproxinialing to tbe value of gold. If ws sdd to this
depreciated paper an equivalent for the national bank
elrculaiion, t36i,0u0,0ua, by further taaue of green
back, aa Senator Morton well sers ia his Terr haul
speech, we further depreciate th value of tbe cur.
reucyand render tb resumption of sped payment
Wk.n.verth national banks shsll eeareto b aa-i
ful, or whenever anything better than ihe. institu
tions shall be suggested by the Democracy, or atfyhody
las, ths Republioan party will b ready to adopt ih
newsystsm; but they do not deem It expedient to
discard that which has worked well, until something
better Is matured and presented. Theae attacks upon
national i bank are of : eours nothing but political
buincombe, an appeal by smbitiuus pylltlclsni to.Hi
prejudice of th lngnorant, and not to the reason of
intelligent men. Whether hereafter, when specie
Eayoieate shall hsv been resumed, a system of free
ankiog may not be possible and advisable, is matter
tor future determlnailoa, and deserve to be well con
sidered. Last year wa were overtaken by a
financial crisis and panic, occasioned
by the failure of certain gigantic railroad sohemes,
and tb bankrupty of a few large commercial house;
t he., failure. inVOIVMi mm. nf tha hanlra an M
barrassed or ruined a considerable number of business
men ; confidence was shaken everywhere ; hanks cloiied
their doors for a time, and debtors were unable tu dis
charge their liabilities. K lo these troubles had been
added ths evil ol such a currency as wss In us belor
the war, who can estimate or limit the disastrous con
sequences to the country? As It was, about ths ouly
evil effect has been to render business dull aud profits
email. And thia bu been in part com oe use ted by tli
introduction of economical habit among tb people,
and ot more conservative practices among busiues
men. The enormous frultfuluess of the present year
1 calling th money out of the banks w here it had ac
cumulated, and Is scattering it over Ih country
wher it ia needed; business is reviving
again, and if w simply hold things a
tbey are, without any violent changes,
our troubles will correct themselves, labor will bo
w.ll rewarded, and capital employed with reasonable
profit. '
Aa to whether ws shall hare a protedtlv tariff,
revenue tariff, or none at all, I desire only to aay that
than has never been a party in power tn thia Govern
ment which dared or proposed to raise our entire rev.
anues by direct Uxstlon. It hss always be.n simply
a question of distribution, a question of expediency,
aa to what article should be taxed, and what oues ex.
empu I am oot dtaposed to quibble or quarrel abouf
name. A revenue tariff, such ss will supply us with
tbe amount of money required. Is sufficient for all pur
poses. It will Incidentally protect in spite of princi
ples or nsmes, snd it should be so adjusted ss to bring
us-lb largest possibl returns, without fostering
monopolies or oppressing th masses. To set tie bow
and what It shaU be, require judgment and expert,
enca. Thia I understand to b tb Republican doc
trine upon this subject, and it In no way
differs from th practice ot th Democracy when ia
Another Important matter demanding th attention
of tbOovrnmeqilthalot
All classes of citizens and all sections of tb country
are Interested In this subject. New England, chiedy
devoted lo manufactures, and purchasing annually
from th West more than a hundred million bushels
of gralu th South, where the production of cotton
sugar and tobacre 1 more proflubl than the raising ot
cereals, and whose purchasing capacity, at fair rates,
ought to be two hundred million bushels of grain
a year ths greet West, snd eepecislly the grain
producing Statas of the Mississippi Valley, which send
to market more than three hundred million bushels a
year all the wsnt cheap transportation for the ben.
flt of producer and consumer alike. Our exports ot
grain have heretofore amounted to but little less than
perhsps twenty-five million bushel a year, but these
export, axe sow rapiuiy increasing. The hope, how
ever, of our farmer is in the home market, and th
problem is how to reach it without doubliog and
trebling the cost of our products. Many in
fiuentlal and Intelligent Republicans are of opinion
that Congress bss power to fix the rates of transports,
tion on all freights passing from Slate to State, under
the general authority to regulate commerce between
the States, snd I think the decisions of the Courts
warrant this opinion. But the subject bss not, until
recently, attracted the attention it deserves, and it
take time to perfect a comprehensive and equitable
plan a schema lust to railroad companies, and just
to farmers, for that la what we want.
There were, in th last Congress, several significant
votes, bowever, with reference to the matter, espe
cially upon the resolution introduced by John o
Smith, ot this State, and upon the McCrary bill in
the House. In both tbese Instances the Republican,
were generally found on tha side of tbe people, and
the Democrats as generally with the railroad comua
nles. A Republican Senate bss now a Committee on
Cheap Transportation, who are giving the subject theil
most careful and thoughtful consideration. Jt Is pro
posed In the best manner to protect the forming and
mechanical Interests of the country, without oppress
ing or wronging railroad corporations. This can b
done in various ways; by improving tbe natural and
constructing artificial water-ways; by establishing
competing railways when neceesary, and possibly by
fixing rates on existing lines if the Courts permit. At
all events the Repubiicsns In Congress can be safely
trusted to do the best thing available whenever It can
be determined what that la. I do not Join in any wild
cry about railroads. Tbey have done too much lot
this country to warrant It Tbey should be fairly
dealt with and properly controlled in the Interest oi
the people. .
At I mentioned at the beginning of my remarks, one
of th important questions ot this time is the pacifica
tion and development of tbe prosperity of the South.
You all remember the deplorable condition Inwbich th
Southern people were left at tbe close of the war.
There resources bsd been exhsusted, their credit wss
gone, their system of slave-labor bsd been destroyed
the colored peopla, elated with tbelr new found lib
erty, hardly felt like bending themselves to the same
burden they Aad- borne by compulsion, nd the
whites hsd not been educated or accustomed tol ibor.
To maze tb matter worse, a lot of ail venturers, with
out conscience or character, finding their opportnnlty is
tb confused condition of Southern .Hair, aim
from th North to secure positions tbev could not
achieve at home, and to better their own fortunes by
hnralnn nm. Ih m ...t. to .1
r. -j --- iwi imuiua wouuineru prosper,
ty. As waa natural, tbe nitternaM and h.tra.1 wi.uk
culminated in civil war, could not be subdued so .as.
Uy at rebel armies; the old bitterness lingered In many
hearts. The Confederate soldier generally accept
the situation, and acquiesced in Govermehtai uieas.
urea, but lawless bands of desperate characters roamed
th country, and committed numberless outrages.
Notwithstanding all this, tb Administration and a
Republican Congress, exercising forbearance and gen.
erusity, foregoing punishment to rebels which might
hav. bn exacted, controlling for tbe time nrmly hul
kindly, re-establishing the old relations of the States
at the aarHest possibl moment, and giving to each ill
normal and proper share in th. Government of the
nation, had ao tar succeeded on year ago. that
returning prosperity was beginning to gladden ths
hearts ot the Southern neoole. and than waa
prospect of a happy and glorious future lor them.
Then cam tb Northern elections, which, In rnaoy ol
tha States, resulted disastrously to tbe party in power.
The worst elements of the South looking on, thought
they saw in th signs of the times indications thai the
Democratic party, the old friend of slavery snd ally ol
secession, wa about to get control of tb Government.
Then commenced th. rJtl kiianmniii n ...i...
of th colored people and ol th lotal whna ann
within th last few week this has culminated
i?.r?i'!T'V,?i?5.d " appalling outrages,
lik that in Gibson County, Tennessee, where sixteen
negro were taken from th Trenton Jail, their hands
tied, and they massacred in cold blood oy tbe mob.
This Is but one instance, but than, am man. a
. . . , ' . . , . n 1C1KU
terror exists in many pans of the South. In our
ueiKuuunug state oi a.eniucxy murder is as common a
daylight, and matters have manned mh a i.nin..
crisis that th newspaper press of th South I sound-
I Flo V na aV az..wA anil .ml ..l...l 1 -la ...
" t" ' , -uv iea cucca .nan oe speedily put
ri. .t. rC T v" " inevitaoie,
inSltbfl Democracy once more fretenntml nf a -
ernment and th South will be again drenched in
uiuuu, a. 11 waa mmi isoi , iwso. l beg every lover of
his country, .very friend of hnm.niiw .h
plore such results, to stand firml h. .h. .....
power, in the interest of good order and peace. W 1
. . " "i "wars or ine south. Wa
would be more than Jost, we would be more
than generous to her noni. k...
can not look calmly on while tbev
destroy each other, ' , . '
oppressed and degraded from generation to generation,
are Ignorant ana-poorly qualified for the ixercise o)
tunltics lor ducsiioa and eiiHnm u't... :
.wi wRiT-wjuinuniiia, i DIV sm nMl
schoolscanbe mntalned , ondonbtedlyTenev
that tb two races should be kept apart; it would b
mt, satisfactory to both. All we insist upon la, that
h0t o""ere, every colored onlld in H. '
land shall have the advantage oi free schools, y , ,!
somewhere stated that there are only swren per Vent
of th people of Mneachusetta wlKeLTn JL7J:
write, and that recent statistics show that eluhtv X
tSJvl!.,,l!,t8uWvta "ed'SJ
tribute to yiriu.rni good iK
raoo hrir class ot our fallow eitlsens is th. VS! .
abort-abated mil ...J l. . mm
t7yTto Jt-.JS, fCTlU ttto cn"
. . wvery . ma i hi, " .
in UI. WbeUiar bb.ftwl.T .,
wwii, boks na

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