Newspaper Page Text
J. l MARLfNO, B.C. KASTMAX, KaTOCBtTT, U. C. C. CUDHCE.
r , .EDtTORS J.XD rnopnitrroKP.
Tuesday JiOB.viNt.VDKc. i:o.. issa.
Our columns are worthily filled to-day with the
.fiiManc-ssage of Gov. Jortxso.w
The Gov. confines his message mainly to a state
inept of the present and prospective indebtedness
of the State; to the subject of State Internal Im
provements; Public Koads; Education; the Tax on
.Merchants, Banks; the Penitentiary; the Judiciarj;
Weiitlrts and Measures; Amendments to the United
States Constitution; and tlie National Homestead
Law. It would be unreasonable lu (-xpeit' hat, up- ,
on all these subjects, the Governor's opinions should
meet with the approval of alL Yet they are so
candidly and so plainly stated .that we doubt not
they will receive the respectful consideration of the
Legislature. The style of the document is neat
ami unpretending; ond'the entire absence of all al
lusion to national politics -will permit our whig
. friends to judge it with candor.
In, most of tbo Governors sentiment? we hearti-
. ly concur. AW especially refer to his remarks on
the !"kjccf4 education and law reform, as being
velltirneji sijdiforcjbly, andtruly urged. The're
lonimendatioii ei Uje subject of the tax on mer
ehanlP, ought to, and wctrustwill, receive the sanc
tion of the Legislature. On the subject of internal
improvement, the Governor has earned the thanks
of the tax-payers of the State by clearly pointing
out us present anu prospective lnueoteaness, as a
caution agiiinrt the dangerous excesses to which
tlie Legislatureis'liable. "WbUeall Ibe'other reebm-
lnendations of the Govejnonnay not meet with as
tinanmipus approval as we are mire those we have
named wjll, yet they"nrC equally deserving of con
siileration, anil will jio doubt receive it.
Tiirough this document, as through every tiling
wliicii its author Jias -ever written, there rimsa vein
- ' popular rights and equality, which
'"jBffP -; ever endear Gov. JonxsoK to the
i,sll,her nay not always entirely agree with
. iZili; !. . , t - tok people know him to be true.
-...i niitliful to their rights and interests, he
i, therefore, the hope and pride of TitEPEor-LE.
"HAROLDE, THE MERCHANT OK CALAIS.
'This admirable play the production of 2fr
XtAFir,.the Q'ragedian will be presented at the
Adelplii this evening. Wherever "IIaholdl" has
been performed it lias elicited tho marked coramen
tkition'of the mo?t diicriminatinsrcritics. We Lave
lieeii kindiv favored, by tlie author, with a view of
un J-t il from tho examination we have
' - vrt m K' live it, we fully concur with our
xiJMy,-' u . .f ts elbewhere in the opinion that
it" i j-.kt i literarv and dramatic merit.
r ". 'iiit vl.fitHfhH is exceedingly ingenious and inter
esting, am? the final denouement intensely exciting
and affecting. On tlie occasion -of the presen
tation ot this tragedy at Albany, N. V., it met-
wiUi the most flattering success. The press of that
city concurred in pronouncing it "one of tlie most
powerful and interesting of modern productions,"
and the author himself as "one of the most chaste
and truthful deleneators of character, on the Ameri
can stage.' The members of the Legislature and
the literati of tho city, also, attested their apprecia
tion of Mr. Kunt's merits as an actor and author
by presenting him, ou this occasion, with a splendid
ropy of .SAfffofwnv.'with the appropriate inscrip-
" tion; "Presented to J. A. .1. Neahe, Tragedian, asa
tribntu'uf respect to his histrionic -and literary ge-
; n its; as author of thejtrage ly of 'ITarolde, the Mer
chant of Calais.' Prom his fellow-citizens and mem
bers of the Legislature of New York. Albany, FrjJ
day evening, March 12th, 1852."
U'e might fill several columns with the highly
"Omtnendatory notices Ulrica this play has elicited
.Iwm thepiessof other cities, but the press upon
tr stwee this morning permits us only to copy the
rollovitig from the St Louis IutiHigcncer, whose
theatrical criticisms are distinguished for a just ana
likoriminating taste. The Iniclligcncer thus sums
up' the plot of the li agedy :
- f Iauolde. We are glad to larn tliat this tragedy,
writen by Mr. Neafie, is to be enacted at the Varie
ties during the present engagement of that gentle
man. ITarolde is one of those few modern plays in
which the interest never flags; but in which events
ultow one another inso quick succession, and witli
il so sjwritedly, that the beholder has no inclination
t yawn, nor does ho long for the "after piece."
The story of the play is briefly tins: Harolde, a
- pjlK.nt ot Calais, has left hi3 wife, Eleanor, and
; iff foreign land, flu business of tlie State. In Ca
Sitheie is a former rival of his, inthesuitfor El-
norVhand, named Yalmond, now llarolde's prc
jded friend. Afteraprotracted absence, Harolde
psJck, and report reaches his wife that he is
td To conlirni the report Valniond adopts all
the means his intriguing heart can suggest; one of
tM means is the intercepting of llarolde's letters
to Jits wire, while A'aluiond icplies to them, as from
Eleanor, feigning her hand writing. Meanwhile,
Wider pretence!" love for her, but really to wreak
revenge, Valmond gains Eleanor's consent to mar
riage Just as they are about to sign the writing
which is to make them one, Harolde. whoso arrival
at hojne has been till now unknown, appears in
Foiled in hi revenue in that wav. Valinonil .
trivesa plan like this: Hcliires, on promise ol pe
, cuiikry reward a ruined pame.'lcr named Le Roux,
wlrtra he disguises with rich attire, and instructs to
lepresent himself to Eleanor, as having been a friend
kihI companion of her husband, when abroad. Lc
Itnux plays his part well, gains Eleanor's confidence,
Will finally succeeds in steaiingher miui.iture, which
lie delivers to A'ahnond. Yalmond, meanwliile Ie
ltoux is acting his degrading part, accjuaii-.ts Har
olde of the intimacy between Le Rous and Elea
nor, suggests iutidi-lily of tlie latter, und produces
JJiwnor's miniature in alleged proof; thus to poison
llarolde's mind against his wife. Harolde, on con
firmed suspici. n, separates lrom Iim wife. Yalmond
. now seks Eleanor, under prete c o.'smpathiziiig
with and consoling her; but really for diabolical pur
. potes. He does not, however, succeed.
At length llarolde's eyes are open to tho plot,
and he becomes satisfied of his wile's faithfulness,
. and of the villainy ot his enemies; but, meanwhile,
Eleanor lias become insane. When next Harolde
eee his wife she is standing on the verge of a high
ofifl". about to cat herself thence: bur 1ia Ii.iq no
power to rescue her. Le Roux ha? died by Yal
inond's hand. Harolde kills Yalmond; and then
him-elf dies from excess of anger and revenge,
mingle I with regret
Aside from the play being decidedly effective as
Hitage representation, it is, asa literary production,
of great merit The verse is graceful and flowing ;
and in many parts the language is remarkabby fine.
To fi i stance a few:
Eleanor, about to begin the marriage writing,
"My luu-baiul, now, forever,
I bul farewell to"tlicc: It (hou 'rtin lUmen,
0 let lliy sjiirit look in pity dovrii
And mule loryiveiiess on niy present act.
Or, if lliou live!, may all tlie clcmcnLt
trv, earth, air, water all cunikiuc at once
To Lear il.ee lwck to me, eie yet tlie lat
Anil iHiai conMiniinalionol llic deed
liall rend till link between us.'
HaioMe, in communicating to his wife his knowl
edge of her alleged unfaithfulness, thus mournfully
and beautifully speaks:
"1 leanW last niglit,
Tbestflryof a wire, whose lovo did seem
To reach beyond all compass, save alone
His love w lio bojLsled hern. With him 'twas life.
lei-tune called him hence. In Ins true breast
Hal endhvo trust in her His exile o'er,
llcsonghtni.shonir. In Hood of new -bom joy.
The happy dars rolled on. Itnt soon he found
The onion of his love so thick up-grown
AVith f.ml and baleful weeds, that not a (lower
(II n)detnamrc could hare room to thriie
Amid the prots pollution. Itristliii- thoni-s
EXECUTl VjGDEPARTMENT; j
, Kasiiville; Dec. 19, 1853. A
FeJloti-ciUztnsqfthe Senate and"'" -
dfilit Vfoune of Eejti-esentalires : ' "
The Constitution of the State requires IheExecu
tivo "from'time to time, to give to the Gi neral Assembly-information
of the state of the government, -and
to recommend to their consideration such
measures as' he j.hall-judge" expedient" and proper.
In compliance with this requisition of tho -organii;
law of. the laud, without nnyi long or unnecessary
exordium, I shall at once proceed to discharge "the
high and responsible duties thus Imposed.
In the first place, the attention, "of the General
Assembly is most respectfully invited to the, pres
ent and prospective innVlumtnivfl flf 1), fftf'p
The liabilities cT thebtate, as tliey are ternied by
the Comptroller of tlie Treasury, Avere, in October
last, three million eight hundred and one thousand
eight hundred and lifty-six dollars, ($3,801,850.)
The credit of the State has lieen loaned to various
railroad companies, and bonds issued to the amount
of one million niue hundred and forty-five thousand
dollars, (1)15,000,) and should be added tp the
present liabilities; making them, in the aggregate,
five million seven hundred and forty-six thousand
eight huudred and fifty-six dollars, (5,74G,85G.J
To this amount there might "be very properly ad
ded Xhesurplus revenue which was received on de
posit?, and tlie faith of the State pledged for tl o
safekeeping and repayment of the same, which
now constitutes a part of the capital of the Bank
of Tennessee; and the common school-fund, which
is made aperpetual fund by the constitution. These
two sums make one million live hundred and twen
ty thousand three hundred 'and twenty-five dollars,
(1,520,325,) which makes the liabilities of the
State, up (to this time, seven million two huudred
and sixty-seven thousand one hundred and eighty
one dollars, ($7,207,181).
The prospective liabilities which are authorized
by an act to establish "a 'system' ofinterna! improve
ments in this State, passed on the 11th day of Feb
ruary, 1852, and various other acts to aid In the
building of bridges, will, if carried into full and
successful operation, create an additional debt of
uuuui cigiu muuon uoimrs more; wnicii,w.hen ad
ded to the liabilities already referred to, will mako
the wholo liabilities of the. State fifteen million twp
uuuureu anu sixty-seven thousand one liunrlrpii
IhiicaiilduiU le tleHuty onlhe General Assembly,
in alwttture period of tliii ijuvihimihl, to chtrSJt lit-
c atute and science." . , $J
It must be apparent to all, that our prrseht sys
t oii-oC corun oa school education falls veryfar short
f comiiigjip to the imperativecominauds cf the
constitution. If the law establishing' our system of'
common schoo's had been perfect in all itsidetailsr
f I ifk rfVMnmnn cphnrM fund llfi llPll hrpfnfin-rt Vt.t.ntli '
" . ' ' H I ... 1
ciuadequale.to.-putit.into piaclicaLanil .eflicientope-
craiiuu uiivugtiyuy jm iiiu jirest'nt peri
od, and for alorfgtimepjist.'onj-cf'uiinonschoolshave
been doing little or no good, but on the contrary,
have, in many instances, and in diflen-nt parts ol
the country, been, rather in the wayjhail otherwise
preventing the people from geflingjip and having
schools upon their own responsibility,', and at their
own expense. Tlie time lias Purely: airiretl when
the legislature and tho people should, lay liold ef
iuw iuijiui uui. f..jccii n.u a utlllgallu uniaiienng
lianiL All v-.Ty readily concur in the opinion that Upon the subject or convict
Something ought, to be done !Q promote tho cause by penitentiary imprisonment
of education, mid still there are no effective steps Jolm Y01111?' fonncr Seeretar
twl-on Altnrl.- tir 1-1 n. . nnd elalioraterenort mad n
.- v vum.. U j jjtjj -uiiui or ciaie
pride must feel deeply wounded when they are
'told by the recent censo that Tennessee,, though
the .film State in tho Unionl in many of the, great
elements necessary to make Jierone of tlie proud
est and most respected, stands- last and lowest on
the list ofeducation, save one, of all the States
composing this confederaoj'. The great difficulty
that seems to have been in the way, and the excuse
forgoing nothing more than we have done, is, that
wehave had no means, and that our school, fund
was too small to do more than we have done. If
we are sincere in what we profess for the cause of
education, wo should, without hesitation provide
means to accomplish it. There is one way, if no
other, that the children of the State can be educa
ted, which is obvious to oil, and that is, to levy and
collect a tax from the people of the wholo State,
or to authorize the' county courts, separately, to do
so in their resoectivo counties, in such manner as
may be deemed by theinmost acceptable to thepeo
.plosufficlcnt In amount, when added to our present
school fund, to give life and energy to 'our dying or'
dead system of common school education. We
should at.onee make .such additions to our school
fund as will make it large enough to vitalize the
cause' of common schools; and thereby make its in
fluence felt in every family throughout the State.
While there are millions being appropriated to
juu m iuv vuuuus -ivorits .01 internal improvement,
. - j i ' - j i v. luiuiuui imiiuvemeni
andeiMitv-ono dnllnra fsIA 0117 Ifil A,i ;r ii.n l.-nn il,.u u nii,;. j r j .' - '
. 1 .j-ij.vt.j uiu iiic 1. m.h- ,iv.iifi uuiia iui eu UL.ILHH. : illle
iuimuui lujiwcujciji uiu uv iiuuer consiuerauon
before the legislature, should becorae.a law, it .will
increase the prospective liabilities near six million
four hundred thousand dollars, ($0,400,000,) which
will'make the grand totar of the present and pros
pective liabilities of tlie State twenty-one million
civ t . 1 1 . 1 -.l r, .1 .:.(,....... 1 , I 1 1 ,
jia uuuuitu ouu puwii-sciui uiuuuiiu uno uuuureu
1 1 . I ll ,-.,-. . ..
0"-j r vy i"u,.y nunc uu
the bubject of State indebtediiess, it will not be out
ui iiiin.-e, iiur iiuprupur, iu reierio uie prooaole a
mountowed by counties and corporations throu"-h-out
tlie State, which has been' created by the issu
ance of county and corporations bonds, which can
not be less than five million dollars, (5,000.000,)
probably much more, making tho whole 'liabilities
of the people of the State, present and prospective,
twenty-six million six hundred and sixty-seven
thousand one hundred and eighty-onedoUars, ($!G,
007,181.) Of the present liabilities, the Slate has at .this
time vested in various turnpike roads, one million
two hundred and thirty thousand eight hundred
auu uuy-six uonars, t,?i,ou,ooo,j tor wlncJi State
bonds have been issued, and now. pays interest on
them, amounting to sixty-one thousand nino" hun
dred and sixty-rjjne dollars, (501,969.) The entire
amount received into the treasury annually from
this investment injurnpike roaijs is y,lpo, ma
king'a nett loss to'the Slate, annually, of ?-iG,7jC3.
It is to be hoped, liowgyer, that the profits arising
from, tho investments made in these turnpike , roads
by the Slate, is notfttrorrect indication of invest
ments to be made in future in any works of inter
nal imnrOFPmpnts. 'Elovpn of flieap mmls no vui
. ... . ....... j J fc,
have never declared a (lividend, and the prospect
01 uieir ever uecommg p. omauie to tne state, is ex
. : 1.. .l..l..r..i r.. 1 '
kl-cuitiiy uuuuiiui, iiuui jliewilHUUlfe'iltlOJlS.
Tho constitution of the State declares that
well rer'ulatpil svslrm nf intprnnl imiirnrnitibnia
O J " . . . u . . i. . 1. 1 1 43
calculated to develone, tbn reoiirv; i-if ibi Qinto
and to promote the happiness and prosperity of lier
UIUI.CU3, tiiuiuiuic it uugiiL iu ue t'ueourageu oy me
frPilpml AssspmhK" Intornnt imnrnvotTiiie n
subject that las bpen for some time back, and is.
"w " 1 t-M-iwiig uui-vii ium 11 1 5.1 y jiiici (.-31. umuilir lue
nennlp in rnnnv nnrlinn nf tho Slnlo Tl,
I 1 1 J 1 " . 1 r . j u t -
tions, how far the State should be involved in con-
. : 1. . 1' 1 : ,
c.tiiiuuu iuii3 ui miciiiai jiupruvemenis, anu
what works shall be first undertaken and comple
ted tnnsit. It itpfprmined v tlm wicdnm nml pnnn.1
1 ww .... .-j . ... uuu cvunu
discretion of Senators and Representatives, who
nave ueen soiecieu. on account, 01 tueir supenor
knowledge of the local and raneral interest o'fi the'
State. "A well regulated system of internal im
provement" would seem to indicate that tbe Jcnd-
inrr nnd innr nrnininpnr nrL- MlenT'itnit o.,I i'ntnn.l
O l .. w...u .UK wU UliU II11VHU
.. 1 . ,1 . 1 1 ' .i '
wu 111 muucu iiiu luiee gniuu uivisions Ol me Slate,
should be first selected and completed. Sncli other
works should then be undertaken as experience and
tlie imprest of thp ponntrv miwlit inmnci T
' j ;' j
should bo the great and primary object of the Gen
eral Assembly to bind the State together from
Johnson to Shplhv hv rnilrnndu nr ntlior imnm,.,t
iiiuuis which wouiu accompiijin me great end, ma
king us one and the same neonlein commercp. nori
culture and mechanfes. A system like this, connect
ing iiseu witn otner important worns beyond the
limits of the State, would seem to accomplish the
design of the constitution. While it is the duty of
iue legislature, unuer uie constitution, to loster and
encourage "a well regulated system of internal im
provements," it should be extremely careful in not
uiiuerianing too many worss at tne same time, anil
i 1 1 11 1-. 1 1 n - .li.-ilif. il.A i.nfl", nr i.A o . . . i -
i.iw.ww uniuiug mi. tHugnBV) Mip umic uuu in
dividuals to that extent which would cause dplay
and failure in many of them, and at the same time
result in trrpat loss and - useless pneni?itiirn nf fli
pcojile's substance. The system should always be
so reguiate- as noi tomvoive tne state in lieavy li
abilities beyond what can at all times be met when
they fall due, by the treasury, with promptness,
iviuiuui. uuviiig 10 report to neavy ana oppressive
taxation on tl;i great mass of the people. The
General Assembly tjiould, and no doubt will, bo ex
ceedingly carelul in not giving legislation, which is
MJimtvicu it 11.11 lliw lllkwl Udl JUJjll UVt.IHCUtS Ol IOC
ponntrv. thnt ilirpplion wliir-h will lmro o inr..lnnTF
, . lunutHW
to lesson or impair tbe public credit and honor of
C-. . - . . I 1 1
iue oiaie at iiuuie or auroau.
The duties imposed on the Executive by tho laws
which have been heretofore passed, or which may
ue nereauer passeu, oy tne legislature, extending
uie am 01 uie csiaio to worxs 01 internal improve
ment, win oe uiscnargea by mm with strict lideh
we are. ereatlna. mairnifippnt Ktntn cv,r,a ,:i.
. , . o " n v,..www, n hu
niches and rotundas occomodated to the reception
of fine .statues and gorgeous paintings the exteij
or presenting all the grandeur of carved and mas
sive columns which architectural ingenuity can in-
.111 ur ui.jiay uie oase ot uie tiuituing to bg fin
ished, with a suitable terrace, together with nublic
. urounds. handsomely enclosed ami kid Vt ;J
thn tuliippf nf fftnlp i rwl.il. f ...I ti if ...111 I. ... I . ... n .1 . ) , "
wiiuuwi, ( liuiw nu eiravagauce may surest and
then to be studded over With iiinniim.'ti .il ,t 1..
, - r ww.wwMlnJ HUU IVVllw
ol statuary, in imitation oP ririontnl cntnnrU-
folly, and which will, in all, when completed in a
vujirapuuuiug styic 10 tne mam structure, cost tbo
ripnnla nf llip Ptfofi mt. ron l.v "11 : ' i
w.,.w w M.w -...iw uvi,- ioau n iiiiiuuu anu a
ialf or two million of dollars I repeat the iiuini-
ry, while all these things are being done by the
leeislature. and that. too. nf thpnnlilm nnn,
there be nothing done to advance the great cause of
Uoon the inercasp anil iliffncinn nf ...1..:
, - . w wUUwUMwll
amonc tho ureal mass of tli npnnln. nn,i i
& j - -- r-fi m- Ele
vation or labor, depends, to a very great extetit, the
perpetuity of our free institutions. I feel tliat I
cannot too stroinrlv nnrl Inn pnrnooilt. n-o. tl. ,
- . .. i .j w.-w uiu im
portance of t his subject upon your consideration.
" "u i josiuie, commence the work in good
faith, and carry out the high behest of the consti
tution, and the risitiggeneration will realize the ben
efits that will Iiecessarilr flme IWm if 7 .1..
velpne; in its benirn operation, the intellect of our
iiiit mere usnrji, wiiere violeta should grow,
'J ( stin i hnn at his couching. On her orow,
Whov- marble was of Heaven, .stain had tall'n,
Stain of a pnlti love, blotting forever
Its pure and pristine whiteness."
Eieanor, about to throw herself from the
thus poetically and thnllingly exclaims:
"llark! I'm called!
Ye buoymit Uouds, sprtad now vour radd v sails
And fly with lightning sneed, while on xour crests
1 sail to seek my love.
It were pleasant to continue our extracts from
this play; but we will not, preferring that tlie read
er should hear the language fresh from the lips of
lhciespective characters at its representation.
Our whole sj-stem of public roads is exceedinly
defective, perhaps more so than in any other State
: il. 1T:.. ;...; .!. 1 i r i. . -.
in me uuiuu, iiiiiwwiij iiiu uuiueii ui Jieepinglt UJ)
upon that portion of our fellow-citizens least able
to bear it, and who have the least use for it after it
is kept up. Many persons are compelled to work
on the public roads many days in the year, who
have not the time to spare to do so, without pay,
and the necessities of whose families reed tho pro
ceeds of their entire labor for their support; while
on tho other hand there are many who are exempt
by law from working on the public roads, -who are
either able physically to work them, or jiecuaiarily
to pay for having it done, and who derive tlie great
est benefit from good roads when they arc made, by
tho enhanepd value pood marls imrmrt in ttwir n,.n
erty, and by increasing the comforts and facilities
of travelling over them. In view of changing or
inmiiiviiifT our nreseiii, svsrein i mnai pnnnAAi ..
j j-l j -"- ...vww tt....l,UUII
call your attention to the s-stem of keeping un nub-
l: i. :.. .1... c i , f 1 .
iiw luiuu in me wiwnui isiiiu aim i eiiiisyivania,
where property and other taxes are levied fbr the
nnmnan rtf 1'iiniiiiifv un flwi itiililtn ....... 1 . 1 11
jiuijiuj vi nLijiui ujf puiui, lUUUa UUU JllgU-
ways, and thereby carrying out tho principle, that
the individual who derives the greatest benefit from
having them kept up, and in proper condition for
the travelling public, shall pay correspondingly for
the benefits thus conferred. All persons should con
tribute to the supjiort of tlie government under
which thej live, in proportion to tlie protection they
receive from it. Our present road system, it must
tin nnnpo,liit hxr nil nnppntna mnct nnincilw. oiul
equally upon the great mass of tlie people, and
ought to be changed. I therefore recommend to
your consideration tho propriety of so changing or
modifying tlie present system as to conform 'It to
the requirements of tho public judgement and
wants of the country, and tliat it be done during
the presentsession of the legislature.
The metnliprn nf flip finnnml AwnmliW nn.l
... - - ---'.. .... ... . t.i.iwi , mull m
J'xecutivc of the State, in entering upon tlie dit
cbargo of their official duties, engaged to perform
and obey the solemn obligation imnosed on them
by the constitution of the State. Tlie framers of
the constitution, from a high sense of their moral
obligation to the whole jieople, and with a thorough
knowledge of the great importance and the want of
an efficient system for educational purposes, declared
in 1834, in the onost emphatic language, that,
'knowledge, learning and virtue, being essenti&l to
the preservation of republican institutions and the
diffusion of the opportunities and ad vantages of ed
ucation throughout the different portions of tlie
State, being highly conducive to the promotion o
T" -I mi. imnirvt UI IHir
children, and nuahlv them fnr all tho ,icri r.
i - i.- w ovilll UUIMIUS
of lire. It will be worth far core to them than tlie
accumulated wealth of worlds combined.
In concluding mv remarks unnn tl,0 tr i .
o j iiuuuiiaiii.
subject, I will call to my aid the language of anoth
er, which much more forcibly expresses the -alue
and importance of education than any thin" that
may or can be said bv me: ''Eiliientinn f n
ion which no misfortune can sunnress nn plimn
destroy no enemy ajienate no despotism enslave.
At home, a friend: abroad, an inrmdnpii
' ' " Vt,.ll. 444 BUli"
tude a solace; in society, an ornament. It lessens
vice, it guards virtue, it gives at once a grace, and
government tocenius. Without, it wW Jo -
u --, iimii: a
plendid slave! a reasomng savage! vascillating be
tween tne uigniiy 01 an intelligence derived from
God, and the degradation of brutal passion."
Tlie cause of education wnnxv cnl.ilf ii.
-- - -- ' ' wuwiiiutcu IU Ulw
Senators and Representatives of the people, to be
uiKpuM.ni oi as uiey, in meir oest judgement, may
llppm TTIrtCt HAIIrlltni-,. rt ll.A ....1.1'. . 1
wwwu, ...w.-l. VVI.UUwI.V W LltC pUUllU gwwll.
TAX OX SIERCnAXTS.
Tlierc is some comnlaint -witli tlm n,.ni:i ;
teresf, in consequence of the unequal and discrim
inatinir operation of our revpnim ini-a
mcrphants' license. The cemplaint is not with
out some foundation and good cause on their part.
The law. a3 it now stands, rpouirpa nit n.l.nW.in
- , - i .. ,Tiiwi..aiw
and retail dealers in merchandise in tin's Rt.-itp in
first pay into the Treasury of the State one-half of
one tier cent on tho invoice cost nf nil nnnu i o.i.
ed by them. The main cause' of complaint, as I
understand it, is, tliat in the first place, the whole
sale mercliant, by the revenue law, is required to
first naV into the trejwnrv tbo hnlf nfnnn n- 4
I. " w ... wMw J '1 I VCUU,
or fifty cents on the hundred dollars. After the
tax is paid by Inm into tlie treasury, the retail mer
chant tbpn linrpJincpa tlip enmn rmn.la r 1
j. . ...w - - . , . wl 1UU1 jlUU
tikes them to another establishment, in or out of
the count' where purchased, as the caso may be
and vends them ao-ain: fnr ivbieh Iip ?
pay one half of one per cent, or fifty cents on the
hundred dollars, into the treasury; which is one
Cent naid to the St.itp fnr (tin rrnndo ttma mM tj..
1 w f. .' iui,.. .'UIU. JLIV
this process it will be perceived that the State lavs
a double tax on the troods nurehaspd fmm ti,
wlinlpiLilp ilpfilpr n-itliin thp limha nf ilin Qinin
Tbft bnJnp.wi rotAil ilpalpr Iiae nn Hiffipuli l n
. - - - T-- --" v..,.v.l.lT 1 II llil
derstanding the operation, and finds it to his in
terest to go beyond the limits of the State to make
his purchases, and thereby save the one-half of one
npr ppnt in thp nnrelmcp nfliia irnmla 1TV.. ,
on every hundred dollars. It must be obvious tol
all business men, that if the wholesale dealer is re-
nnirofl fipist tn nnv ttip tav intn itm
when the retail merchant buys of him he must pay
it back, and then when he makes sale of the goods,
he must nav a like amount into. th irnan,,.,,. ,i,:i.
b pracppally compelling the country merchant to
pay a uouwe tax to jnp State ot the:same goods;
which, as a matter of course, mnl-ea it !;. inikmni
to 'o bevond the limits of tlm Rtnio
cj j - - - ...w i w .v uiurtc no
purchases, and become the customers of the foreign
wholesale dealer, instead of the wholesale dealer at
home: and to that extent rniemtps nrmlnot
. will will!
commercial cities and commercial men.
It is most manifest to my mind that tbe practical
effect of the reveuue law, as it now stands, regulat
ing merchants' license, is to discriminate against the
merchant at home and in favor of the one abroad.
The subject is, therefore, submitted to your consid
eration, with the hope that the law will be so modi
fied as to place the mercantile interest of Uie State
ir.: ! , a.
on an etjuai looung aim in a neiu ot tair competi
tion with a like interest of the other States of the
The Bank of Tennessee is represented, in ft report
made by the resident of the General Assembly
on the lOtli day of October last, a3 being in a sound
and prosperous condition. While the Bank is un
dergoing an investigation by a committee appoint
ed by the Legislature for that purpose, I will refrain
fiom expressing any opinion in regard to its pres
ent condition, or making any definite, reenmmpn-
dation as to wjiat course tho General Assembly
ought to take in reference to its future manage
ment, more than, however, barely to suggest that
the present would bo a very auspicious time to put
the principal and all the branch banks into gradual
liquidation; giving ample and reasonable time to all
jiersans who are indebted to the institution to make
arrangements for paying the amount they owe.
The process of winding it up at the present time
can be made so gradual and easy as not to embar
rass the indebted portion of the community in the
A number of Banks have gone into operation un
der a law nassed bv the last General Assembly. and
others, no doubt, will soon commence; which will
more than supply the vacuum created by tlie with
drawal of tbe Hank- nf Tpnnpsapp nnrl fnrnlcli nil
- - . . ...... . .. , . . .. . ....... .
the banking facilities needed by the whole business
portion of tbe country. As the capital of the Bank
is withdrawn, it can be profitably invested in the
bonds of the State, bearing an interest of six per
cent'per annum, which will be the safest and most
judicious investment that can be made with the
common school and other funds which are now in
the Bank of Tennessee and under the control of the
If the Stale can, in any responsible time, dispose
of the stock owned in the Union and Planters'
Banks upon good terms, or all other stocks owned
by tlie State, it would be equally wise, safe and ju
dicious to make a like investment with the proceeds
of such stocks in tlie six per cent bonds of the
State. The number of internal improvement works
which have been commenced, and which are en
titled to aid by law from the State, and the great
number of others tliat arc to be commenced, which
will require the issuance of a large amount of State
bonds, amounting to many millions of dollars, will
jilisnt-b thn rntirn cnnitil of tlfrvStntn "Rntilr nnrl n.11
ihejfioks owned by the Stafef if they arc invested
in,th!'bnds of tho StatOj as already" indicated;
which investment, in my judgement, will -b'e far
safer and more profitable in the cud, than in any
hank, State or private. "
- ' PKSITKNTI-UV. ' .--
This institution has. so far, failed in all. thelead
ifig objcds.ofits creationi The. TOrdThement of
persons within the prison-house or prison walls of
a pemfenffary, With lire'vrew'o'fTcfbTmTng' them Tn'
their moral .character, lias been "proven by all ex
perience to be a great error, and it is uot now con--tended
for as a reforming institution by any one
who has become at all familiar with the" subject,
There is not One in evsrry thousand convicts whose
; moral condition is improved by such imprisonment;
but, on the contrary, most of them, if not all, are
made worse than they were before, and become
tnnrn pnnfinnpd in crime.
Upon the subject or convicts becoming reformed
r rtrtili.liii-if lmiirioAiimi.tif . ...1 ....... 7 i T Tl
uwib mm ilwwwUllUUl, UL,
'rPtarV nf fifntn in n nli'n
and elaborate report made on the 15th of Septem
ber. 1845. to the Couunissionpr nf Pnhhn Itm'lil.
ing, and by them submitted to the Legislature, u.ed
the following, language: "I am euthx-ly skeptical on
the subject of reforming convicts by teaching them
mechanical trades; little or no good results from it.
When the roiinci leaves tlie prison, he lays down
his cap, and with it his trade. He looks back upon
both as the badges of his disgrace, and the com
panions of his imprisonment; he aims to something
else which he considers better than his trade, or re
turns'to tlie re-commission of crime. The trade, in
most instances, as I believe, serves to better qualify
tho villian without reforming the man. Those who
would attempt the moral reformation of tho felon
must employ other means. They must bear in
mind, that three-fourths of tlioso who ate stained
with crime can neither read nor write. The mind
must be cultivated in order to produce those genial
influence? which' are calculated to remove vicious
inclinations and base propensities, and give place to
proper sensibilities and corrected, feelings, from which
altered intentions and virtuous actions must spring."
The trial, conviction and sentence by the court of
persons to the penitentiary for violation of the laws,
lias had no restraining influence whatever on im
morality, and r. rries little or no terror to the mind
of the evil doer. The announcement in the' court
house yard that such a person lias been sentenced
for so many years' imprisonment is received with
no alarm, but, on the contrary, with great indiffer
ence; and it is the frequent remark that it is better
for the individual who has just been sentenced to so
many years' confinement it will be far better for
him. Jle wjll, while there, be enable to learn a
good trade, and will live better there than hp ever
Hill liofnrn TUa 1 :fl 1 1. t
w,w,i... me cuumi iiiuii iicuaiww Willi Ills
guard and starts with the convict for the peniten
tiary, makitl"' rathpr the imniwrn na lm ln,i-w,
upon the mind of many spectators, that the prisoner
has done well in(obtaininga traveling trip of pleasure
aad money-making business for the sheriff and his
escort, and he in the end to be made one of the
mechanics of tho country. In fine, on these two
points, it will bo readily perceived, the penitentiary
reforms no one after he'is confined within its walls;
and the sentence of the court and confinement to
gether, detenrno one from a violation of the lawsof
the land.' ; "
In the next place, the system has fallen far below
the expenses incurred in the erection of the estab
lishment, aod the annnal cost of carrying it on, up
to the present time. Upon a close examination of
all the items properly chargeable to the institution,
after giving full credit for all that it is entitled to,
there will Hill lie fbund a deficit of not less than
otic hundred thousand dollars probably much
more. I have obtained sufficient data from Mr.
Love, the principal book-keeper, who has appeared
very accommodating and much disposed to afford
every facility in his power to remove all difficulty
in getting at the true financial condition of the in
stitution, together with a report recently made, by
the Comptroller of the Senate, showing how much
has been paid out of the treasury for tho convey
ance of convicts to the penitentiary, to satisfy my
mind that the 'State has incurred a heavy loss by
the penitentiary. It will take .but little investiga
tion of this subject to satisfy any discerning mind
moral influence on society, in or out of the Peniten
tiary, and that it is now-, nnd h.nn 1
on the treasury, and will most likely continue sp,
unless the whole establishment undergoes a thorough
While the institution has failed in all the leading
objects of its creation, the manner in which it has
been conducted has been made to operate injurious
ly upon the mechanical interest of the country. It
has been made practically a State Mecltaiiic instilate,
fostered and sustained by the treasury of the State
-I I - i. j l . .... "
fiuu uruugnt into direct competition with the me
chanics of the country to the extent of its entire
operation. The conditions upon which persons are
admitted into this State mecJianic institute, are vrey
discriminating and inviduous in their character.
Before the candidate can obtain admission to the
high privileges of being employed in this institution.
at any one of the branches of business carried on
there, he must first commit the horrid crime of mur
der, arson, larceny, rape, or some other one of the
offences violative of law. lie must then stand a
trial, in some of our courts of justice, and then re
ceivea certificate from the presiding judge thattliese
facts areall true, and in addition to this, he must
be accompanied by the high sberifTof the county
and his retinue to tlie Slate Jfechanic In$iilvte.
Having arrived, his credentials are presented, and
such other evidence as may be required, that he is
a fit and worthy candidate, having passed through
the order necessary and proper to his -qualification
for adrhifsion. He is then received by the proprie
tor of the institute, and safely conducted tothe stone
mason's, sculptor's, or some other department, and
there begins his new avocation of reducing the
rough and unpolished marble to shape and fashion.
Thehand3 that are yet crimson with the blood of
the unoffending, aro mndo to ply the mallet and j
wii.sci, uiu pucraie?, me urecian philosopher and
statesman -perh.-ps, too, in the course of his servi
tude, with the same guilty hand, to engrave upon
tlie tomb of the departed and illustrious dead the
ines. which are intended to indicate to the inquiring
living their many virtues and exalted worth. And
so, aho, with all the other departments that are car
ried on in this institution: there might be similar
illustrations made in reference to tailors, sboema
keI hatters, blacksmiths, wagon-makers, &c.,&c
The State, by the establishment of this institution,
and the passage of laws to sustain it, gathers from
every county in the State all the incorrigible of
fenders who aro known, to (he lqw, and after col
lecting them within the walls of the penitentiary,
embarks in all the branches of mechanism, and
openly cnteis the field of competition with theme-
chaios of the country. The mechanics outside of
the penitentiary are required, by all the obligations
of good citizens, in peace as well as in war, to sub
mit to taxation to sustain the government under
which they live, and at the same time compete with
the State in their own branches of liiisinp.H This
policy of the State, in carrying on the branches or
mechanism, and the employment of all the felons of
the country at them, has a direct tendency to de
grade the mechanics of tho country as a body.
Felon and mechanic; crime and mechanism, from
their close association, become corresponding terms
in the public mind. The felons, after having served
out their time, are turned looso upon the country, to
mix with the mechanics as best they may, and'per
chance to become inmates of their families, ,and
vuiuiKiiiiuus in uieir snops. js it right that this
description of our population should be thrown up
on, and associated with, the honest and industrious
mechanics of the State, either in person or profes
sion? - There is an instinctive repugnance in tho
bosom of all honorable men, and it is reduced to
practice by nearly all those who have chapgoof our
cemeteries, by excluding the felon from being asso
ciated with us even in the grave. If it is degrad
ing to be associated with a felon after we are dead,
it must be much more dedegrading to be associated
with him while we arc living.
In conclusion, upon this subject, I must be per
mitted to make one earnest appeal, anil that is, for
the legislature to so direct the future management
of the afTiirs of the nenitenlinrv. hv thuir l,.icli-
J , J ....... .V-I.-IM.
tion, as to protect tins large and respectable portion
of our fellow-citizens from this degrading associa
tion and competition, by excluding all the branches
oi uiuwiiaiiiwiu irom iue jieniienuary,
The true foundation of our Judiciary is to bo
ound in the Bill of Rights, which was adopted by
the sovereign people in the year 1790, and was,
in thc.year 1S31, re-affirmed. In the 17th section,
they have declared in the most emphatic manner,
"that all courts shall be open, and every man for an
injury done him, in his lands, goods, person or
i ; .... 1. .. n i . .. .i . . i . i r i
upuuiuuii, riimi uaic icuiGuy uy nuu course OI law,
and right and justice administered without sale,
uent.il or ueiay una is laid down as the basis, as
tlie foundation of our whole system of jurispru
dence; and it is imperative on the legislature in the
organization of our couits to conform them to the
principles herein laid down. To a correct under
standing of the kind of courts to be established,
we should first determine what is meant by the
terms "right and justice;" as used in the bill of
rights. The most approved authors define the term
right: "Conformity to human laws, or to other
human standards of truth, propriety or justice."
"wTuwffw the constant and perpetual disposition to
render every man his due," &a In this connection
we might consider tho meoniog of equity also. " In
an enlarged and legal view, ".Equity, in its true and
genuine-meaning, is the soul and spirit of the law."
jRight, justice and equity, according to common
jsense, and tho best authorities, mean the same
thing When it comes 1o establishing a-court or a
tribunal, or it may be called by any other name,
which is intended as a standard by which the pre
cise difference .can be determined between the con
tending parties, it is imperative on the legislature
- to establish that standard which will accomplish tlie
great end, as designed in tho bill of rights, and if it
were, possible to s organize our courts, that when
parties came into them to have Uieir differences ad
; justed, for the court and jnry to ascertain what is
the precise equity between the parties, and then to
determine that as the law of the case, "equity be
ing the son and spirit of the law" in other words,
making the equity of the case, the Jaw of the case.
Taking the bill of rights as the foundation for our
courtsthc inquiry verynatural!yarisesa3to whether
our courts, as nowestablished.under the sixth section
first attide of the constitution, are in conformity
with the principles herein laid down. This article
says, ';tho judicial power of the State shall be
vested in one supreme court, in such inferior courts
as the legislature shall ordain and establish." This
provision of the constitution would seem to give
great latitude to the legislature in the organisation
of the courts. But the exercise of this power by
the legislature must be in strict conformity with the
principles laid down in the bill of rights. The bill
of rights being the better part of .the constitution,
In all questions of apparent conflict between the
bill of rights and the constitution, they should be
reconciled and made to harmonize, if possible; but
where there is a final repugnance, the constitution
must give w"ay, it bearing the same relation to the
bill of right) that a law does to the constitution.
Hence, in the-organization of the courts, tho legis
lature has no authority under the sixth article," to
depart from thin great and fundamental principle, as
laid down in the bill of rights, or the better part of
Under the constitution of 1706, judges of the
supreme and inferior courts were appointed by tlie
legislature to office, duringgood behavior. The leg
islature conferred upon the courts chancery and
law jurisdiction, which was exercised by them for
thirty-eight years, or till 135. The people, after
making this experiment, became well satisfied that
our judicial system was exceedingly defective, fall
ing Jar short of carrying out the great principles, as
contemplated in the bill of rights.
In 1834, the people again, in convention, so
changed the constitution as to make it more in con
formitywith the great idea of right and justice, by
Changing the tenure of all judicial officers from that
of life to a term of years, and at the same time re-ferring-baek
manv ritlipp plpnCnna tn
a . .... . uicm?cica
-which had been given un in the eonstitntinn nf
These changes in the constitution have been ef
fected, in part, for the purpose or conforming tlie
-courts of the country, in their whole structure, to
the wants and necessities of die people. There has
been evident dissatisfaction with the courts of the
country ibra number of years past The people find
fault with tho judges, .complain or lawyers, and
sometimes condemn jurors, affording conclusive evi
dence that there Is a wrong somewhere: Delay,
expense and perplexiry of mind on the part of the
lilifrniita o.iii 1 .... . .. , I. . . , - ,
wwiinvivnww in iue i-ouriw mucu impaired
in the nublic estimation Im.ti.i- ,
tel. an individual goes into what is termed a court
oi iaw, to ootain justice m some matter of contro-
i grey, aim aiier mupa time is spent and expenses in
curred, he comes out of Law with ftlnnrrKil if rmata
to pay, and ir he complains or the proceeding, he is
oiu uiBk wis tasu was a gooa one, hut he was unfor
tunate in bringing his action in the wrong court;
that his remedy is not in law, but in chancery.
Another individual brings his suit in a court of chan
cery, and after a like delav nf tfmn nnd tr-i.i,. .-
filing bills and hearing answers, he is turned out of
iiurL wiui a mug mil oi cost ana charges to pay,
and he is consoled in the same way by telb'ng him
his case is a good one. but his remedy is nnt in
chancery, but in a court of law, there being no
equity in his case: and in tliU
, j ----- "j fu.b-v.t v; rwiLi.
osculating from a court of chancery to a court of
mm ii ui .i tuun ui iaw ro a court ot ctiancery
until in lha nn.l IP .1, 1 .,
... . nu, 11 mc cuu ver comes, tne suo
stance of the parties is, in many instances, consumed,
and the gainer of the suit is frpnnpnt 1- th Jn,- .nj
the unfortunate party goes into immediate bank
ruptcy. This is the mannerin which law and equi
ty is administered nndpr mir motmii t :..
" 1 , , " ' ".."l 311-111 Ol ju-
nspnidence, which, in fact, i3 tho great cause of
iviujiiuuii, in me jinnies who go into ourcourtstb
obtain justice andofawant of confidenceon the part
nf till, nnnnla in 1 1 . . . 1 . PI 1 I
Lpon this subject I shall take high ground, and
assume that the courts pan lm cn rmin;,i n, t
- -. '"-l law
finil imiilli. nan. lii 1 l .1
w.jU..j .Ml auuiiiiisiereii uy uie same court
by the same judge and jury, and at the same time'
and that, too, without "sale, denial or delay." Let
the courts of law and chancery be blended or con
verted into one court, (it is not material by what
,vu .-a u; or, in otner words, let the law
and the equity of the case be heard by the court and
jury at the same time let tlie parties, if necessary
be examined in opeu court let all therestraintsand
barriers be removed all false issues and collateral
questions be thrown aside, aud the cause tried upon
the naked merits involved, and thereby administer
"right and justice" to Uie contendingparties, and let
them go hence without delay.
-i icei wenassured that the people, throughout the
State, expect legislative action upon this subject be
fore the close of your session. Thjs is a most pro
pitious time for bringing about the change in our
judiciary, as indicated, the people having removed
all constitutional difficulties that were in the way
by tlie adoption of the recent amendments to the
constitution. There Is now a bill before your hon
orable body, entitled a bill, "To abridge and simpli
V l"e pleadings, practice and jnocttdingi in thecovrts
of justice in this State,'' which will, if passed into a
...ii, -i.i.w.i.jjiisu juuon in coniormmg the practice in
the courts to tho rpmiirpmnnta nf tlia t,;ifp
- 1 wo wm ui Jlglllw
and tbe wants of the people. In recommending this
bill to your favorable consideration, or some one
very similar in its provisions, I am not recommend
ing a new and untried experiment, but one which
has been tried and approved by many of our sister
States. It will and can succeed with us as it has
with them, if the experiment is fully and fairly made
and will, no doubt, give general satisfaction here, as
It ha3 there, bv simnlifrinp- nliennpninr ,i ,.i .
enmg the process by which litigants may obtain
"right and justice."
that the bill referred to has been prepared, by its
originator with great care and much labor, is mani
fest to all who will give it a careful examination1
and it is believed, after passing tlie legislative ordeal
will be so improved as more closely to approximate
the intentions and design of those who framed the
constitution. The leading principles of tho meas
ure now recommended to your favorable consider
ation, have been advocated by me since my first
entrance into nublic life in tlm iftir,. n,i
i r -ww,., ".ivi in , 1 1:-
llection and observation, together with the success
ful exneriment which liaqliepn mndo in nllio- Ci.i. .
. ... wwj, i uuwra
ot the Union, have tended to confirm me in the
opinion that it ought to be adopted in this Stote
and tliat, too, before the adjournment of" the pre
In connection with this subject, I would recom
mend that, at the earliest moment practicable am
ple provision be made for bringing on all the 'elec
tions as contemplated by the amendments to the
the 23d Fehruary last, between the UnitedStatea j if T . - ft? l QD f
and France, accompanied with a circular,- which I u7 j,ft(Y IT T (ft3 Tl T ft IT fr
will explain theobjectof its transmission; bothof; ' Vt ltU,V Vi.Hl XJ U U V
which are herewith submitted for your corisidera-s . ' . - --!.-. Sp
which are herewith submitted for your corisidera-J
AMEHDMEHT3 TO IDE C03STITuTI0!T OF THE.DStTEIt?! T. lEKUV Jc CO., have just reccired
STATES. . .
of the- r l" Y, "Hy ?"-. 1 .EAit i'assaoes mojr the
T will mnct rpanntfiillir rnll thp fltfpntinn
- ' ww wWU.w...J -- . w. ...w
General Assembly to the fifth article of the Con-
:..:.. -r .u - ir-ri.j c-i . . i.;i.
iiiiuuuu oi mc u ii lieu dimes, which presences
the mode and manner of amendment to that in
strument, and, also, three propositions to amend
the Constiiution of the United States, which are
appended to, and made a part or this message,
which is respectfully submitted for consideration
and action by the General Assembly. In submit
ting this subject, I shall make no long or labored
argument to the Legislature or the country, to
prove the importance and necessity of adding these
three amendments to the Constitution ol the Uni
ted States. All who are in favor of popularizino
0Ujfv.e? in.sli,ution3 as fa" 8 may be practicable,
and bringing the general government nearer to the
people, will receive and treat them as self-evident
I will conclu-s, by adding, that they were the
doctrines or Jefferson, of J.ckson, Macon, and a
number of other statesmen and patriots, whoc
opinions are at all times entitled to the respect
and consideration of the American people.
I feel that I cannot conclude this message with
out urging upon your consideration the'importance
and propriety of instructing our Senators in Uie
Congress of the United States, and requesting our
Representatives, to use all reasonable exertion to
procure the passage of a bill granting to every
States.a "Homestead" of one hundred and sisty
acres of land, outof the public domain, upon con
dition of settlement and cultitation for a number
of years. This is a measure of no ordinary con
sideration to the American people, and the correct
ness of its poliry has been settled in the public
judgment, and would have been tlie law long be
fore this time, had the popular will been carried
out by the Congress of the United States. 1
therefore hoDe that vou will al-s tn-h ne;..
"will reflect the popularsentimentof the sovereign
people of this State, and therein-
weight of your influence to the consummation of
nn- great measure.
Gentlemen of the Senate and. House or Repre
sentatives: I have now brought. to your favorable
notice, in as brief a manner as the nature ami im
portance of tho subject would permit me to do,
such measures and suggestions as have been
deemed worthy of your consideration, and entitled
to receive legislative action. And I have done
this with the earnest hope that they may meetyour
cordial approbation, and that they be given that
direction which you, in your better judgment, may
consider most conducive to the public good; and,
further, I would most fondly indulge the hope that
I have, neither in the measures submitted to your
consideration, or the manner of submitting them,
transcended the limits of that courtesy which is
due from onp co-ordinate branch of the govern
ment to another, and which should be preserved
at all times inviolate.
In conclusion of this, my first message to a de
liberative body, permit me to invoke, in aid oryour
deliberations, the guardian-spirit of an overrulin"
Providence, and that all your legislative acts may
he so thoroughly imbued with patriotism and wis
dom, that when you shall have closed jour ardu
ous and perplexing labors as Representatives of a
sovereign State, and shall have returned home to
the circle of your families and friends, you will re
ceive the welcome salutation or an honest and
confiding constituency, of "well done, thou ood
and faithful servant."
' ANDREW JOHNSON.
J octs. Dcscnptire ofllie Fc-Mjii. AVIth S-Jian-tra-
tiona fn it n iImwihihi 1. w v : . . .- . .
tique Morocco. ' j
2. HOMES OP AMEUKJAN STATESUKf. WITOiFIK-
It IIItictT-Atiin.1 V:.. .1.. ?. . .. . .
ii iiu ucwcnjiiiTC ilf'icies bj Juni-
nent n r.iers
S. HOMES OF AMERICAN AUTIIOItS. IU.USTtA
ted with engravings n Steel.
4. AMEUICANHISTOIUCAL AND LITERARY OURt-
oaities: Cororirusog Fac-vSi.,- of An,.,, ,n,
HutoncalUocomenUor Gtent Interet aid VSrk--1
olio, Morocco Antquc
5. LONGFELLOW'S I'OEMS. BIURET FiKTVnu
beautifolly illustrated English edition. I Ve ewnt
volume. Morocco Antique. b
C. LONGFELLOW'S HYPERIO.V: A ROMANCE. ' II,
lustrated with 100 engraringsoo wood, from Cranio
jnade by liirket Foxier. Murvcco Antiquf. '
7. LONGFELLOW'S EVANGELINE: A TALEOF ACA.
dia. Illustrated with 45 steel engravi'Dg oo wood from
designs by llirket Foster. Morocco Antique.
8. THE WIDE, WIDE WORLD. ILLUSTRATED WITH
14 ragrarings oa SteeL lrom origiail desiciii Hand
somely printed in I -olaine.
9. WILD SCENES AND SONG BIRDS WtTHTWEX-
ty brillhntlr colored drawings '
10. BOOK OF -THE HEART; OR, LOVE'S EMBLEMS -Illiolr-lea'
with 58 fine Steel engrsttegl Ut31-
1U CHRMTMAS WITH THE POETS. A COLLECTION
of Lars, Carole, and Dtscnntite Yeries. relating to tfe
Festival of Cbnstaias. Embellished with 6, t,Delr finl
uhed tinted ilhistration. Soperbl.r bound.
12. WOMEN OF THKBIBLF: DELINEATED IV ASE
riesof Eighteen characteristic engraving of Women
mentioned m the Holy Scriptures-
13. THK BABE5 I.V THE WOOD: ILLUSTRATED WITH
Ten oeautiful drawing br tLe Marches-s ut Waier
rord. .Printed m colors, elegantly bound m Morocco.
14. THE WAVKRLEY GALLERY: COMPRISISQ-TIIE
principal I emala Characters in Sir aHer Scot t' Nor
15'ThIEpJ,ALL.ESY0.F BYRON BEAUTIES. BEINO
thernncipal Female Ch-raster in Lord It-rot. Po-
16. BEAUTIES OF THE COURT OP CHARLES THE
tsxoatl; with their Portraits ln one eieganilT bouua
volume. 0 finely e-grured Portraits. -
17- y!?.G?rM!'UU? J '0M3!I SHRINES. BY MRS.
&.U UalL With nearly et beaatifnl tUustration.
IS.. THEdlEROINES OF SIIAKSPKA RE; COMPRISING
th portraits f the principal Feaude Characters in tba
Plays of the Great Poet. 1 voL Morocco.
10. HOLY VESSELS AND FURNITURE OF THE
Tabernacle of Israel. With 7 Enfuatte IHustratkra..
SO-BIBLES AND PRAYER BOOKS. OXFORD EDI
tions, in elret and Morocco Rinding. Clasps.
21. LEAFLETS OF MEMORY: AN ILLUSTRATED
22. THE WHITE VEIL: A BRIDAL GIFT. IN KLE
gant cream colored calf.
25. THE BOW IN TUECLOUI); OR COVENANT JtER
cy forth- Afflicted. CalC rfegant
24. THE THOUGHT BLOSSOM: A MEMENTO. BY y.
P. Willis. 16 Engra rings.
T," il0HF ttXUAfc A TOKEN FOR VM. BV
J. T.'Ueadly. IK Kgruritg.
26. FRIENDSHIPS OFFERING FOR 1(C,I.
27. THE SNOW PLAKE FOR mi.
2b. AFFECTION'S GIFT FOR ISM.
23. THE KEEP SAKE: A GIFT BOOK FOS TirC HOL
- ADEtVPIII THEATRE.
Second night of the re-engagement of tbe distinenished
American Actor, h
Who will appear for thfirst time in Naslirille. as IIAR-"
OLDE, TllKMERCUANT OF CALAIS, wiun bynim.
TUESDAY EVENING, DECEMBER 20, 1353,
Will be presented a new play in fire acts, entitled
The merchant of Calais.
IIaro!de ' Mr. NEAFIE.
To conclude with the Farco of
BOX AND COX.
HET-Box Office open from 9, A.M.. to 12 JL; and from
1 to 5, P. M, tbe seats mar be secured.
i K 1 1 : K i K i ii nv I ' 1 n 1 1 - ,
w .... , w .. . . awn aniucue, tw cents:
Sociind Tipr. TA ivnli- Saivin.l Tv tw? J in
Colored Bex, 50 cents; Colored Gallery, 25 cents.
Doore open at 6. Performance to commence at 7
THE EXCELSIOR TROUPE.
SKCOND AS.M iL VIST OK
KUHKEL'S NIOHTTNOALE OPERA TROTTPT"
AUGMENTED by the addition of the following gifled
. lill.CH, the Eccentric Comedian and Comic Dancer.
J. K. SEARCHUib rollm-.l VmlLl -.. i v
1 - ' ..v.. . .. n i.tuciiinroii
L BROWN, theI)Lstinguishe.d Accordeomst.
HERR AHREND, the emiDent Violincello performer
PAUL BEUGEU, the Great Basso.
Master SIDE, the j oung yet grai jig dancer.
These, in Ailditinn 1a thn tfir.Ii ivn fPil rvn.'n
TROUPE, fiirm tliprnmtvMv.Kldiv.w.. v.i.: ...
hneators now before tbe pnblic.
iney win make their first amarnee onTTTESnAY
evening, Dec 20, introducing m their entertainments the
Sonin of Tom?iiii- nml Plni.i:..n .i a. z
n -- t . mwm. . w... ... . i (iuuuuiii; uiaar
new and pleasing features in their iwrtraituresof Elhiopean
Ailmi.HS?nn HCk tvnif T.vim n .r
COnmnnnir at Tnpiivr trw.i-Al v
J.n 1 , .
J. x. mtiu, Agent.
TtrsT nrrpivpn irnfr ivn . .
fj MALTBVS SUPERIOR PLANTED HAL-VsTMJ
T1MORE OVSTEBS For sale by the can or 1
can, at No. 7 Pnblic Square, Soqth side, between Frontand
Market pts. All Oj&ters sold at this Depot are warranted
ircsn ana gooa V Ii.LlAJt M. MILLER,
AUCTION SALE QF GnoCHIES.
BY HART A HOLLI.VOSWORTH.
ON THURSDAY the 22d instantat 10 i.'cloct, A. il.,
we will otfer for cash in front of our Auction House:
fill hhfl litmrr
50 bags Cotleer
50 barrels Molasses
25 barrels Loaf and
25 casts Nxla;
100 boxes Glassnare;
in) boxes niap;
50 boxes W R Cheese;
0 boxes Candle;
50 barrels Flour.J
25 kilts Mackerel:
150 boxes Jlauufecturcd Tobacco.
A I SO:
Pepper. Spice. Ginger, Alum, Indigo, JIadder, Paper,
Blacking, Raisens, Wines and Liquors. Ac, Ac, Ac.
dec20. HART A HOLLINCSWORTIL
WANTED. I WISH TO RENT FOlO'ilE
next rear, a comfortable familjr dwelling, with 7 or 8
rooms, 'convenient to tbe churches and female academr.
R. W. brow:
Real Estate Agent.
1. tbe House ou
WEIGHTS ASD MEASURES.
Under the previsions of the Federal Constitu
tion, Congress lias adopted a standard of Weights
and Measures, and, by a resolution in 183G, de
posited with the several States a set of those
weights and measures. A portion of this set has
been sent to the State of Tennessee, and is now
in the Secretary's office; the remainder can prob
ably be had upon application. But this provision,
to establish a uniform system of weights and
measures, is wholly insufficient under thexistin
laws on that subject. Indeed, no law has been
passed, since this standard was adopted, or since
the distribution or the weights and measures
among the States, and, of course, there is'nothinjr
in our Slnfi. ifitu -a....:.:. . i , , &
-. .Riming uur sianuara Keepers
to conform to this general standard. It seems to
...w mat a iaw ought to be passed, requiring the
standard keeper for each county, to have his
weights and measures compared with, and tested
by, the standard furnished by Congress. And that
there should be some responsible functionary,
known to the law, whose duty it should be to take
inspection of this comparison and test, and when
fairly and accurately made, to seal and mark the
weightand measure so tried, with some officialand
authoritative brand or stamp without some pro
vision ol this kind, the provisions of the act of
Congress are nugatory, and no authoritative as
surance is given, that there will be any uniformity
mthn a'mrrhla nn.l mn. .1 . .. J
Vv" u ""-loiirfsiiirougnout tne state.
Without a conformity to this comrrfon standard
great and constant injustice may be done to our
own citizens, or unintentionally practiced by them
in all our interchange of commodities with other
fatates, or among themselves.
There has been transmitted to the Executive
department, by the Secretary of State of the Uni
ted States, a copy of a "Consular Convention be
tween the United Stat
"ii-ii-u U...U ma jJia-
jesty, the Emperor of the French," concluded on
Eon It EN'T. TH E THIHD STOItYOF Til E
bouse on Front street, tvo doors from the PublicSonare.
tor term, appty to jUA A. STOUT,
dec202w v r. iti.,i',t
KENT.-TilE LOWER STORY OF
OUSA nn r mn t uli-oal r .1.. tv. i -
- , , ...... ......,ug ui.ii Hum Liiw 1 UUIIC
Square, suitable for a Coffee House or Store.
awu.-iuto gooa rooms in the 2nd Storr. Forterms
appljrto IRA A STOUT.
dec20 till 1st Jan No. 5 Clark Strt.
O CARPENTERS, HOUSE PAINTERS, BlilCK
layers. Fire Companies, and all who want a coaren
ient LADDER. I will ll nn S.eninniv n. am. r
, , ' . 1 11-7 .. 1 1 J I 1
at the Court House, a 8ne PATENT FIRE ESCAPE LAD-
Lir.it to me Dignest Dinner tor Uash.
dec20-td. 1. A. STOUT. Clark sL
KEGS PURE WHITE
II G SCOVEL.
J LEAD, just received and for sale br
FORTY LBS. PATENT DRYER, .SUPE
RIOR to any Dner now in use. Just receired and for
sfcby dee-0 HO SCOVEL.
TIIIRTY-EIUIIT LBS. RED LEAD, JUST
received and for sale by dec20 H G SCOVEL
17IRIIT HUNDRED LBS. YELLOW OCHRE
1 just recired and for sale by
tertO H O SCOVEL.
FrVE GROSS MUSTANG LINIJIENT, JUST
receired and for sale by decSO HOSCOVEI..
iust receired and tor aa.l hr
dec.0 H O SCOVEL
OlJIt I1BLS. TURPENTINE, "JUST" RE
-t.nt.iJ ana tor sale by rdeci'Ol II O SCOVEI
I), JUST UU
11 (i SCOVEL.
170UR BBLS. TIJIOTII Y SEED
JL ije.1V f.l and for sale by dec)
T7HVE BBI.S. CLOVE
rOLD LEAF. A SUPERIOR
VJt just receired and for sale br
BBI.S. CLOVEIt SEED. JUST RE-
rdec20 11 G SCOVEL
II G SCOVEL
ELEGANT ENGLISH" BC0S3.
XSqPi:C MOROCCO ASI CAW SLVDIAOk
THE WA VEIiL Y XO VELS.
(lldpltil timiittiriil FMniKj.w. V.v.t:nn jd ..n
miiwu, in I ilian,
with i tugraring oa Sleet br the most Eaiianut Ar
tints of tlie day. Full calf.
SCOTrS POETICAL WORKS.
12 vols. calf. 25 E-prariBgs from Desigw by Turner
THE BRITISH POETS.
Pickering's handsome Hngjfch Edition in S3 rots., call
CiimpribinfrNorthaBmT Abbey, Mansfield Park. Kta.
", . iu. uuu x 1 ijiiuice, oeiue ami eaMililr. i ol
AliABIAX NIGHTS EKTERTA1XXEXTZ.
. New Edition, with SCO Iftestrlies. 1 reL cloth.
ADVENTURES OP GIL P.L,iS.
Translated from th6 French ol I Sige. EmbelliiaaJ
. with 500 Engravings. I nil. oalf.
AD VENTURES OF DON QUIXOTE.
JarrTi Translation. tiOO tttuAlrjtis.
WE BRITISH ESSA Y1STS.
comprising toe ispectater. Taller, GuarJlan, Adren-
, " - -"'iihwi'V Jiirrr,
i .iim); t-i,iuiu uo5tn-, mm 'iTeiaccs, ltioernphicaf.
Historical and Critical, By Alexander Chalmers, Zi
Ti OS WELL'S LIFE OF JOHNSON.
1 trokers hdition, with ABecd&te. tnl calf,
BUIiNS LIFE AND imm
Edited by tbe Etrkk. SkejiWd ami William Mother-
THE PICTORIAL mP.T.K
Illustrated with Steel KsraTny- after celcbrnled Tis-
BATLLIES (JOANNA) WORXS
Embracing herDraaalic and Pweil Writinin.
THE LslND WE T. TYK TV
A Pictorial and Literary Sietth Bfwfc ot the- Briu!i
i- Tn Tllf l IrnU In ImulnH
1 - - . .ww . w, IHIUQII,
CUMBERhAND'S BRITISH THEiTRE
With Portraits. 60 vefc. bound in 80, halt morocco.
CURIOSITIES OFL ITER A I UUR.
By D'IsraeK Cumptefe in I vL calf.
BOOK OF COSTUMES.
ur. Annuls otiasbioa. By a lady f Rank. 200 En-
BYRON'S amiTT.vrrR nvypjt-c.
Comprising his Poems, Letters, Journals ami LUW pir
Viith a Biographical and CritiOal iBtreductloD, 2 vof,.
COLLECTED WORXS OF COLERIDGE!
Complete in 17 rob, eolf. Pine wpr.
CbmprUinff his Piwras, (ferreapendene andt TraasU.
tiooa. W ith a Life by Somber, U rot, cloth.
CHAUCER'S POETICAL WQRXSL
..1.11 an rewoj on ihs laHgojje and VersiGcatioo. 6
DRYDENS POETICAL WORXS
comprising roeni?. Tales, and TrausUtHms. 1 r&l.
BROWNE'S (Sm TiTnu.ifJx vmz-y
- v 11 iiuia,
XtUibracinfr ma uti-irKmirM l;-.. ri:. 01
t -Morals, Cbrrespondence, Jounak, aod Tract-. 4 roll.
MODERN BRITISH ESSA YSTS.
Comprising Jlacauler. WIon, Carlyl. Tatfounf an J
oiepnen, ayuney 9lU3, Attwa, JrtTrey, and Jlack -tosh.
8 roU,ba!f calf, anliqac.
THE ItANOSDOWXE SUA XSPEA RE
A beautiful Gift Bonk for all Jealous. With thenamM
ot me cuaracicrs.prinleaat faM length in Ruben's.
THE COLLECTED II ORES OF HAXIETT.
tUiU)iI by liisSoa. la 11 rots, 12 mo ealC Fino coj,
LIFE OF MA RTF TiK ifP.mnKM
Queen of Franeu, Consort of Henrr IV, ami Retmrt oT
Louis XIII. By Mhs Pardee; S rets. r
lVmpei-na: Tln)TMeraphr,Mliricert. and Ornament!
of Pompeii. Third edition. By Sir U'ittium Gell. I
Pictorial, Descrijitirc. ami Ht-nrveal. Uy Chnstopl:er
Wadsworth, I. D. A nev edition, willi orert'jfn
THE CRYSTAL PAIulCE
And iU content betae aa WttMrated CTeop!edi of
the Great Exhibition ef the iednsiry raK Nations. Em
bellished with orer.160 engrariags,
HEW H.LU5TBATEH JUVENILES.
The Pieture Pleusuro Hook. IMiistrtel wdh
upwards of 0x) Eograriog with drawings from EdrIi
Art Us. 1 rol. 4 ta, neatly bouiuL
The FaTorite Picture Book. Designed toA
muse and Instruct tbe Young.
Parley's Prciit lor nil Seasons, ar L. G.
Goodrich. 16 Engrarings.
Pannv Leaves for the Younger Brunches.
By Boron Brakesides.
Rnvmiril tilt I'iit? Tb l!nnrkl- Hbrr iiT
Reynard the Fux. i t Ilhtstratkms.
Christmns Blossoms : A Jureaile (iift fori T4
The Gem Annual (orl.'t.
Children's Annual frlJ.vt.
UNITED FTRF.arEN'S INSUEANCE C0MPANT
CAPITAL $100,000; SHAJtES $20
THIS Cnmranv has
in sMccessful operation atwut fjgg- 1 l liaring just returEed from New York
ttcell e months xm Kropin... .X th j?!'.;- r . .
veniber. tlie charter faax hnm
citizen of the State to take stock. The Citizens are allowed
to bare one Director tor erery Fire Hundred shares held
by them. Those taking stock will hare to pay 28 per cent
ou uieirsuuscniuuna anu giro a note lor tne balance.
The Books are now open at tbe office on College street,
where our citizens are invited to call and subscribe.
A. W. JOHNSON, President
J. a. UJUmzu- Secretary. deel", dec2 lm.
now nceiring and opening; tlie largest and tmesJ woclc of
fL llAllillLli, . 1. 1. r.uiw I . will.ir.lb lAwJlf
j5V FORKS, PITCHERS. TE.V SETTS. AND I'LA-
SVaTED WARE: and a rariety of FANCY AND
USEFUL ARTICLES, suitable tor presents, I hare erer
OFFEHED FOi: SALE rr. Tlie LAD1SS and.
OEXTLE1IEN are mxiST fiillr mriud to eait
being confident they can Scd UUutiS and PRICES to sail
at the Old Stand, No. 15 PublicSquare.
j , ii- it n 1 1 Tinrv-
II XI 1OUIVU.i,