Newspaper Page Text
C. . DU38200TGTOX fe
EDITORS k rROl'METORS.
Voluntary communications, containinsintercst
int or important news, solicited from any quarter.
News letters from tho Tarious counties of the
State especially desired.
All communications should lo addressed to the
" Editors of tho Usiox ash AsiEniCAV."
F. SEYMOtJIi, M. D.
(Late Urieadc Surgeon, U. S. A.)
OCUXTST AXI AUI5IST,
Offico 3D Cedar f trcct,bctwci-ii Summer and Cherry.
Office for treatment of all Difcascs of the Eye
and Ear, operations for S-iuintinif, Cataract, ect.
REAL ESTATE AGENTS.
rilHE firm heretofore ciistinir under tho name
1 firm and rtjlcof W. MATT ItUO'.VN .t Co.,
in this day di.'olveil by mutual consent. Sir.
llrown retires from thobujinew. Mr. Cajlcnacr,
in connection with l'hineas OmtcU. will co
tlnuo the Ileal Btnto Wines at the old stand
W. Matt. Jlron k Co. ATO. HWN.
CALLENDER & GARRETT,
(Successors to V. Jl ait. Bnows k Co..)
Real ICkLsiIo jVy;oiitK,
41 Cherry Street,
WILL clve their prompt attention to tlierellinc
and rMithiKofeTery dwriition of Ileal Iutiitc.
2e:si k a km-: ic ksi ihsxces
ltuildiittf T.ots for Ssilc.
01' V All MS.
1st. A fine Kidi-o. eurtniiiinj: lirmnw. iu
rut territory. Also two vacant lMe ailjoiiiiiiR.
. That sHiwhIM ltesMeiieo of the Into. Tamo
.Totimxw. mi ItnwdSftreet.lM-twi-enPutnmcrana
HhHi street. tntaininc 8 riMwi. Iile servants
room and other out limiw.
1. That iidefHlid Keidence of the Ialf Hardin
1. U(tiek.entainiH nlwmt 10 room, out house".
vie. !om1 Sitriwf Hml spring houe with fl'A
nrr of Iswl, immediately adjacent to the city, on
tho Charlotte l'ikc.
tth. fiO nr tf rraand of the It.irrow property,
on the Charlotte Tike, which will be divided te
fish. A very lsrcc iminltor C Lots In the Oily
and the different Addition" to Naaerille. ' Lots
in Kds-afidd and Itrowwillc.
ftth. A vory lanre linmlier of the HEFT TA11MS
hi th'w a ixl the adjmnimt Monties. Apply to
j. l. .t il v. unowx.
deel lm . UnioU trect.
.IU3A1, ustatk mukth,
"ITA VU a lnree amount of Real Ifetato toscllin
I J. thlB'Hnd tho lulK'nincStiitos.
THIIY BUY AND SELL
Cilr,CettlyjidSIleBflnds on coimni-iion, ns
MoIljiereiyliiiplI"i f Govcnmicnl fcecuri
JUAURY TJ0UOTV l'ARMS,v
aiSiffercd nt very ruasonaliln prises. Also, one
A PLACE ON THIS CUMB15RIN1 RIVER.
of Iflfl nerts. in Jaelcson eeuuty, Tcnn., for rale.
Nl'l.i:!lll VITY ikoim:kty
)0 VRltTmi Cliuri Mrect. opposito the Max
)) well lIiHisoandMasouio'lVniple.atnrcason
aMoriee. This i etrtil, choice property, and
if inoru than 3u feet door.
Vino street, between
IfltrUi and lliiion. wry choice location, but the
location, lull the
The pries is very
improvements are moderate,
!U Fee-! . with Ure luiek dwelling, pn ino
treet,'betweefl I'nimi and Ceilnr, being about the
iiMtstdesirablo location lor icsidcncos in tho city.
20 I Vol on JtcGavoak st reet. West Nashville,
on whieh is a neat lirick liuelling, fl or 7 rooms.
3(M4ipn. stable. e4. and Srst -rate cistern. Price
ohWV.wj. iiohso snu prcniisvB in i, wuvi.
inn i-.w.l ltroa.l .Irwl Wist Nahville. Willi
t4tit new lirick Himse. intaiiiiiig 10. r 12
nww, kitehtn. table. tv sterii, hriibUcrj
!... st mf"0. Very dMiablc. lfii'itsel
within tcUv. thl. Urite and choice idaee wil
Ite rentetl for the remaim'er of this and the whol
of KeKt year.
30 IVrt mi North Market street, corner f Lo"
cuM. tm which i the well known Pleasant fcinith
ho. 1'rie R5W.
no Vert mi Sra,rect. yiM. laree, elotrant
ntMl new llrfek I1wJ1ih. ittntaimmt IB rooms, 2
lUirim.kItehei, extra ftte, wlMl ens. Water,
nntl evwy iwhumh nuproveieuu
4K IVet m l'ark street, wHli -ooinwin lin
itroventents. very Is". This property mnthrh
10 IVrt m CoMb street, bcini Oij lower ltor
tk f the lot so occupied br Departmriit
lWwrtes. lJairlw t Dr. Waters. Price
A Mttl lot on North OnJIete. last below
SALOON AND liBSTACKAOT.
Calami md ReatMuaat. now
kwMtL In Gm retr eeclri) cf
farlve yr rVw 1st Januarj- next, at prm
mMlht t be atisfn'ton i t )' dnrioc (
W. MVCC MflW..
BiLll 1 TIIIKfi
ItlLlf, INSTATE AXI
c o it 1. 12 c t i x ; a c; e x t s.
DHOMrPINfl FAlTIirn. AND PROMPT
I atlentliHi to atl liin eutru.lwl to our rare,
no rMtctfuUy tmdsr oursrices to the Pulitie.
HsGetveral Agents, for the Pi.r-lie niwlSaleid
Html iMAto; Kotitiuc ad lx-uc of City or
fViautrv Property; Colle!in f Note; Accounts
and Votwhen; IarctigatnHiorilc, otertc
DILL1N A THOMPSON.
ORcc. over Second National Rank, Onllrge strrtt.
Jviutboast iHirnir Itroml and Market its.
MEDRY A liritKK.
Southeast Corner llroad auJ .Mat ki t sts.
cnfi R-UREI-S SV.W YOIIK APPI.EH,
0JyJ tno bet in tlie inarkri.
Southeast corner llroad arid Market its.
GROCERS & BANKERS.
J. H. EWIXO,
SWING & CO.,
Comer Iluildini? Market and Church streets, for
merly occupied by Ewing, McCrory k Co.
A HE HECEIVIXG and have in store the fol
1U0 barrels Ilrown Sugar.
f) ilo A Coucc cu gar,
It do do
C do do
Stuart's Cnidhcd Snjrar, standard.
do A do
Ml ltOt-sRvnin. 5 nnd 10 cals..
09 harrels A'o 1 and 2 Mackerel,
Mhfdo do do v
M) irdo do do
2HU Mta do t'o
barrels". JT. k Co's Whisky,
Si do S. X. Pike's do
2V) boxes ptarcandlcs,
SO dozen brooms,
100 boxen chcesJ,
50 boxes raisins, . .
MX) kexs nails,
KK) reams paper,
50 boxes aworlod soap,
10 kegs BiiiR3r,
W dorcn buckets,
AO tacks ltio coffee,
100 boxes candy,
WJ baskets cliampasoc,
.')0 rasas Sardines,
U boxes starch,
fiQ do pickles,
20 lo Madder,
7 barrels niidcs,
.7) boxes assorted wines.
lOO"! Liirrcls Flour, all trades,
TVI '! i Potatoes,
loo boxes l'ire Crackers,
Ul cases 1'irs,
100 cases assorted Liquors,
In addition to the above we have a general as
sortment of srocerics, all of which wcro bought
during tho present pressure in tho Kastern mar
kets. We expect to sell goods" on short profits,
ami would be pleased to have our old friends call
on us. EW'INU k CO.
A. 0. Ewinjr, of the former firm of Ewin. Mc
Crory .V ( will be found with the above Cm for
the purpo'e of settling up their business. dcc21
I POWELL, GREEN & CO.
S IS It O A STREET,
Ctit.tiMr.ua Pokti.i., formerly C. l'owcll X Co.,
Knoxvillc, i onii
L 1". GREEN.formcrlyNichol, Green k Co. Nash-
Cil.ts. M. MctiiiKK, living at Kuoxville, Tenn.
RY tho above ccnl it will bo seen wo have cs
lnbliilii'il nnrsolvos in New Yor for tho liur-
im.p at doinir u lo"itinnlo commission business:
mwl liphiL it 'rftiiiosMc house, wo respectfully so
licit tho pntroiianc of our Southern friends gen
erally, it'll are amply prepared to make cash ad
i nin es on consignments ; to loan currency on gold
without charge of interest: to purchaso and sell
eottn, tobacco, llour and pork : also gold stocks,
IhiiuKhikI government securities on a margin ex-"
cluiivcly on commission.
'. IMiWIXI., GIIKKN" k CO'
JP 1 JZ S II
TV. HAVE ON HAND A GOOD ASSORT-
Consisting in part of
Which we will dispose of at private sale for fair
We have also for salo 1000 bushcll of pnmo
heavy O.its. wlncli we wish to close out at once
under intructions. . . .
MR. WM. J'llll'llAIll) long ana lavorayiy
known to thi community has taken quarters witli
nnd will bo plcaci to sco nis oni iricnus aim
custoincrs. iiulMi.iii v iilii.i.a.-i.
dcclt tl Ji lutu AinrKci street.
BUSHEI PRIME OATS,
In store, and for sale at prices below tho market
llUl'Ml.ll.U .V HUliliiUll',
Our Anelion Ssle on Thursday next will em
brace a lino variety or Liquors, looacco anu uro
ccries gciicrally. together witht ho consignments
liUllMI.U.lJ .V lIUliliA.M',
3'4 South Market street.
iri: Ihcvc rcmovol our Stock to the Uarc-
lwtii'i. ornpr (Mmn'h nml Collciro streets.
form eily occupied by Pajne, James A Co., where
we linpc to meet our loruicr patrons anu iuo puu-
Oar Stock is
And we always tell
A. A. SPENCER k CO.
Illtl.S CHOICE AITI.C.S;
Superfine ami citra family Flour:
CarlniKls ltran, in store, and for sale
RHEA A SMITH.
D. D. DENTON & CO
CITY STEAM RAKERY
AXI CAXIY MAXITIMITORY,
AMI N RIIOAI) STREET.
Dealers can Iks Mippliwl on (short notice
with everything in our Line, made by our-
Aho, Bread, Calfcs ctc etc.
D. D. DENTON Q. M. HUNTINGTON.
STATE OF TENNESSEE,!
A .L SIMPSON, ADMINISTRATOR OF L.
A. N. Simp-un. deceased, u hereby crderrd to
give notice in the Uxwx ami AxtsiCAX, and by
written notice, at th Court lloun ilnor in Win-
cbrstcr, Tenn for all persons havincclaims anins t
aam mate to aiinear ana nit tb nm wim uie
unlfricul. duly authenticated, la th manner
jiwcnoea uy jaw, on or oeioro tli m of April,
J-.". auus. BUOUT. UerK.
MUTUAL LiFE INSURANCE
HOME OFI'CE: XO. 00 XOBTII THIRD St
SAINT LOUIS. MISSOURI.
ASSETS, July 1, 1SS3, &3G1,G41 S7:
Dividends declared to Policy Holders Jan. 1, 13S5,
Forly JPcr Cent.
Reader, Is Tour Life Insured T
If not, what provision have you made for your
dependen t oncsT TMN'Kl What would bo
"their pecuniary situation were you to
If it is wive lo Iiisurc, is it prudent to Delay ?
DELAYS AKE DANGEROUS.
JAMES II. LUCUS SAMUEL "WILLI
Robert M.l'unkhonscr, of Fni'k'ioucr.k Eunictt.
Chas. II. Peck, IVcd't of the l'iiilo Ko'i Itnn Co.
Robert K. Woods Cashierof thcMcrchnntsRauk.
Jules Valle. of Chouteau, Harrison & Vallc,
(ico. R. Robinson, of Robinson A Garlard.
Chas. W. McCord, of McCord & Co., MachinUU,
John V. Thornton, of Thornton & Pierce.
Isaac H. Sturgeon, Prcsid'tof thoN. Mo. Railroad
Hon. John Hojsn, Member of Conxress.
Hear OTentcls, of Orerstclx, AVaier & Co.,
Nich. Schaffer, of Nichola, SchafCcr k Co., Star
William T. (Jay, of Hsncukamp k TSAxtuxta.
David Keith, ol Keith k Woods, Booksellers and
R.P. Hanenkamp, of Gay k Ilancnkamp.
Isaao W. Mitchell.
D. A. January, of D. A. January k Co., Grocers
and Co.nmission Merchants.
Wm. J. Lowis, of Lewis k Bro., Tobacconists.
F. Rosier, Jr., of 1". Rozier. Jr., k Co.
Jacob Tamm, of Tamm k Meyer.
SAMUEL WILLI. P'cs'dcnt.
JAMES H. LUCAS, Vice President,
WM. T. SELBY, Secretary.
WM. N. BENTON. Gcucral Ajent.
DR. JOHN T. HODGEN, Consultini Thysician.
LACKLAND, CLINE k JAMISON.Lcgal Adv'rs.
HON. ELIZUR WRIGHT, Consulting Actuary.
81 IAS m. FOOT.
Siiio Ajent for Tennessee.
r. w. stkpiicxsox,
Soccial Ajcits, Nashville, Tcnn.
Office: Second Xntiunal JBanU I!iiiIUus:
Nashville Local Beard of Reference:
Hillman, Bro. k Sons, J. A. McA'istcr Jfc Co.,
Jno. Kirkmnn. G. J. SltiVolcfie!d,
James M. Hamilton, A. Humilion,
Thos. R. Jcuaiu, M. D., T. M. Madden.
l"y Affnlti-t Ix.Sby rire, Klvcr
nml Ilnllroad In the
Home Ins. Co. r X. Y.
Columbia, Cash Capital..
Arctic, Cash Assets
Ilurtrortl, Cash Assets..
Looses adjusted and promptly paid at this Office,
XJ. S. CLAIM AGENCY,
No. 2J NORTH CHERRY STREET.
Spcchl attention paid to the
couvenov OF cr,Aiis AGAIXST
NO CHARGES IN ADVANCE.
HOWARD k NELSON.
Attorneys and U. 8. Cairn Ascnts.
REFKr.F.xcF.s Hon. C. F. Thtz. U. S. District
Judge; Anson Nclon, Esq., President Second Na
tional Jiank; JJnj. lien. Donaldson, Ulncl VJuar
AT 31 SOUTH COLLEGE STREET. NEXT
DOOR TO NO. 2, FIREMAN'S HALL.
The only rcaui ie Cdinocrland in this Market.
Cheapest, bcoaue most ccoao.aical. Clearest,
bein? a puro Gas, and pivra no headache.
A. 8TKWAKT. O. H. 1IOLDE.V.
SOAP! SOAP!! SOAP!!!
DAWEK IMPROVED I'.R.VSIVE SOAP.
Kcst .So:u made in .the United
Send your Orders to
RODDY & CO.,
Xo. 00, Chiircli Street,
dec 21 d3m
5 000 lbs Ivew nmr'
S,o!lO lbs. New Raeon, Sidws,
b.000 Ibi. New U.icon. Shoulders
100 Tierces New Lard,
For Sale by
Mclaughlin, butler a- co
ffno DELIVERED TWO CAR
Jistls of Salt at N. k C. U. ,VfPi ,ontf
two weexs ivro, i
: ni r r L r, i aii- .1- ,x - " '
jVS 2-' W " YR. JONES. AstnU
FauonT Orrics N. 4 C. R. R.1
Nssbville, Dr. 11, J3- J.
vr ivtl AVTCn T11.T1 A Y OUll UKfOTt
I Kwll l. nnranl at tXC A.
1U I iU llVVttw. V.
Treljhts. ana rrom?ltr tiosea. l; , .
. ' - . i . i
UNION AND AMERICAN,
NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE, WEDNESDAY,
Y. W. EVASS,
Late of Evans CO.,
Lato of Evans Co.,
THOS. D. FITK.
Late Fiie,SUepue7d ico
Ltte of Gardner tt co.
II. C ECCCXEC.
Late of Gardner t CO.,
E. w, jctsixcs,
Lalo with Gatdncrlco.
Late of Evxus t CO.,
EVANS, FITE& CO.
XO. 4, IXX BLOCK,
AVE ARE NOW OPENING A LARGE AND
well assorlcd slock of
FOREIGN AAO AMERICAN"
Boots, " Shoes, Hats, ;
READY MADE CtOTIIINC,
PURCHASED FOR CASH
Since tho recent decline in prices, which wo ouer
to tno Trade
AT VEHY tOW PRICES.
Being connected with EVANS. GARDNER k CO,
of Now York City, and IMPORTING all Forcisn,
and purchasing from Manufacturers all Amcricau
Goods, and possessinj every advantase of getting
AVo feel every confidence in ssyLi? to M,c.cliauts
that we will sell them as Cheap as they can pur
Havirg adopiel tlio CASH SYSTEM, of both
Buyiuj and Selling, enables us to do business on a
VERY SMAIX AHVASCE,
so that those wlio bay from U3 can compete with
Stocks purchased a.iy where.
Having resident pailncrs in New York, gives ns
ailvanta7cs ia kee.iini up a Stock, which Mer
chants will find larsc and well assorted throughout
Wc solicit nnEiamliiatloitor our Stock.
Evans, Pite & Co.,
XO. 4, IXJf RI.OCK.
SNUFFS, TOBACCO &c,
J. & L. WHOKLBY.
KtrOCTEnS AND DEALKES I If
FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC
CIGAKS & TOBACCO,
Xo. C2 Mni-kct Stiet,
dec 1 3m
JOHN B. SMITH,
(Successor '.o Chat. Licbciistcis.)
Cor. Cctlar ami Cherry Streets,
(Under Commercial Hotel,)
A heavy stock of fine imported and domestic
Cigars, Tobacco, Snuffs,
Constantly on band.
33 UNION STREET.
THIS OLD ESTABLISHMENT PEALS. 1
Pianos ofS cinway and Sen?, .1. L. Dii uyiu,
Uo'ot. Numi's. A, U. Uale k Co.. and otlier fust
class instruments. Carhai., Nccuaaui k to a un
CllUr.CII AND PAItLOU ORGANS.
Also, SHEET MCSIC. and
MUSICAL MERCHANDISE GENERALLY.
Give it a call beforo you purchase. dccS-lm
A SHALL ItOOM. IX THE
merienn Block, froutiu? on Church ttrcct.
Apply at the couj.tui-rooJi of liie U'lion nud
American office dec!) X
rilWO VEItr LARGE ROOMS IN TUB
JL Fourth Story of the Oxiox and Auscicas
liLocs, well adapted to niauy purpose. Apply
at the couiuijj-roomof this office.
r. C. DUXMXGTOX k CO.
W. C. COLLIEU,
WROLESALX ASD Err AIL DEAL IX
SCHOOL BOOKS. BLANK BOOKS. GOLD AND
Arnold Writing Fin Id fc Copying Ink,
"Waldlnj. VUitlni and Printer's Cardi.
And the LateLiicrature or the Day,
SO. 37 BlflOJ? STREET,
(Between Cherry and Colleje,)
Orders isUeited for every description of Trlatiaf,
1 hmn OTlH A mm-ii nn-n
J J-LXUU. ULLU ,n.l I LDllUClll. '
First Official Kcport of Mnjor
HISTORY OF THE OUG.lTiIZ.VTIO
OF THE BBKEAU.
The Obstacles Ami Discour
Important ItccoiiinicnilnHoiis Tor Fn
IEX AND A3AX-
i.v.Dcc. '.lSoj J
UCHEAU ItErOOKES, iRF.EDMEX
noxr.D Lands, w.snixcTox,
Hon. E. 21. Stanton, Secretary of War;
Sir: I have the .honor to submit, for the
consideration of lib, Excellency the Presi
dent of the United States, the following re
port, called for by an act of Congres-t, ap-
nrnved M.nrdi .1. 1865:
Tn compliance with General Orders Ho.
yi, current penes, Aujutant-tjeneral s otuce,
I relinquished command of the Army of the
Tennessee, and assumed, as Commissioner,
the direction and organization of this bu
reau. The act of Congress, above referred to,
charges me with "the supervision and man
agement of all subjects relating to refugees
and freedmen from rebel States, or from any
district or territory embraced within the
operations of the army, under such regula
tions as may be prescribed by the head of the
bureau, and approved by the President."
On entering upon the discharge of these
duties, I separated the JJurean into four di
visions. One of lamb; embracing aban
doned, confiscated and those actpiirpd by
sale or otherwise. Oneof record-j; embracing
official acts of the Commissioner, torching
labor, schools, Quartermaster and Commis
sary supplies. i
Another of financial affairs, and the fourth,
the Medical Department.
To each of these divisions I assigned an
officer, and secured the required number of
clerks by appointment, and by detail from
the ranks of the army.
You directed the building which I have
used for an office, already under rent for
military purposes, to be ued by the JJurean.
The entire outfit was procured by requisi
tion from the Quartermaster's Department.
Prior to anv further action, I issued Cir
cular No. 2, o"f May 10, 18G5, aa a kind of
exhibit of my purpose; under the law.
Before the organization of the Bureau,
frccdmen's affairs had boon intrusted to De
partment Cominandcn, Treasury Agents,
and other officers of the government. This
occasioned a diversity of sy.teru in different
localities. Their opperations were confined
to points on the sea coa ;t, and to sections
protected by our military forces, until the
surrender of all the insurgent ar;nics opened
up the interior of the Insurrectionary States.
In fact, the work of surrender had not been
completed when I took the charge. Large
accumulations of negroes, who had escaped
from the enemy's linca, or who had followed
our armies in our expeditions, were found at
Fortress MonroCj Korfork, "Wilmington,
Newborn, the sea island.1 of South Carolina,
Nashville, Vicksburg, New Orleans, and at
many other points in the bouthcrn btalcs.
Superintendents of freedmen had worked,
I industriously, to prevent suffering, to regu
, late labor, and to introduce and sustain
schools. Ecally wonderful results were ac
complished, through the disinterested efforts
' of benevolent associations, working in con
junction with government agencies.
I In order to encourage all that was being
I done in behalf of the freedmen and refugees,
and to extend the same privileges through
out the interior of the States, and, further,
I with a view to settle the important question
of labor as quietly as possible, I deemed it
uesi. to appoint mc iissisiant v.omiuissiuiiers,
authorized by the law1, and send them at
once to their respective fields of duty. These
appointments were made by detail from the
army, with the exception of the Assistant
Commissioner of Louisiana, who had been
in the army, but whose term of service had
expired. The appointment for Texas was
delayed until official notice could be received
as to the military situation in that State after
Lee's and Johnston's surrender became
I sent, however, my circular to the Depart
ment Commander, as soon as he had estab
lished hia headquarters, with the request
1 1 1 'i 1 tin ilrt nrdrvllnn, n o".n.-f"i y' in iirrilinl
the interests of the freedmen till an Assistant
Commissioner should arrive.
The appointee for Texas, General Gregory,
left for his post the latter part of July.
' In order to confine myself to ten Assistant
Commissioners, according to Ir.w, I gave one.
General RufusSaxton, to South Carolina and
Georgia; one, Gen. C. B. Fiskcjto Kentucky
and Tennessee, and one, General J. "V .
Spraguc, to Missouri and Arkansas. The
rest of .the insurrectionary Statea had
each one. Unfortunately, owing to severe
sickness, General Saxton wan absent for thirty
days soon after his appointment.
Some of hi3 agents, sent to Georgia, failed
to establish any organization in that State,
and numerous reports represented everything
concerning the freedmen in very bad condi
tion, except at Savannah and along the coxst.
I thought it advisable to diminish Gen. Sax
ton's labor by sending an experienced officer
to take the immediate charge of Georgia.
Just as far as the safety of the agents would
allow, the Assistant Commissioner procured
a citizen, or military officer, for each district,
county or parish. The evident hostility of a
iwrtion of the citizen?, and their ability, in
i the absence of troops and civil law, to out
rage or take the life of an agent, hindered the
extending of operations, except by occasion
al inspection by an officer, in connection witli
The principal reason for confining the or
ganization of the bureau so much to military
j officers, arose from the omission on the part
i of Congress, to make any specific appropria-
tion to carry out the objects of the law. The
manner in which certain expenses have been
iaet, is shown under the head of finances.
So many benevolent associations were in
dustriously establishing and aiding school",
often overlapping each other, and sometimes
conflicting, that 1 resolved, for the benefit of
the freedmen, to appoint a single bchool .su
perintendent for each State, who should be
under the supervision and direction of Ihc
Owing to the muster out of most of the vol
unteer army, I havc not been able to secure
the services ot as man v oiticers.lor sub-agent,
as was necessary, and freniipntly an officer
detailed would be but a few days on duty
ixifore he had to lie replaced.
Again, many officers havc had the care of
their company, or detachment, or other mil-
i itary duty imposed, besides that in my de
partment. Most of the Department Commanders have
rendered me hearty support, and given every
j possible military aid. In every Stat?j ex
cept one, the headquarters of the Assistant
Commissioner and Department Commander
. at the same place. Thus it will be seen that
the Assistint Commissioner is the centre of
the system of each State. Through his offi
cers and agents lie disseminates his orders,
instructions and assistance to the lrecdmcn
and refugees, as well as the planters or pro-
pertv-holders connected with them. Ap
pended, sec list ot Assistant Commissioners
Under this head I cannot do better than
quote from the explicit report of Maj. Fow
ler, who has the immediate charge of the
1. What Property is Under the Control of
The act of Congrccss approved March 3,
1865, which establishes the bureau, intrust is
with the supervision and management of all
abandoned lands, i. c.; lands taken by the
government while their lawful owner was
voluntarily absent from them, engaged in
arms, or otherwise, in aiding or encouraging
On June 2, tho President ordered all offi
cers of the government, having property of
the character specified in this act, to turn it
over to this bureau. In compliance with
this order, the Secretary of the Treasury, on
June 27, issued a circular, directing his sub
ordinates, who had in their possession, or
under their control, any abandoned or con
fiscable lands, houses or tenements, to trans
fer them to gome duly authorized officer of
The greater portion of abandoned property
is tba insurrectionary districts, was held by
DECEMBER 27, 1S65.
Treasurr Agents, and aa the resclt of this
lie bureau came into possession, not
only of abandoned lands, but of all abandon
ed real property, except such as ivaa held by
military authority, for strictly military pur
poses. 2. Nature of the Control of the Bureau
over Abandoned Property.
"With respect to abandoned lands, it Tvas
the evident intention of the act of March 3d,
to give the bureau control, solely for the pur
pose of assigning, leasing or selling them to
refugees and freedmen. It wa3 impractica
ble, however, to divide and assign them im
mediately. A great proportion of the lands
was' already urder lease, given by the Treas
ury Agents, and good policy, as well as the
necessities of the oureau, for which no ap
propriation had been made, demanded that
all should be made immediately useful, and
that none should remain untilled and un
productive. In addition to the leases made
by the Treasury officials, others were made
; try the bureau, which did not confine itself,
' in its choice of tenants, to the classes for
I whose relief the bureau was organized. "With
j respect to the abandoned houses and tcne-
ments, turned over by the Treasury Depart
ment, the bureau had no choice, except to
follow the course which the law had marked
out for that department, namely : To take
I charge of, and lease such property for peri-
ods not exceeding twelve months. In de-
termintng its power over abandoned proper-
ty, the bureau has considered, therefore, not
only the provisions of the act of March 3d,
which gave it existence, but of such other
acts as have given agents of the Treasury,
and other departments, who have transferred
property, control over iL These acts are
regarded as giving the bureau every right to
abandoned property which an actual owner
could have, except, perhaps, the right of
sale. It cannot convey a full and perfect
title, in fee simple. But its right, in every
way, to control the property, to lease it, and
to take the rents and profits, is considered
undeniable, so long as these acts remain law.
For all practical purposes, the tenure of the
bureau upon abandoned property has been
considered as almost identical witli an es
tate upon condition subsequent, that condi
tion being the restoration of the property, by
competent authorities to its former owner.
The leases of town property have, as a
rule, been made from month to month. The ,
rents exacted have been moderate, and based
ii .i j ,-jii
generally upon those demanded by the agents
of the Treasury Department. Farms and
plantations are let by the year for a portion
of the crop, varying from one-tenth to one
twentieth. From one to ten thousand acres in each of
the several States havc been used as colonies
for vagrant and destitute frecdmeu. In
South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, some
land, the exact amount of which has not
been reported, has been actually divided and
assigned to freedmen, as contemplated in the
act establishing the bureau. In these States
the policy of setting lands apart for freed
men was initiated anterior to the establish
ment of the bureau, and under Field Order
No. 15, issued by Major-General Sherman.
A comparatively insignificant amount of
town property is used as quarters for teach
ers and officers connected with the bureau,
and as hospitals. "With these exceptions, all
property in the hands of the bureau is held
as a means of revenue.
3. Kcstoration of Property.
Shortly after the organization of the bu
reau, parties whose property was held by it,
commenced to apply for restoration of their
former rights. The policy first adopted by
the bureau was to return estates to those only
who could show constant loyalty, past as
well as present a loyalty which could not
be established by the mere production of an
oath of allegiance or amnesty. As tho bu
reau held property by the authority of an
act of Congress, for certain definite purposes,
it was supposed that this tenure must con
tinue to exist until those purposes were ac
complished, that property must Iks surren
dered only when it was evident the control
over it was unauthorized and improper.
This course did not meet withjhc appro
val of the President, who gave orders that a
pardon, cither by special warrant or tho
provisions of his amnesty proclamation, en
titled the party pardoned to demand and
receive immediate restoration of all his
property, except such as had been actually
sold under a decree of confiscation. Shortly
after this decision was made known, Circu
lar No. 15, dated Sept. 12, 1865, was issued
from the bureau, and embodying the provis
ions of the act of Congress, establishing it,
promulgated foi' the first time, definite rules
regarding the restoration of this property to
I former owners.
Authority to restore was vested in the As
sistant Commissioners of the bureau. They
were directed to turn over, at once all pro
perty held as abandoned, ujion its appearing,
to their satisfaction, that it did not fall with
in the terms of the definition laid down in
the act approved July 2, 1864. They were :
also directed to restore property, when ap- '
plication was made for it, through the Su
perintendents of the districts in which it
was situated, accompanied by proof of claim- 1
ant's title, and of his pardon, cither by spe-
cial warrant or the terms of the proclama
tion of amnesty of May 29, 18G5. It was
provided, however, that land cultivated by
refucecs or freedmen should be retained until
the growing crop? were gathered, unless the
owner made full compensation for the labor
expended and its products,
Under the provisions of this circular, the
work of restoration has progi cased very ra-
pidly, and it is probable that when the year 1 coast of South Carolina, Georgia and I'lor
: :;'. ir..i 1.. .:n r ,1 ' ,i.. ...,.,1:.,
terminates, little or no property will remain
under the control of the bureau. In the City
of New Orleans, property to the value of
5800,000 had been restored at the close of
September. In North Carolina about one
third of all in jiossession had been given up.
4. Leases and Bents of Property Beturncd.
In all cases of restoration, it has been the
tilan of the bureau to protect in their pos
session lessees of nronertv. who held lr.ises I
from any authorized officer of the govern-
mcnt .These leases were made and accepted,
in good faith, by both parties. Congress aa
thorized the agents of the government togivc
them, and its faith is pledged to their
validity. It seems to be the clear duty ot
every officer, acting under that authority, to
maintain and make efficient lib acts dons in
compliance with it. If the restoration of
property is to annul the leases upon it, that
restoration should be delayed until the
leases expire. It has been an invariable
condition, in all orders of restoration, issued
by this bureau, that all such contracts shall
As a rule, in cases of restoration on the
ground of pardon, rents subsequent to the
pardon are allowed to the claimant of pro
perty restored, when property is restored
upon proof that it was not legally abandon
ed, a full restitution of rent is made, so far
o. Kcsult of the Plan of Bestoration.
The uncertainty of the tenure of the
bureau over property, which is the im
mediate result of the policy of restoration
adopted, has rendered the division and as
signment of land to refugees and freedmen
impracticable. Fortunately, experience
seems to have shown that it is nota ncccssity.
Difficulty has arisen from disappointing the
natural and well-founded cxjiectation of
freedmen in this subject ; but it has been
overcome with comparative case. Much
embarrassment, and, in some instances,
actual suffering has resulted from the re
storation of projicrtyin use as offices, coloniej
01 lreeumen, and nospiiais, anu iuucu inure
11 1. r .1.-. r ,1. v.
win rcsuii iruiu 111c tuiuinuieui ui i"t
' venue of the bureau.
THE BEA ISLAJf D REPORT.
I will here attach my report in full, with
reference to lands embraced under General
Sherman's Field Orders of Jan. 15, 1865:
Adjutakt Gexeral's Office,
WAsnixoTox, Oct. 9, 18G5.
General Orders. No. 145. Whereas
certain tracts of land, situated on the coast of
South Carolina, Georgia and Florida, at the
time for the most port vacant, were set
apart by Major Gen. W. T. Sherman's Spe
cial Field Order No. 15, for the benefit of
refugees and fnxdmen that had been congre
gated by the operations of war,t had been
left to take care of themselves by their
former owners ; and, whereas, aa expectation
was thereby created that thejr would be tbla
to retain possession of said lands; and,
whereas, & large number -of the former
owners are earnestly solicitirrj the restora
tion of the same, and promising to absorii
the labor and care for the freedmen
It it ordered, That Major Gen. Howard,
Commissioner of the Bureau of Refuge,
Freedmen and Abandoned Lands, proceed to
the several above named States, and en
deavor to effect an arrangement mutaally
satisfactory to the freedmen and land-owners,
and make report. And in esse a mutually
satisfactory arrangement can be affected, he
is duly empowered and directed to issue
such orders as may become necessary, after
a full and careful investigation of the inter
ests of the parties concerned.
By order of the President of the United
States. E. D. Townsexd,
Assistant Adiutant General.
I proceeded to Charleston, South Carolina,
reaching there October 17. After convers
ing with General Saxton, the Assistant Com
missioner, and with land-owners, I resolved
. wguio smisw, us soon as me people could
' do convened at some central point. Thurs-
, day, October 19. accompanied b
. uhi pro to res ore me lanus, and evt-
.dences of dissatisfaction and sorrow cw j
t t i i . t W , V ;nc.raemD,'
I explained what I believed to be t!. wishes
of tho President, as set forth in.his mtcroew
with me jnrt before leaving Washington,
recorded. The people chose a committee o
three of their number, and to them I sub
mitted the propositions to which the land
owners were willing to suliscribe. The cora
" mittec said that on no condition would the
. .... ... .... ..utiuit.uua juuic
colored people be willinx to work for their
former owners under overseers as before, but
u iney could rent the lands oZ them, they
would consent in other rcspocU to arrange
ments proposed. Some would work for
wages, but the general feeling reemed to be
that they ought to be allowed to rent the
By a unanimous vote, t'. wat agreed thzt
the matter be left to ray decision, a-s to
whether restoration should be made, and as
to the conditions.
After careful consideration, I deemed '..
advisable to take course as follows :
1. Constitute a board of Supervisors in
which the government, the planter anu the
freedman had each a rspresenlativa for the
adjustment of contracts and cases of diffi
culty: Each land-owner was required to sign an
obligation, after which the order of restora
tion was to be issued.
Capt Ketchum accompanied me to Savan
nah, and met several of the planters inter
ested in lands held under Gen. Sherman's
Order, aud was instructed by me to sec that
the interests of the freedmen were to pro-
. . , ......
tectcd as not to deprive them of homcj
I passed from Georgia to Fernandina,
Florida, and thence to Jacksonville, explain
ing in the best manner I could the objects
of my mission to both the plautcrs and the
Circular 15, from this bureau, approved
by the President, had already occasioned the
restoration of a large proportion of .he lands
held as abandoned in different parts Of the
United States, and as Gen. Sherman's S. F.
O., Ho. 16, hereto attached, required tho
confirmation of the President before any
show of title could be given to the frectknen
the land owners claimed the benefit of ths
same Circular 15.
On arriving at Mobile I received tho fol
lowing telegram from yourself :
"Washington, Oct. 25, 1Z?5.
To Major-General Iloxrard :
I do not understanding that yonr cnlcra
require you- to disturb the freedmen ir. the
possession at present, but only ascertain
whether a just, mutual agreement m be
made letwecn the pardoned owners snd the
freedmen, and if it can, then carry it into
(Signed) E. M. STaxto:,-,
Secretary cf T ar.
I at once sent the following dispatch to
Capt. Ketchum :
Bureau of Befpoees, Feeedmen and'
Mobile, Ala., Nov. 4, 1865.
(Japt. A. 1 Ketchum, Charleston, i. V, :
(Cart of Gen. RufusSaxton,)
Dispatch 4t Secretary received. Be srnr
to have the supervising boanh constituted
for each locality, before anything else ia
done. They can aid in making the agree
ment referred to by Mr. Stanton.
O. O. IIowaud,
Believing that if an agreement, mutually
satisfactory, could possibly be made, this
would be the best mode of procuring the
The course I had p-rsucd I endeavored
briefly to apprise you of on the receipt of
the above dispatch trom your omce, oy a
telegram from Mobile, which is as follows :
Bureau of Bekuoees, Freedmen
and Abandoned Lands,
Mobile, Ala., Nov. 3 1863.
Hon. K Jl. Stanton, becretary of II ar:
Sir: Your dispatch, intended for me at
Charleston, reached me here. I set Capt. A.
P. Ketchum at work to make formal resto
ration to the pardoned, provided they com
ply with Circular 15, and provided they
signed an obligation which 1 drew up as
nearly satisfactory to all parties ai anything
I could arrange. I gave the freedmen a
, Supervising Board to guard their interests.
O. O. Howard,
Major General, Commissioner.
I have the honor to submit this report for
the consideration of yourself and the Execu
tive, under whose express orders I was .:ct
ing. It is excecdintrlv difficult to r-concile the
conflicting interests now ariiing with regard
i to lands that have been so Ion.'; in the jioAsen-
sion of the Government ai those along the
ida. I would recommend that the attention
f Hnnfinvia ! rfillml to the subiect of this
report at as early a day aa possible, and that
these lands, or a part of them, be purchased
by the United State with a view to tho
rental and subsequent sale to the frtedmcn.
I have the honor tb lie, very respectfully,
your obedient servant, O. O. I lo ward,
Major General, Commissioner.
In Vinrinia nuite an amount ot land was
1 libeled, and about to lie sold by the Marshal
I just previous to the establishment of the bu-
rrin. when the sales were suspended by the
Secretary of War, in order that these lands
might be turned over to the bureau, for the
benefit of the freedmen. I claimed that thfttc
lands, which had been condemned to sale,
though not actually sold, were already, the
of confiscated property. The President re
ferred the matter to t,io Attorney ucncrai,
whereupon, finally, tha word "sold" was in
serted. This decision naceEsitatcd tho restoration
of all the property, where the sale had been
suspended. I have been very desirous of
conforming to the letter of the law, in set
ting apart lands, but wxi unwilling to do so
before it became tirobablc that they could ba
retained. In this way, much disappoint
ment and suflering would be avoided.
The freedmen were so eager for the os
scssion of land, and so likely, without that
possession, in fact, or in proipect, to be
obliged to leave their present homes, that I
made the following proposition through
VTib DrrABTVMT. Bcbcac or Itrrrosrs,
FSEEDMKX XXU A1M5DOXKD l.AMJS
W4SHI50T0X. Oept. 4.
Hon. R M. Stanton, .Secretary of War : !
Sir: The matter of imposing Home condi
tions in the cases of pardoning those who
have lands already undor cultivation by
freedmen. for the benefit of this ckus of per
sons, having been presented to me, by the
Attorney General, and plan having been
suggested by a distinguished officer of the
army, which I heartily indorsed, I deeni it
best'to combine these suggestions in the fol
lowing proposals, to-wit :
1. That hereafter pardons of the President
of the United States, extended to those who
have been excepted, in his proclamation of
May 29, I860, having aon than $20,000
worth of property, be conditioned by specif
ic stipulation in each individual case; that
the land-owner agree to set apart, and grant
title,'in fee simple, to each head of family,
of his former slaves, a homestead, varying in
extent from five to ten acres, to be secured
against alienation during the lifetime of the
grantee. The location, precise extent, and
other details, to be determined by tlireo re
ferees, two to be cliosan by the interested
parties, each selecting one, and the two a
third. , .
2. ' That other persots, not land-owners,
be conditioned cccording tc their several cir
cumstances by equivalent or proper stipula
tion, to bo detennincd by a committee of
three, appointed rf the President.
Very xespcctfully, yonr obedient servant,
(Signed) 0. 0. HOWARD,
I felt quite sanguine that this course would
produce contentment among tb frcsdmen,
and afford an exwnsle to other land-owners,
beside thoee effected by it, My propceitioo
SWhlw T i ' Ahbaini Louisiana, MissLir?pf and Ten
. llharri Yhuley, I met the nr.rl then mtnmo.1 rJiXtw.
it a large church oji the island. ington Nov. 18. x havc . '
had ahead y reached ihe freedmen . rui n tt rr i Vt. .. . W ,
property 01 the government, ami onjeciin, iu 1 an,i t,n u
his Excellency, tho President, against the in- j t;on i,y tj
sertion of the word " fold." in the definition
may have come too late for adoption, for al
ready quite a number of land-owners had
In addition to the information derived
through correspondence with Assistant Com
missioners, I have the reports of inspectors
and also the criticisms of military officers
referred to me from other bureaux..
In accordance with Special Order, 2sa.
501, from the President, reqniring a personal
inspection and correction of abuses in the
Southern States, I visited Virginia, orth
fSrnlin-i Rnntb Primi;.,., n., fi...:.i
Strong (each being Brigadier General bv
btwet) to Tait thcSe localities that IcouVd
not reach in person from wantof time before
the mcctiBslo Congress. The reports, of
these iaspections would be too extended to be
embodied in this. I will simply add the
eenerat conclusions to winch l havn mmi..
I. That free labor, notwithstanding the
sudden emancipation, and the thousands of
disturbance incident to the war, will prove
successful ; but in order to hasten this result,
every effort must be made by officcra of the
government and all others concerned to
secure confidence between the holders of
i property and the freedmen, and to restore
that confidence wherever it 1a been Im-
t paired. On the part of the frcetlmen, they
are looking for justice arirprivilfoi wit h
perhaps too exalted notions ; yat their confi
dence cannot be obtained without a reason
able extension to them of tl.3 ng!ila ar.d
privileges of freemen. On the part of iha
property holdirs, great cc.aplaict is jn&de of
want of Eccurity of labor, .iic. lasoriiy wek-
ing some co:r.puicry pvjeaes ;
substitute tor slavery. j.f.cro ara so many
examples of complete success of free labor
that I bring them 33 an answer to such com
plaints, and ibclisvc that the causea of com
plaint are due as much to thi prejudice of
the employer, and want cf paetieal tnarr
ledgc of a;-.y other eystcm than uie cne under
which w za been broHit vo, as to the
ignorance and enr virion ol the iavai-tr.
I therefore earaestly advocate eqnaL:ty
before the law, tr.ytirjto tic 3 and edr.ca
titai to overcome prejudice and igcortnee.
II. Tliat this bureau or some arlwiiivte
for it, of a national eiirnoter, will ltnve to
be continued for the folior-icg reasons :
1. It vill require ai least a year Irani
Janimry, 18C3, to trtry to a cloe the rrA
division, whatever duportiot is rada ot' iha
landi. The faitli cf t-n jovsmneat Iwviiijg
been pledged cjiolcsass anl oortracts for
the coming year, it wotiiu be nr.wise to cot
nit them to ay State rgiricka.
2. Tho geverr aunt'La set the dares irae
arid found itcclf to zio.'.:i that freedom an
undiluted fact. Coirs guarer.ic-, beven-i
any e-xistis crlia;nca In env S'ate I Trite'.
h irwslial to tz .ra to riil ccr.tLm
ens 'wifot:'". f lifts apd
property to he
r-ryv..-np:i . . : 1
aa it :icc u in the bae-n Stctca, for the
r-Tit -.a-t, r-om sflvcral cause, there is
cUr.ger of the &atutc icr bssg in sdvttnse
cfjiiblic s in opt, so that whero there is tho
llbcmlity, ;U cotserTteneea -sr-jrrd he
li'-rly 13 re"lt, if tawnaiort prte:lio
shtr. vl br in "SuHtcIr witbrr.vrn.
Vr'hcr2 '''c bureau ial'a u rJibrd tl;w pro
tection, it :i yot r. nea-'ia of erporrig to the
govcrr: "-t, and i? ll-e wiblic, acts of in-ja-iico
r"d cprrssrfr-.j and in thi way ii
affords v. 12 oral '.ii; agairai tlfir ceauui
cion. 3 A traai of rrptfit conf!t1?nets betrren
tha-.vhits cmploy-a awl the colore.? om
pjoyjes actually assis to a lr.rge extent,
j-hr can usually 'as twcod to circamstanses
incctcd with tho war;
the peculiar prejudit
ar.d it is increased
by tee peculiar prei'toiccs ana euucauon ik
-Tl" 4 ,!.
The bureau oflkers urtually do lostcrc this
confidence, a3 a general rule, when zshW
Wiih scarcely any er;cpticnj ihc freed
mea expressed tho jitmost confidence in its
ii,nts, aid aro only rilienijed where ageb
prove tiicmacivez nnirue 10 itieir tresis.
Wherever the p!s.r'x-3 Lave tuken advan
tage of the r.:.l aabHed by tlia b-rea't, the
best resets have foliated. This wci t will
icquire time fo- its cptsplet.on.
4. Educutics ic absolutely essential to
the lnxJmcn to fit tlicm for their r.sw duties
and responsibll::. I find m.-r.y enlighten
ed and karcd uca in every Stutc attvecs
ting the necessity and wisdom of ostabluh
in -i Rw'nm of cJccation : yet ljxlieve the
majority of the white people to bo utterly op
posed to educating tho negroes. The oppon
tinn U ba r rcat that the 'cashcra, tliough they
may bo the r-rt tit Christian jaoptc, aro
nevjrthelcss vkltid p-.:blicly,and priva'ely
titli t,r,.V, Tt t.iol Ol' rT. illlS fcM-
schools, whicli, it is beli2"ed, will in time,
1... t,:.. o,...,-. nr,,; ,.,,,1 ;-tfir!nnc?. brill;;
overall fair mci, at least, to tuei" Bnppor.
5., Every colored man J met, of nil? con
siilpmliln intellit-eneo. tiImiI rnmprllv fn-,.10
continuance of the bureau, as his osly h6pc
of justice and privilege corrcqwnusnt to the
necessities of his new position. Therefore I
should fear an almost universal disturbance
among the freedmen as a consericence of itn
removal, till society liad become siorc net
tled and State action more liberal than at
6. The absolutely indigent, as orphans,
sick, aged and infirm persons, now aiced by
the bureau, have no present prospect of local
7. The large accumulation of freedmen
front the different States in Mrtain localities,
though very much reduced in numbers, wil!
recpiire a United States Agency to separate
the frcetlmen and find them homes or places
8. The poor white refugees, disturbed and
impoverished by the operations of war, arc
yet in some States, in extrciac need. A lib
eral construction of the term refugees will
enable the government to relieve tho press
ing want sure to exist in Georgia and Ala
bama during th'i coming Winter.
9. Thebnrcaii,with its agencies, affords a
means of constant and reliable information
essential to Congressional and Executivo ac
tion, till the hostility against the govern
ment shall have more completely subsided,
till free labor shall become more palatable,
ic rights of negroes to full protcc-
ic laws becomes more generally be
than now appears.
10. The bureau, in conjunction with tno.
military force, is at present a means 01 cn-
.r.T- !.. .i:r c..,i.
couraging immigration iu inuuiin-itiivouuni-crn
States. Union men of the South, and
VrtMl,m ,,nti nrtw rfmuKnrr tlipre. have ex.
AIUtllll.llt - - 1 , ,
pressed their utmost fear lest the War Dc
nnrtment should withdraw lis agcnclsfl. as-
Fcrtinc that the state of Bocitty Is such that
they coum noi remain in uiu uuum miu
safety. Quite a number havc urged mc with
all their might to do wliat I could to prevent
This fear is doubtlcsd much exaggerated,
and probably based on the unusually large
criminal list, yet it does exist, j-.vcry pos
sible niatcrial interest now favors suC" im
IIL That the present organization of the
Bureau, with the understanding that it is not
to be permanent, is as good as any I could
sugget-t, except as to the subject of Frud
mcn'i Court, and tho employment cf civil
agencies. Many of the sub-agents, who are
absolutely essential at present to aid in reg
ulating labor and perform each other duties
oa are devolved upon thcni; could ba solect
cd from the county or district rcrpiiringsuth
officer, from the citizens, receiving compen
sation, from fees, provided there weve law
for this action. Should this course be defin
ed inexpedient and not be authorized ty law,
the Barean may havo sufficiently large a
propriations to admit of employing civil
If the Veteran Reserve Corps be retained,
many of its officers who have been partially
disabled, and who would, if discharged, re
ceive a pcniion from the govcaunt, could
be detailed to thw duty, without dsulment
to the general service.
IV. That in conwouenco cf tlio eraanta-
nation relieving the luasto of the direct 4e
Sponsibility to care ir tlie ed, the infirm
and the helpless negrocn, and observing how
imperfectly the family relation baa existed
among them, in some Staica their marriage
not having the sanction of law ; soma cent r
al mmtem of nrovidics for tlia cbaa will bo
necessary, vriiile tlie iiecdiacn aro regarded
aa ward of the govevamcjt; rcmcthintj be
yond the scope of the present law cstaulufr
ing the bureau.
V TmI tn rcniler anr portion of the de
pendents able io take ad vantage cf the home
stead law in Florida, Louisiana, Arkansas,
ai where there are available, psblic lands.
aid will hivs to ba fumbhed tliem in the
share of LansporUAica, Urajoriry food aid
shelter. axJ implements of husbandry.
VL That in order to plica education on
. V-li. V. Jl, JIUHiUU U11U XilCUL-iOl.
the SAsimtu: ah,t rxiox axd
OfSco Union and American Block, corner Chuica
and Cherry itxects, oppositt th Pojt 0ee.)
Daily $14 0
Weekly 3 CO
Proportionate rates for shorter period.
Subscriptions invariably ia advancer.
a firmer basis than it now is, it would be
well to devote those funds raL-cd during tho
war, under the Treasury laws, for the benefit
of freedmen, to securing sites and bnildings
for the school purposes in the different
States, to be held as United States propertr,
until the people in turn shall be able to re
purchase the same ; school buildings should
npt be exclusively for freedmen ; for any
aid given to educate the numerous poor
white cliildren of the South will be most im
portant, and conducive to the object our
government has in view, I mean the bar
mony, the elevation and prosperity of our
people. Industrial schools and "orphan
asylums could be provided for in the samo
way. These funds would at best be but a
meagre amount for such a work, yet they
would give an impulse in the locality where
VII. That joint companies, whose object
shall be to aid the poor blackg and whites in
the rental, purchase snd settlement of land,
shonld be encoursretlby the goramrcent, and
thatthe rihhts of the nrecuaien to rent and
purchiw? real property should be guaranteed
to then beyond rpscsticn.
VIII. That in cvs this Bnrean be con
tinued. ?t wwi'd be well to &x definitely
uoon the eon-lttions that should govern the
wiUdraral of Sts nrc'si from any district,
county, C State; ako,. to prcocribe expluity
the dutt and powers cf this tesey in the
States where it hell exist, f iKliwpeciaUy in
those "witSin the territory embraced in the
operations of fri army," lit which havc not
been dcchtretl in insurrection. Many per
plexing questions hrs uriset.ro Marvlnnd
ami iCemceky, aaUg-ea'W ccatricts of au
thority are anticipated ir. the reox-.;izcd
Etico, whenever the rrovnuoual Govern
ment ami United tjUtae forces slmll be with
draw. IX. That atacc the prevent law expires by
ltd own limitation, cue year alter thcIoeeuf
the war, m1 sine tbe eiretMgta8C attend
ing ita inception have altogether changed, I
wooia recotcniemt t&roah yon, btr, a com
plete remotleling ot revision of that Jaw,
sLcuid it be deemed beat to OMtinno this
brs. sch of your department.
It Is Cbtiusnted tea'. Ut amouwt requi.-cd
for the expenditotre of the barean Vur tho
fiscal yeir eeatneagiiig JiMjrtry, 180-1', will
be $11,745,060. This sam is icquuito for
the following purposes :
o&Unes of AnMnt im1 Stte-AetotMi. .
Coiam: .nuts .. $14? rA)
Solrr!- of CtorK .. - S-.vK)
SUtienery mwt irhiic . tti,HXl
QtM.tft muI Kul 1
ULotfeir.s .-ditriutien - l.T'.nO
Ci umhory Stoic. 41 W
t-VaccH Supari'radants. 1' !. )
Sit for 6ofe.ol-Hcn?as snU Avians 3,01a' XH)
Cicmiil u-, 18.0CO
In closing this repor, permit we to ray
that trie officers of my statfj whoei you j .r
mtttetl me to retainhave rendered incil.a
Uble 8rvie by their dilirence and nnJ d
inuircc. m the work amgned them, ar.d that
almoat "ithout excepU'iu 1 Itave fotm l tho
oiiitiru and agents here and in the different
States pvrtoming their delicate ami trying
duties with nhilitv nnd Melitt.
I do not teel th&t tl3 dici!t mollcnis
given me lvtve been solred, nor do I bono
for complete and satisfactory resnlu in tlio
Tort ot this bureau, let 1 firmly bciicva
'.'.;t the imM jiwt God that eueduKtcd vn to
freedom, will so rontinoe to direct us tint
we shau ue abl" to keen the nlcuee tint wo
havc iitadc, that that fiedoiu shall be n sub
Very respectriliy, your obedient servant,
O. O. How.uu,
An fcisJrt-t Mill.
The lbllowing h the bill iatreduced by
Senator DooKltle, in Confrew, ami wliidi
await the actkm of that body :
3 it matted, Tint the President of
the United Staler be authorized to extend
and maintain x brauoh of tho Frcedmen'a
Bureau, under tho control of the War De
partment, ia all State . or parts of States
wherein, by the operatiooa of the war to sup
press lata insurrection, or by the auc p
tion of any amendment to the Constitution
of the Uii.'3l L'tateu, any pennons theretofjro
held to slavery or involuntary stxtuJe
shall lice been or may hereafter be emarici
Tted. ec. t. And be U further r-rf, That from
a" such StaUst or irte of States, wherein
mtch persons slmll have been or may hereaf
ter be eiiiaiicipHted, the President in author
ized to suspend or'wit!id-aw, in whole or in
part, tho ojierntioiw of said bureau and the
military forces necessary to sustain the same,
whenever he skull become satisfied that hoa
tilltiea nr. ve cessetl ; the irwCTection haj been
suppresfed; tbateace and ortler have been
rasorc. ; that te civil authority cf tno
United S'ates I an beeu re-established ; that
the ci "il authority of the State has been co
farr&rtored as to secure die impartial ad
ministration of its laws, and that tho laws of
elicit State, or the customs thereof hav'ng
the lj-ce of Jaw, ostabiislirBt', maintaining,
recognising; or,regtrianK slavery onnrol
,.,X ai..f cscent In punwhmcnt ior
crimi, or the r-iatioiW. ot ater crv
ant, employer mI employe, hays been re
pented or aiotlit'ed w aa to secure tno p:al
proteetion ot all jiewoiw n an uieir
riehta of person and projierty, known to or
seeured by the common law, without
distiuctivn of class, race, or color,
including the rights to make ami cnf.rco
contracts; to :iu nd be sued; to appear as
lrties or witnewe in all leal proceedings:
to purchase, hold, louse, sii, ana convey rcai
and ie.noal tto; ami all tho jv'ht of
protection to person, piiprty, aud personal
liberty ; Vnmdtd, Ths at any time willnii
five yean afV-r the suspension o withdrawal
of the same front any fetat or wrt of a kitale,
the I'lesidant nliid be authorized to re-cstab-luli
the operations tf mid bureau under tjig
chafge of the War Demrtmeat, whenever
ho shall have satuductory evidence of tlie
failure of any one of tho above mentioned
conditions upon whkh said suspension or
withdrawal was made.
Skc. 3. Awl be it fwrtker emnted, That tho
rules and regulations preecribed oy Use Lead
of said bureau, from time to tinw, when ap
proved by the President, shall be submitted
to Congret if in session, and if not in ses
sion to the next Congress, after the fame
shall havc Made and approved by him,
for the approval or disapproval of Congri:;
and that all such rule and rogwlatior not
inconsistent with the Constitution ot V c
United State, or the lawH of Congrc, : ':ail
have tho forue and effect of raw until tho
same rhall ) s&aulled, repealed, or modi
fied by law.
Exiierl Butle A iv Scliema tn KoI
The Cindnrutti Huptirrr suggests that
New Enrlsnd Itm a sclienM to alter tho
Federal ConstiUition, so Utat exfxirt duUeH
may lj lcviel. TJte objet is to get cotton
ten or twenty cents chmpor than foreign
nations can buy it and pay the export duty
to that amount. New England being m tho
Union, she would receivo it free, and wr tud
hava the entire control of tlie home market.
fo'l? could raise the prices of her manufac
ture of ct'twm, awl oblige the Wert, an tho
consumer, to py it. She in conoc.ii n
with Uh Atlantic states would also liii to
levy an export duty on bruadwtttff raised in
the Wet, so to cut ru oil" from a foreign
market, and oblige us to sell in the 11 wow
and contracted market of the East. Glaring
oa tha schemcri aro to impoverish, tho
i"t Ui aggraiulize the EmI, mere aro men
and there ij$ party the West that i
etupid enoagliM fLror them. Such j. party
deserves no otber reward thsm to be alwa-'-t
what theyat rmw "hwsef wood ami
drawers of water' to wMtrter people than
Hex. rr.Tr Smith, of Dubuaue. oommu-
nicaten to the Tima of that pity, an article
on the subject of grain, with sotae compari
son as to the rate tm Eastern and Sou 1 hem
routes. He say the expense of shipping
bushei cf wheat frm DulHuiueto "ow York
via Chicago and Baflalo, is 60c; l'roiu I u
baqao to .New York via gt Louis and Now
Orleans, 83c. sbowine dlflbrence in &vor
. , . . .... Tf.
01 me river ana ocean route of a-io
also says that wheat can be sent from Pa
btique to New York In tho winter, by rail
road to t atro, thence by river and. sea, tor
loriy-eMrJit cents, ketne; sevecteeii cents per
bushel less than via. Chicago.
Tin: ClarksvilW CKrMfe advices t!;o
Congressional Committee on Becowrtniction
to inquire whether or not Ttnawte has a
IpuUlican form of nHrMS. It
duty of Cwgnm ut gnsaM:
niont ta Svry JJtate; and to 'J!
frwa none other. Timeo feat ,
cf tho most odious 'yy arc
vith rc;iiuc icr, nnd tho maoj