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?TIIH DISPATCH FOUNDBD 1850. \yxx\JXJJil rilJlUlJ.lilX HfMO.
RICHMOND, VA., SATURDAY, APtflL 27,1907.
PRICE TWO CENTS.
MAP OF VIRGINIA IN THE EARLY DAYS OF THE COLONY, MADE BY CAPTAIN JOHN SMITH.
WoVA Vlt G IN Ift>mBVLA
Founding of the Colony Out of Which America Has Grown.
"Tho Anglo-Saxon camel got hls nose into the American tent
. nt Jamestown on tho 13th day of May, 1(507," as [ heard Senator
Danlel express lt some years ago. The camel was iwo eenturies
gettlng the whole tent to himself. llis final success was but tho
culmination of the entrance of his nose when the Engllsh adven
turers founded their town on thu James and established in the
New World the.flrst permanent settlement of people of their race.
lt is small wonder that the terccntennial of the founding of tho
Fottlement of Jamestown should be made'the occasion of a cele?
bration, ia which the States and tho Federal government?the
nation, if you please?have united to show to the world the
progress, the mighty growth, the dazzling wealth, the irreslstible
power of America. There is not in all our history as a people a
date so approprlate'for such a celebration, and it is to be doubtcd
whether in the history of tho race of English-speaking people
there is an event of such far-reaching consequenee as the founding
of tho coiotiy at Jamestown. -Tlie anniversary of the battle of
Jlnstings, wheu Norman power overthrew Saxon Ilarold, and
Buperimposed a Romaneo civilization upon thc struct.ure reared
by our Teulonic forefathcrs; tho grantiug'of Magna Charta; tho
accession of tlie Lord Protoctor: the dethronement of James;
tho enactmont of tho reform blll,. and inltiation of tho policy
of a responslble mlnistry?all theso are dates chorished by Eng
lishmen and thoir tiescetulauts oh this sido the-Atlantic, just as
?wo cheriHh the date of our Declaration of IndependenceJ of its
final achioveniont at Yorktown. of tho adoption of our Federal
Constitution, and a dozen others marked in letters of red in our
But. had the Norman never set foot on English soil, Jamestown
rwould have been founded, probably at au earllor. dato than, 1 GOT,
for the restless, roving Saxon was ever seekins a new fleld of
adventuro and endoavor. The prlnclples guaranteed by Magna
Charta were demanded at au early clay by the colonists at James?
town, but these hardy pioneers from the flrst went. much further
ihan the barons, and demanded and ouforced rights and appliod
prlnclples of free government unheardof ln all tho world until
Jamestown was founded. Aiul soit was that when Thomas Jef?
ferson sat hlm down to write tho immortal declaration of prin
ciples he only had to put into concroto form a statement of
inaliennblo rights recognized by tho Great Charter, as amonded
by Englishmen and Anglo-Americans in tho Colony of Virginia.
I'EUIOn.OF STIKKING IXCIDENTS.
There is no perlod in history so iutoresting to tho American
ns that beginning a few years prior to tho sottlemont of James?
town, nnd endlng a half-century afterwards. It is one so fllled
with stirring inciclont that It onthralls by means of tho world-old
love of tales of udventuro by sea and by land, and lt ls becauso
of this primal lovo of stories of dangers oncountorod and obstaclos
ovorcomo, of courago in tho .faco of disaster, oC rockless bouts
iWilh tlealli, of steady, advancouiejjt ln' tiio accoaiPlishuieMt "f a
fixed purpose, that it has become so familiar to ail Americans,
although' tho. story of Plymouth Rock, instead of Jamestown,
for a long time claimed greater space in American histories.
I cannot hope to tell anything new. in this story, nor to do
lhore than set down salient facts of the old story. But it is a
good time for all Virglnlans and all Americans to refresh tho
mind with the outlines of the genesis of Virginia, which is the
genesis of America.
Had' Vasco da Gama discovered the Cape of Good Hope before
Columbus found this western continent, the voyage of the latter
to the wost in search of a route to India which would enablo
navigators to avold the pirates of the Medlterraaean und north?
west coast of Afrlca, would have been long dolayed. Columbus
blazed the way, but tho English were quick to take advantage
of his discoveries, and five years afterwards the Cabots were flying
the English flag off Newfoundland and the. coast of Labraclor,
and iu lator voyages they came down as far as the coast of Vir?
ginia, somo historians claim as f ar-as Florida- Tho Spanlsh, lhe
French and lhe Portuguoso wero equally oager in seizing upon
tho discovery of America and sendlng forth expeditions of dls?
covory. The French mado aborfivo attempts at founding a colony
in Canada and New England long before'.lamestown was 'founded,
and the Spaniards founded St, Augustlno forly-nlne yoars prior
to the landing of John Smith upon the site of Iho first p'errhaneht
English. settlement on the new i-outinent. Martin Frobisher, Sir
Humphrey Gilbcrt, and other hardy spirits, under tho flag of
England, mado expeditions to Northern America, all of them
looking for gold, some of them carryiug back to England bright
blts of pebble, whoso gleam thoy thought that of tho pr'eclous
metal. Slr Walter Raleigh aetually set up a colony, at Ocraeoke
Inlet, North Carolina. in 15S't-'5; but the colonists paid too much
attentlon to gold-sceking and.not enough to enltivating the land,
and whon Sir Francis Drako saaeared off the coast with a
squadron of English vessels, on his way homo from an expeditlon
agalnst tho Spanish in southern waters, they were only too glad
to got aboard and go back homo. Ilut it was while followlng a
band of Indlans, leading them to tho northward, In'lSSl, that
tho colonists discovered Chesapeake Dny.
COLONY THAT DISAIM'EAKHI).
In 15S7 Raleigh founded his colony on Roanoko Island, off
tho North Carolina coast. The colony seemed to bo thrlving when
Raleigh left it, but on the return of the vossel, a year or so lator,
there was not a trace of tho colony to bo found, and lts myfeto
rlous tlisappearance has novor been explained, and has furnished
tho hasis of many pooms and stories of llctlon. (
Raldlgh was not dauntod by tho failuro of his Roanoke vt
iure, It was a good time- to Hnd advonturors wllling to go l.
now world and found a stato. Tho exceodingly pueilie. ehararj
ol' Jamos, eonfrnatud with tho warllko spirit of Elizaboth, yiuu
uot pleasing io tho inarlial characlors wlio had found couslaW
employment under tho virgin Queen, and they were eage'r to seek
cxcitement in the wilds of America.
Bartholomew Gosnold, a man of rank aud intelligonce, tried
for several years to interest capltallsts in his proposed venture in
Virginia. Finally he attractcd the attentlon and excited the
interest of Captain John Smith. a man who had seen more nd
ventures than any other charactor of his time, and also enlisted
thc interest and capital of Edward Maria Wingfield, morchant;
Rev. Robert Hunt, a godly man in poor health, and Sir John
Popham, and Richard Hakluyt, the distinguished compilor of
adventures of mariners?the Clark Russell of his time. These
men formed the company to send out the expeditlon, and finally
succeeded in starting for the western world ono hundred and flvo
men on board the Godspeed, the Susan Constant and tho Dis
covery. Tho largest of the vcssols was only of 100 tons burden,
next in slze was 40 tons, and tbe smallest in which these hardy
spirits braved tlie perils of tho deep was a more pinnace of proba?
bly 10 tons.
.IUST TIIREE lll'XDKEU YEARS ACVO.
Tho voyago was not fraught with much of intorost until tho
West Indies had been passed, when heavy weather was encoun
tered, and when the coast of Virginia did not show up, Captaln
Ratcliffe, in command of the pinnace, declared his inieution of
turning back, thus early in tlie history of Iho onterpriso indicating
a splrit "which afterwards gave so much trouble. lleforo tho
others had sottled with him a storm came up and drove them
to tho wostwartl, and on the morning of the 2(Jth ol! April, 1007,
when llght camo, the mariners encountered the coast lying
between what. is now Cape Henry and Virginia Reach.
lt was but' natural that some of the party should wish to go
ashore, and thirty men landeu near tho site of the present light
houso on Cape Henry, which was thus named on that day. But
the adventurous party did not lingor long. Thoy were attacked
by Indlans, and two of the whltes were soverely wounded. lt
ls a matter.of rogret that (he management of tho exposition, or
somo enterprising conoessionnire, hns not arrangetl to present a
series of moving pictures designed to givo a lifellko reproductlon
of that foot-rnce back to the boats, probably the first athletlc
event. pnrilelpntod ln by white mon on thls continent.
lt. wns in conimemoration of this landitlg at. Cape Ilenry that
tbe date of the opening of the Jamestown Exposltion was flxed for
tho 2Cth of April.
Tho party ontorod tho capos, namlng thc one to tho north
Capo Charles, ln honor of tho Princo of Wales, and proceeded
leisurely up tho bay. It ls known thoy went ashoro at what is
now Old Point, and it is not improbablo that some of them landed
on thp other sido of Hampton Roads, tlu. site ot' tlie exposition
oponell yesterday. Evideutly the lopograpby ol' Iho country dld
nol ciiuuuoud itsolf to (lio leaders of the expeiliiluii, who had
learned that lt would bo nccessary to lucat'o whero 11 would b?
possible (o defond Ihoniselvos against the Indians, who had not
been in the least cordial in their reception thus far. When tha
party landed at Old Point. thoy opened the box in which were tha
papers naming the councll to rulo the colony. Tho ruling councll
was composed of Barfholomew Gosnold, John Smith, Edward
Maria Wiugtield, Christoplior Newport, John Ratcliffe, John Martin
and George Kendall.
THE FOIXDIXU OF JAMESTOWN.
The party proceeded up tho James, and, on the 13th of May,'
landed on a poninsula, since become, through the eroslon of the
wator, au Island, aud thus founded the city of Jamestown and
the Colony of Virginia. After prayer by Rov. Mr. Hunt, Wingfleld
was chosen president of the Council, and he proceeded in tho
good American way to make a speech, thanklng his comrades for
tho honor conferred upon him. Siuce that was tho flrst speech
made on American soil by a man elected to office, it is unfortunate
that not even a fragment of it ls prp.se.rvod, as there ls no
means of knowlng how far successful candidatcs of to-day havo
departed from tho early model given them hy Edward Wingfleld.
? The sevon members of tho Council wont to work at once ta
build a fort, and tho rest of the party proceeded to cut down the
treos to give a space ln whlch to pltch the tents. In a day or
two Indians appeared, and as they wero entirely peaceable, tha
Englishmen received them klndly.
Rlchmond people, and Virginiaus generally, may regard lt as
signiflcaut that Newport nnd Smith were not long at Jamestowu
beforo they made up a party of twenty and started for Richmond,
going by boat. John Smith has loft this account of tho city ol
Powliatan, at tho falls of tho Powhatan, which the Engllsh
named tho James iu honor of the English King:
"Powhatan is a'town of some twelve houses, seated pleas?
ant ly on a hill, before it threo fertile lsles, about it many of
their eorntioUls. Tho place ls very pleasant- and strong by
nature. Of thls placo the Prince is called Powhatan, & his
peoplo PowhatiuiH. To this place tho rlver is navigable:
but hlgher within a mylo, liy reason of tho Rocks and lsles,
ihoro is not pnssago for a small boat. This thoy call the
Falls. Tlu? people ln all parts klndly intreated them (us)
till lioing returned withln twenty miles of lamestown, they
gavo Just causo of joalousles; but bad not God blessed iho
discovoiios Qtherwlse thni'i at tbo Port there had been an
ond uf that plantation."
Por while Smith and Newport and tholr party wero away tho
fort at Jamestown was attacked by the Indlans. and seventeon ol
the whito men woro wounded and a boy slaln. It is probabU
that tlio whltes rotreated to the boats as fast as posslble, for tha
historlan says a "eross-harro" lired from tho ship frightened th?
Indians so badly thoy ran awny. Wingfleld had been opposeii
tu numiuitig ',bo nrtlllory nt tho fort fur somo reason, but hi
.i.CouUiiucd ou Second PagQi), - - - ? - \,