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Plans t? Deliver Poor ho From the Valley ?f the Shadfow
TiiKV \nr. TAirnnT nn.Mir.sric sciKxri:.
A MKI MM. OF il>-r>\\ A\n VEST EU DAY.
itreotcATi nvsPBorons rs ijtdtax school.
COM Ml-*in\-F7R V \ n:\ nM;,
where TUi: vnrxci isniw is iuimit ? i.nA.XLiNESS,
I Ily .lohn lllfreth WitUi?.
CAN Btivti Hid liKiian?
Shocking discoveries concern?
ing hl? physical degeneration
ha.ve ju.-'. caused a note of alarm to be
sound.d by the President. Tho' annual
summing up of reports from our sttput -
tntemlt hts of Indian reservations
shows that our pp turusrpio aborigines,
. tho original landholders of our conti?
nent, the nrst 01 all Americans, are dy?
ing off more than twice us fast, each
y.-ar us are bur white cltlrenS, \
j modloul Inspection oj nearly 41'.000 of
I those tipoh our reservations reveals
.ti.it tuberoulosls now has lta white
-stamp u;< .ii one-sixth; and that a like
I proportion face blind nesn as the r?
, suit of lnfijjtlnn from trachoma, a
Itarrlblo cbijtaglotis Vltseaae ?f the ryes.
,On three of the big reservations?the
vApache, Ooma-iche and Kl0wa~hearly
(three-quarters of our Indian sohool
j child.-..r. urn affected with this . yo dls
I eajse. Aa rhauy h* one-third of ti.
I nation's wards far examined on the
felaolcfoot reservation, In M< i tar
have tut.? r?sls, which "white ;..;,.(.? >?>
alneady nas Its hold upon more than
a fourth of t>w. redskins of the Pine ]
Ridrc?. and over a fifth of those of the
Colorado River reservation.
Vigorous < nhipnJjrn < ominenced.
TTha vigorous rnmpalBrn whl< h he is
Vwaglng against th.-se conditions was
, rt?. r.orlbed to he yet.tor.iav l>\ llobert
Grosvenor Valentine, the national cnm
mlsaloner of Indian affairs. Commls-1
sloner Valentine Is a live wirb. II? !s J
ii Massachusetts Yankee and a Harvard!
graduate. He has been "tu of collage!
but sixteen years, more than half of I
which period has been devotdd to a j
post-graduate course In the university I
of varied experience?as ban!; clerk,
railway accountant and college. Iristruc-I
tor. II.- entered the Indian ofltvil ?.? vt il
years ago hs private seoretar> to Ii
predecessor, Commissioner Leupp, and
within five years he made a rather
phenomenal climb to the top of the I
service, his first stepping Btono being
the siipervlsorshlp of all of our Indian
i hools, and his second the assistant
commisslonershlp of Ilia bureau! 11?
la still upon the sunny side of forty.
Will lov llace Identity,
"is the ind'ah doomed t.. extormlna
tion-" I .is'ae.i Mr Valentine
?'As a full blood, lif l9i" the eommlF
sioner replied without chewing upon
tho question a minute. "There will be I
no reason; now, why the full-blood
should dl* out on a< count of disease,
but he Is bound to lose his race Iden?
tity ?? the result >.f intermarriage ?villi
the white than, Thus the Improvement,
of health conditions among both full
blodd Indians and peatfde partly of In?
dian .blood will mean the perpetuation
throughout ti e country of a great many
characteristics and habits of the in-j
i dlans. so the Indian himself ? Hl I
HEM ilJfill AND
Get a 25c Bottle Now and l or
ever Stop i .illin<?. Hair, Itch?
ing Scalp and I )andruff.
rHairBecomes Soft. Fluffy, Lus
] irons and Abundant \tter a
p Dahderinc Hair Cleanse.
? velvety Kd
. v. i < l. ii ?
all oi ei ' I
Ivill I? wavy, fluffy ami a
p<is:-.c ? ii. inrorup.lfai)l(
? 8n<l luxuflari ?. i ? I
?of true hair health,
i If. you cafe lot iH'^utlful,
I'loti ol it, B 25 i
| Knowlton'f Uanclciim
I bu>rr or toilet counter, A
1 pi| m
Pi/av onouxb m'pumtis rs bring i.vs tai.i.kii.
a liter than puff or I
M-.rr Chaste Thun White..,.
"This rn|>id intermingling "f the two
racei iHi mostly from marriages
between white then and Indian, or
part Indian women. Although i have
no actitaj figures on the subject, my
rather extensive acquaintance with the
hal ti ?'i our aboriginal tribes prompts
the ludgmoni ' .'t the majority of the
mix. d-bloods now coming into the
world are legitimate children and that
this proportion ?f legitimate births la
?"i..! tlic "Id days have pretty
much gone by. < >n the reservations
w< in iioivt ,erj strict In the matter
of requiring marriage llcensos and do?
ing ? ? ? thins; possible to improve do?
mestic relations and moral conditions.
And I hoiild i t.ite right here that In
the v. hit. man's aonSt! of the term In?
dians, n t ? ice, are ver> chnate. Among
them then lias iievtsr b.i anything
Hi., tli prostitution and promiscuity
of thai kind that has existed among
"i ,e thai under proper eugenics,
seel .,. ighl to be applied also to
whit i pie, ...ii Indian blood would
be ; mil best assets, as to both
ability and character."
Through ii.<? Vnllei ?r ihr Shadow.
"An ii civilised habits, thrust upon
him, id blame for the Indian's physical
degi erntli n?" I asked the Cora ml 8
"In going from hlH native state to
mir i lied civilization ho has. nien
' . :. and physically, paused
through th,. Valley of the shadow of
'?? " 0 Valentin? replied "Our
civilized ? is disagreeing with Mm
mpsl I been whlskey-drlpking.
sleeping Indoors and sitting In insuf?
ficient c< ntllrtled, superheated Hehool
rooms Hi found ihe log cabin with
out. Window? far less healthy than his
I native urbur of t<.p<je. H vim this log
raffln which w'ent farthest! to fasten
the ours A of tuberculosis upon him.
"All of the other things which we are
tloltiK for the uplift of th? Indiane?
rn? safeguarding of his property, the
Improvement of his education so as to
teach him to be Industrious?must re?
main /utile so lonit M such a large
percentage r.f h<8 raee (as we have dis?
covered, In sonic plaees, most of hit)
raee) are beaded for the graws. What
is the use of Klein? the highest grade
of education to one who Is going to
complete his schooling at twenty-one
and die at twenty-three? What Is the
use of giving the Indian industrial
training and of fitting him for a trade,
if he Is certain to eomra^-t tuberculosis
in the tailor shop, in the printing shop,
or In any other shop?
llotne Conditions Breed Dtaeaae.
"To get n mental pleture of the mode
of lifo of the type of Indian now fast
dying off as the resull of tuberculosis.
Imagine ? house with no windows; or
one window hailed down tight, a stove I
in the centre, a dirty floor; a whole
family gathered together in these
cramped quarters, expectorating, eat?
ing and sleeping Indoors, often in a
temperature of 90 degrees from which
they step out. In winter. Into a freez?
ing old sometimes so degrees below
zero. There are many seeds of tuber?
culosis In tho race and they take bold
quiekest where the Indian la shut up
"1 mlprht add, alRO. that the Indian
?it his present stage of development Is
not III clean when dressed In the white
man's eomplex clothing as when st?
ilted In his own Simple garb. For ex?
ample, bis neck I? I if a far more sani?
tary condition when bare than when
encased In a dirty collar."
Health Campaign to n<i,in.
Mj- Valentine called in his division
chiefs and Instructed them to give mn
I t he details o/ his scheme for a ?'special
' health ournpnign" to bo waged among
the nation's wards during the present
Correction of sanitary defects in
Indian homes will be one of the most.
Interesting phases of this crusade. It
Is found that on some reservations
hundreds of homes are without either
floors, openablo windows, or any pro?
vision whatever for ventilation. Most
of the Indians, especially In the prall ie
Country, live where fuel Is scarce and
In winter they even plaster up their
windows-, with mud. to keep Indoors
what littl? heat they ran get. and as
a result the indoor atmosphere re
malus foul for months It Is proposed j
within the next year to spend $10,000
in making the worst of ttieae hovels
sanitary?-to cut Windows and put
down doors where needed, and to
make Other conditions sanitary.
Hereafter, when an Indian family
wishes a new home he will have pre?
sented to him a sol of ?stuck pi.ins"
drawn up by skilled architects, and
showing various styles of model cot
lagea which ti.onstruction division
of the Indian service will guarantee to
build and make complete for various
Hat prices ranging from $250 to $2,600
Those costing between $1.000 and $2.
GOO will iave n.11 modern Improvements,
including sanitary bathrooms . tri eiron
the cheapest cottages special attention
will be ?iven t? sanitary features, In?
cluding the United States public health
service's standard out-house, which Is
odorless and perfectly screened. This
program for model, sanitary homes has
been developed by Mr. Volentlno, as
lias a further plan to give .each reser?
vation superintendent the same Inris
dlctlon iver home construction In his
territory as has the building Inspector
in n big municipality.
He 11 al'.o working for perfect ven
Illation of Indian homes, and Is now
expending $000 for experiments with
i SU tortl a tie ventilating devices lately
[ Installed In the houses of the Indians
of thi} Fort Tottcn rcservatlan. This
system Includes canvas screens for
windows In winter, and s simple ar?
rangement of iP>or vents and air ducts,
through which the air !s circulated by
the heat of a stove.
Women to Teach Home Limitation.
The reservation Held matrons who
heretofore have contlm-d their efforts;
chiefly to teaching domestic science
and to doing missionary work, are now]
to go from house to house and teach
home sanitation. Jn addition to teach-l
Ihg the native housekeepers to k< ep
th.- home clean, these women, selected
for their tact, wjl! encourage mem?
bers of each family to sleep on porches
or In separate room's, Instead of hud
dllnir together In one sleeping room,
and to occupy beds Instead of ''shake?
downs" or rair piles, on the floor.
One of the most Interesting fe.ituren
of ttits clean-up campaign organized
by Mr. Valentine ts his lecture courses.!
II? lately purchased thirty stereoptl
eons to be supplied to lecturers, who.
in the different public schools and
other places, will present striking pic?
tures, illustrating the causes of and
best methods for the prevention of tu-j
herctilosls nnd trachoma. Some of
these pictures will show dirty horn"*
In contrast with clean homes.
a moving picture lecturer has also
been sent Into the field to clreulate1
through th? reservation and give free
shows similarly Illustrating the heri"-1
tits oi cleanliness and sanitation.
Travelinn beutln?* and Ocullata.
A corps' of Itinerant dentists Is to ho
.-'?til from reservation to reservation
to look after the teeth of ?,-, wards
and three traveling oculists an- -
ready goinc about the Indian country
Instructing the local physicians how
ue*l to treat trachoma, the afore
mehtlOnod contagious disease ,,f the
eyes, which has been runnlnc through
the Indian country like wildfire
Where this malady Is found Inmates
of the same building are. tor example
?nsUructed to ?So individual wash?
basins, towels, handkerchiefs, beds mi l
a device by whleh every pupli of
tile Indian schools was made acquaint?
ed with essentials for tuberculosis pre?
vention was at ranged by .Mr. Valen?
tine a few months ago. a simple
manual on the subject was issued to
all teachers who, during three months,
gave their pupils Instruction in the
basic fncts. Then all children above
the second grade were given three
days 111 which to compete for prizes
by writing essays on the subject.
EnamelMd buttons bearing the "tuber?
culosis cross" and the word "health"
were awarded in bronze, silver nnd gold
to the successful competitors, und a
lively rivalry was developed In each
Ken Srcrel Her vice r?cliJ? Liquor.
To light I he Honor evil. Mr Valen?
tine has organized a new sei let service
I force known as the "law and order
section." which has Us contra] oniee
in I ???nver. and whleh employs about
, Hi", sleuths, whose sole ditty It Is lo
run flown hootleggers and other liquor
dealers, It'neranl and otherwise, who
havo heretofore made big profit/ by
defying the Federal law again: t IL.
Mil,- of alcohol to Indians. In the pnst
year this force linn nrndc 1,717 arrests,
Whleh have resulted In I, IBS convic?
tions and rtS*. tall and penitentiary sen?
tences to terms aggregating 271 years
Those Indicted have paid tln^s totalluc
over $80.000, Which revenue was more
I in, i, enough to pav the expenses of the
entire law and order serv'ee, which
effected the selznre and destruction o.
HM.noa plnls of Honor.
orcuiibhic iMnygroiird Work.
??'We are now organizing playground
work in a large number Of Indian
schools," Commissioner valentine told
me "Play In the. open alt Is now uni?
versally recognized as essential to the
development of normal, healthy chil?
dren, nnd we want to thoroughly equip
all schools with simple apparatus sufli
eleht to at toast HtlmiTl.it? pupils to
devoto i^cix leisure to quj.do.or exercise,
Some ,,t thin app.ratua Is made at this
schools and some is purchased, lately
I had Oeorge B. Johnson. superintend
ent of recreation and playgrounds for
Pittsburgh 'nspect our ?choo.ls and
make suggestions as to h.ow wo sou Id
best expand our recreation and jdav
>-1 ? ? irk .... rig health-producing
lines. Because of our superabundance
"f space im the runcvntlons we have
bet lei opportunities to make such,
work u ?reatei succosa ?>,,:. have tin*
cities. One good result .,f Mr. .lohn
son's Inspection !...? been a demonstra?
tion of how we ran make uroup ath?
letics successful. Cnusual Interest
has l.eer. aroused during the past
spring In organizing baseball clubs?a
number In each of our schools, We
art also Encouraging the girls to play
b^akot ball ami engage in outdoor
sports, as much as yosslble. They
take the regular 'aettlng-Up drill' that
if glvep Ii"- boys, mid at some of tho
schools girls drill boys.
Indian children make splendid
athletes, We now fcavo some remark
nblo. examples?Thorpe, the Carlisle
alumnus, who recently captured tho
majority of the prizes at the Olymplo
g itt.es. and Louis Tewanlmd. the great
"Extension of/recreation work to in.
dlans in their homes, was another mat?
ter which Mr. Johnson has investi?
gated for me. His id.a is that espe?
cially those youths/who have returned
to their homes from the schools should
luv., their interest stimulated In
nthletles and games such as would
occupy their Idle hours. By /such a
.?.??in wo hope to substitute bene?
ficial recreations for features of Indooc
life which are not of the best.
"As some Of the native Indian danoej
ar. deti Imental, I had a number ot them
repeated on the reservations for -Mr.
Johnson's ipeclal benefit, that he might,
have an opportunity to study Hhem. Ho
lias suggested a number of beneficial
folkdauCes, which could be blended
with or substituted for the aboriginal
dances, an'. I am limping 1? ?ot such
a movement started.
"1 am doing all that 1 can to (In?
terest In the Indian all persons who
are conspl i OUSly Identified with social
progress activities. Ttiu.-, Meyer Bloom
fii It] |tfl suing to give us r.uch aid. whllo
I have been consulting Kniest Tliomp
son s. ie.n i egnrdl h b me expediency of
forming Boy Scout organizations in our
schools, some of whloh are already
t.iting the success of Camp Piro Girls'
When Race Identity Will Vnnlsh.
"How long do you think the Indian
will preserve his racial Identity; (will
survive as an Indian?" 1 asked tho
commission in conclusion.
"I should say that 100 years from
now (there will he a good many peo?
ple In this country whom one could
recognize as Indians," he replied "But,
within two centuries, I predict, the pop?
ulation having the greater amount |o(
aboriginal blood in ltii veins will, prac?
tically all of them, look as little (like
Indians as do Senator Curtis, of Kan?
sas, and Senator Owen, of Oklahoma,
each of whom boasts offhls good Indian
Plan to I'reii-rvr Indian Type.
"There Is now on fool a /"movement
for the preservation of the Indian an
an Indian, upon Ollr big natlon.il parks,
and If this get'i under way the result
may he that on these preservations
Americans many generations hence,
will still be able to behold .some few
distinctively Indian tribes. /The pur?
pose of those Interested In this move
ent Is not to thus preserve our nborlg
Ines as curiosities, for exhibiting pur?
poses, hutlto employ the men as game
wardens and forest rangers, and the
women as self-supporting hasket
weavers or adepts In other lines of na?
tive nrt worthy of perpetuation j
"nut, for my part. I fall to see how
Intermarriage between the white man
and such last / remnants of the great
Indian tribes could ever be prevented,
even If the latter should he thus is..
lated the great forests, and even If we
should surround them with a moat I art
miles wide, lined with Federal troop?
(Copyright. 1912, by John Elfretbl
?y-. iVatklns.), i