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All Levels of Life and
All Professions Owe
Debts of Gratitude
to Pioneers Among the
t THIS country were turned back on
i the dial of time only a hundred years,
?P the numberless women voters, women
physicians, women Lawyers, women authors,
women orators, and even the rest of them, in
skirts and in breeches, would wonder into
what wretched planet their fate had suddenly
plunge a them: and the sedate and ordered
communities of that early day would be
startled into desperate use of all its ducking
stools, b"ank-gags, pillories and repentance*
chairs for the sake of reducing to some
semblance of silence the hordes of insurgent
females, all fieriiy proclaiming their inalien?
able rights to everything that didn't belong to
That was the period when the struggle
was the hardest; but oom before and since
the sex has produced its pioneers, here and
PERHAPS tcmt small Idea, cf what they enec unter ed
. tfceir day may be gained from a comparison of
two pioneers of this ona
\ Welch achievement has called for the greater
taring, the move persistence, the larger resourcefulness
&?d the mere ?droit brain, that of the Baroness de la
Koche, whs. s-ien aviation was still doubtful sa a means
af suicide, was the first woman to fly alone, or that of
?".8soriru? Tnrant Labriola, who has Just now, after ln
?n..e ruses, won ber ngh: to practice law in Italy?
The ctroness rissen death ?s?. subsequently, very
neatly reaped it Trie signirlna has been osatpaaaaf to
fc<V the 'asa aid ;.-e prejudices oi a whole nation, and,
fhi.ir.? to c o".. ;e- t.-em. has'succeeded In circumventing
them. The baron *s? survives, now e aor'd-famccs avla
trtx; t?? eignorlna survives, tew a wne'd-famous lawyer.
The baroness wer. eer glory in an hour; the aignorina ass
fought for hers over n.any years.
But the tar rritss made her trial of the air after the
poeslbiHt; of success had been proved; the etgnorira made
fcer trial c: foe law :ong before any such possibility for
a woman, in Italy, had been Imagined. The bareness'
MgaajCi was a r.ng> carii.g Sight; tae signorlaa'c strug?
gle baa oeea an er.<iless campaign Any woman who
reads at free to taite her choice of being a heroine and a
pic-ecr. cititr way.
In bn^JQaaataan. La'oriolae position la Italy waa
peeci?ely that Qf Cha.-.-s Reace ? Rhoda Gale as a paysi
c:an. rears ago, in England and Europe. The daughter
cf the !a:? prof. Anicnio Labno.*, one of the revered
Intellects of r.is time, hereeii tr.t inheritor Of his genius,
the studied bra and. corr.p!ete;y qualified, sought admle
tlon to the tar in her uUre land. B-t the law, made
abroad. Only tvitk a few among those genu?
ine leaders of the van of woman's progress has
tue path to freedom been an easy one; for
the majority it has meant the most pitiless
personal affronts and sometimes genuine
In every branch of the blind roads that
have led to woman's freedom, some one
woman has fared forth, a lone Columbus, to
meet what dangers the fearsome unknown
held; and, impossible as it may seem, more
than half of these brave, high-minded hero?
ines of their sex's history are as forgotten now
as if they had never raised hand or voice for
their sex's emancipation.
ages age. when women were satisfied to be either men's
slaves or only their secret rulers, provided that lawyers,
as well as Judges, should be male.
The brilliant daughter at a brilliant sire, baffled every?
where in tha land that should have rejoiced to own her.
aa it baa rejoiced in the tradition of its Hypatia, pioneer
among women teach*ra, turned to the guiie of her pro?
fession to gainsay its injustice. Somewhere this compli?
cated law. watch can be so Janus-faced when two coun?
selors beckon to It from opposite sides, must have left
the traditional loopholes. It waa here to find on* of
them. Sb* did find one?In the article that accorded
the right of being Inscribed among practicing' lawyers
to profeasors of law in the University of Rome. That
article, at least, didn't have anything to say about the
it:; covered by the gown of a Portia
The spectacle of Professor Labrio'.a's learned daugh?
ter seeking a professorship at the University of Rome
waa neither so surprising nor so alarming to conven?
tionality aa bad bean her application to plead for justice
in the courts of law; and the Influences she wielded were
very much stronger there. So now behold unda us table
Slgnorine Teresa chosen professor of law at her univer?
sity. and. next thing, behold her asserting bar right,
under the letter of the law, to practice her profession in
I; asar awn Balva Lockwood had not set small her
legal pioneering by becoming a pioneer woman candidate
for president of the United States, her career in Its suc?
cessful fight for admission to every bar might have
serve' aa the Inspiration to 8Lzaor!na Labrlola; but the
slgnorlsa is young yet. She may have Doctor Lockwood 's
past la rti'nd aa bar own future la Italy.
Her* eras one of the reel pioneer* in th* history ot
her sex. Mrs. Lockwood, loos n college graduate, n
teacher, a doctor of laws, demanded admission to the
bar of the supreme court of the district of Columbia She
fought a spirited battle, gained much ?-mpieaeant notoriety
and gained her point. That ?ras In JgO. A couple of
years later, absurd aa it may seam now. she nnd to light
her battle all over again' to secure admission to the
court of claims. They objected to bar bacauae she am*
n woman, because she waa a married woman and because
nobooy like bar had ever happened to the court of claim*
before. Mho explained that she was happening <
now. and they might m well accept bar aa a I
legal phenomenon, unprecedented but real They
accepted bar. Another year, and aha wee" da
mending admioalOB to the bar of the aupratne
court of the United states.
The auprem* court. in Its wisdom, said that
the English courts, la their wisdom, bad never
dona anything of the kind; therefore, doctor,
politely but nrraly. nay to you. To which Mrs. I
Lock wood, ia kor wisdom, re join sd that both I
Queen Eleanor and Queen Elisabeth bad been I
supreme chancellors of the realm over la Eng- f
land, and that Ana. counts as of Pembroke, sat 1
with the judges on the bench at the Appieby 1
MOT TO BE BALKED
Well, the supreme court of the United State? '
ia notoriously not la Ha ways, and it wouldn't
budge an Inch of its own accord. So sirs Lock
wood made it do a ItttU budging, anyway. She
just drew up a bill admitting women to practice
there, put In three years jamming it through
congrees and than took her place in the auprem*
coart by right of her own law, precedent or no
precedent The People's party nominated her for
president twice, in IM? and 188S; but famous
as those campaigns mad* bar. the real achievements
she baa given to bar sax are to be found la the
highest courts of this country.
Her proudly bora* b?rden at ridicule, so courageously
carried through until It was transformed into profound
respect, was nothing to that which so long attached to
the lovely and gentle Amelia Bioom*r. who. because aha
indorsed the costume which waa Instantly associated
with her name, suffered many years of ridicule from the
whole world. So* approved of it for none of the reason*
derisively assigned to bar. Aa a woman who knew per?
fectly the pate and discomfort attaching to the Irisan
worn under fashion's tyranny la bar period, aba aaw ia
-bloomers*' a garment that meant bleeped relief to tir*d
bodies and martyred vital organs.
She herself, after some eight year*, abandoned the
innovation; bat Its consequence* today are the emanci?
pation of women from dragging skirts into brevity and
even into riding breeches, without a word of criticism
Fashion, which did its best to kill her with ridicule and
opprobrium. Is the very humble servant of the descend?
ants of the garment aha so courageously championed.
She was. moreover, on* of the pioneer suffragists at
the time whan to claim the ballot for woman la the
United State?, and to do it like ? lady, wan to
? fate as harsh aa those English suffragettes tuest ?????
are dorne U like furls*. _'
8b* was of lb* early, literafy. militant pioneer saxi?
frage group, which had aateng its leaders women of the
cal.osr of Francee TVrigbt, Klzabetb Oadr
Sue?n B. Anthony, all *qu?.ijy daring in ^'J..<^S*f*np
for tamperance as they srere for ?-?o*?n? right* among
EeV particular friends sad allies ?u that lauptlnadl
wcau pioneer, the Re* Antoinette Brown, the first
wotpaa minister, who by her msrrtags to Samuel a
Blaekwell heeame the pious d'Artagnan to the three
?uardswomen of her century, all sisters?Dr. Elisabeth
Blackwell, physician and author: Emily BiackwsU. phrtrt
ctan also, and Sarah Ellen BleckweU. younaest at the
three, who was a notable artist and writer.
These three sisters, two of them practicing a arnfss
?ton to which their sex was still painfully unwelcome,
and the third fighting dextrously with her clever pan *U
aloas the line of suffrage and of her sex's claims ta equal
recognition with men, proved exceptionally lmpreeatv* by
reason of the concentration of their efforts end the shnl
larlty of their names. And the Hev. Antoinette Brown
Blackwell, so Inns conspicuous in the pnlpK. lent to that
honored nasse th* halo of piety which seemed. In n way.
to consecrate all their endeavors In the sight of the peo?
ple at large Probably no such brilliant group of women
held together and wrought so effectively for the general
cause in Its entire history. .
They teere of the type of Elisabeth Fry. who, a eea
tury ago. taught ths world what a woman's gentle hands
and binder heart could accomplish la Sinaflnrarh-g the
condition or tan unfortunate, nrpedillr tboee ?whom fata
had taken them down to the level of the prisons. Far
removed aa la our modem rtmfilial criminology froas
that period in point of time, taa evolution of the mars
pitiful spirit ess have can be traced directly to the lav
spired labors of Elisabeth Fry and those few women aba
associated with bar la a philanthropy rejected of all
Bat they bad. too. something of the spbit of that
fontoiten Caroline Lucrstia Kerschs!, sister of ear John
Berschel, the famous satronosner. it la the purely aulaa
tiflc spirit, of which women like Hate. Curie are the
modern exemplars, reaping In peace the fruits of the
pioneer work done by earner innovators of their arx.
Critics. In commenting upon the Uvea and works of far
John, of Carolina, his slater, and of William, his brother,
do not hesitate now to group thorn together aad to refer
to them aa the three great Herschels; aad Caroline holds
no leas a position than r'ther of the other two.
Of all the women pioneers, who, for a guess, was the
one who baa done moat, not merely for her aex. but tar
bar country?for this country, bow the free, inde?
pendent United States, but lata In tha eighteenth cen?
tury simply a handful of colonies?
She waa lira. Mercy Warren, personal friend of Oest?
ers] Washington who was the Brat of all. men and
women, to broach the daring project of complete Inde?
pendence, aad who carried It to reality by dint of bar
insistent argumenta with tha men in whose hands bay tha
fate of tha nascent nation. From that supreme aval
faith of bare has flowed, tret, isaarlrna laianaadaaet.
? r. i. r. vund. if indirectly, the steadily emerging tnlr
ttajtenoa of.bar sax tn this country.
Noi^Mrl/iiAi Legs ?zhAmncAN Girl
HOVT lese ?*? ** beta IM? i Let * ??*?it
t-gstz . -<??'?? 1*>S or so, sad" ty T7 ts?ra
was kaHW a gin who ft* i , .. . i
m bie? c*c rtodoKfB > *.yit
aaara as petite as posa.bat. son sassntw ?a*ij sn-rs
Bf bably V; par onnt arbe daaccwad for tka>
trat n&* thai they had not on It lega, baJt
?; . r*-?ecn to b* eriiamed of thaaa.
Tbe nrt'^nm of thooo rid bicycia Uj?ataV
eap*?.-4i!i ?h#rj th#7 raeehed th#> danng rtaaja
of the. <trop frame and th* ladirV taYafeVBI
l?t ealleaj for very abort akirte. bar* 99?
main**' a aeaiM bcir ?rar eraot; hot ummj ?
if -.Klar, with b*T dai*arnt#rt daAf
#* '1/t ; ..? ?.,n't aT" hiaTb arhool aaJaVB
ntatnn.* put* triese in Iwff dr?*a>*. earn ***
th# run** and ?uieWfnnr?e--of> tfcrao
* f?->ur pain of ?* ^fcnart. of a*otf atecttaaS*
??tttby turned to a r^Uar boJow tarn IsMaV
and a| artful pad*- that ah* eanfjeyM
*/- ?t.< f ? *}+ ? ]-rA-m*?- ?r^f, ?M bik* MftmMt
AM rno?' ?f th* m?fh*Tt 'A *"4*f> ?*?*?
?till Id b ij <i*ij4fht#T't footwear, eajtrl mmmm 0kY
out for their old models, at Wet yielded] to the do?
rnend?, which c?m? from all parte^of the country, for
stocking-* At for larger contents; and at the same time
thay found that the foot sires had to run bigger both
In the atoektngs and the ahoea
Trade and Industry, nnder sheer pressure of nseas
sity. have been forced to the aomhasten that the
American woman's laga are no longer thin: but. con
pled with that Joyful news, they bare declared that
her feet are noticeably bigger, toe.
60 it's so. But why?
If you will consider the figure of Rose PI testest,
who undertakes to swim the English channel, or the
Atlantic arena, or some other little tank tike that, of ?
eummefs day. you'll see a form which. If It appeared
in the home show ring, would be rtaassn between a
Percheroa aad a pony?abort coupled, solid, massive,
heavy In calf and powerful in thigh, with a pair of
feet attached that make no attempt at coacealsaent.
yet tve whole body conveying the impression of nim
blenase and grace rather than of lumpish grosaneas.
Hers Is the type of the woman an immer hi whom,
cutioaaty. the lower itmbe earn ally seem to take gg ex?
treme development, even more than the cheat, shoul?
ders and aim. But hers Is the type. too. of perfectly
dlrtrfhnted strength, the physical ideal la woman's
development, the meet powerful woman of her elan ta
the United Ft*tea, according to Prof Dudley A. ear
gent, of Harvard, who la the authority that baa con?
ducted the moat complete aerie* of studies ever mad*
upon the pbyetcal developsnant at this generation
Height, of course, as moetty a matter of heredity:
M ta proportion that count* The American wissen, at
the time when aba gm alsnsveiod she had a body that
co*Id stnn I the strata of bieyriiasj. won Inclined ta be
a frail aad mender creature, with sraderpiaalaer ta
dim aaad of sntosacitioun add* so plumpnava It wan
the pspalsr eM bike which, far an the argent propa?
ganda of athasQce la school* aad woseea's aaUssyoa.
broke dawn the feminine prejudice again** esjeecsps
a* a regular diet ah* found tkirs a dlmretou wasch.
altkingh tt called fee ***** hard phj steal warb on
ta'lgs* twsa rh*"s*sasn^
vaadT fanswhat mm*Sv aS !aV^3BBnnrsmekn>>?
American wemar/e form. And that trend, la tka
I? toward the figure of a man.
Profecsar Sargent found the raaaaa rhleny tn
ceasive exercise. The bicycle erase, with girls faint
ins; occasionally from overstrain in streets sad
drives, afforded a hint of the
women will go la exercise when oaes they get startsd.
Bat even moderate exercise If bound to devoloe tea
limbs, ft ought to. And. since most of the exerebsas
a. ..liable depend upon the use of the hands ar IW
feet tn the first place. It has been inevitable that both
of these extremities should show development lielSaal
the useless clearance an cherished by ?Irls as
features twenty years ago
Wan. the reward 1* health and the penalty
feet. And trade, anally submissive, follows aalt
stockings that aren't going to commit ealetda at t
weakest drop stitch because they ar* besagt diked
ovat dowlas; by their wearera
If that awful Jacob's ladder, whotceai It
between the beeT* rubbing and tka
l.aa bean da* to the stocktag'e unfltnesa far its i
resp-mritUltie*. and If more room wfU coatdwoi
fewer Jacob's ladders, than tka woasaa of teeny
accept with calmaes* the harsh decree which
that bar feet, aa wall a* bar legs, ar*
they used ta be.
The Oyster-SheU Bark lbmt
TUH eyaur-ahall bark loss** (1
Is a great menace t* tka fragt
*f tabs coaatry.
It ta a dark brows
a* a grate of wheat, which !
ar* *? el?ety
aw gf ?ha taget eat twigs by tka
that tkara t* ao
of a eta wtswa tbasa Tkay