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The times dispatch. (Richmond, Va.) 1903-1914, June 22, 1913, Image 9

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OopyrlSfet, It It. by th* Btnr Company. Groat Britain Rlgbta RMerrtl
The Growing Revolt Against the Useless Cruelties of Vivisection
How the Discovery in Philadelphia of "Infernal
Machines/' Used for Breaking the Backs of Dogs
and Torturing and Mutilating Them in "Scien
tific Experiments," Has Increased the Public
Demand for
a Sweeping
Investiga
tion.
Animals Are Continually Being Subjected to Interne Suffering by Scientific Workers
Who Are Seeking a Way to Resuscitate the Dead. Picture Shows the Device Used.
M!
ONE of the most active organi
zations engaged in attacking
the abuse of vivisection 1b
the Society for the Prevention of the
Abuse in Animal Experimentation, of
Brooklyn, N. Y. It does not oeek to
abolish vivisection, but to prevent lta
abuse. Ita counsel, Mr. F. P. Bel
lamy, here presents a clear state
ment of what his society Is aiming at.
By F. P. BELLAMY,
Treasurer and Counsel of the Society
for the Prevention of Abuse in
Animal Experimentation.
IN a Philadelphia police court several prominent
professors and surgeons connected with the
medical department of the University of
Pennsylvania are now being prosecuted for
cruelty to animals.
It is charged that in conducting experlmenta
opon living animals more pain was inflicted than
was necessary, that after the results of the ex
periments had been ascertained the mutilated
animals were not promptly put out of their
misery, and that In many other respects the ex
periments were performed in a manner revolting
to snyone of humane instincts. Indeed, some of
the pieces of apparatus said to have been used
in the experiments were characterized by the
pruld'r.g judge ss "infernal machines."
Whether or not these particular professors are
guilty of the charges made against them is a mat
ter of trifling importance compared with the sig
nificance of the case from another aspect Insti
tutions of the calibre of the medical department
of the University of Pennsylvania ought like
Caesar's wife, to be above suspicion.
The mere fact that sufficient has been un
earthed in thlB Institution to Justify a pollc?
magistrate In holding one or more of the operat
ing surgeons for trial will, I believe, prove of
inunenso value to the cause of those who are seek
ing to prevent the abuse of vivisection.
There are eighteen thousand physicians and
medical students in New York who may satisfy
their thirst for knowledge by cutting up living
animals. Not all of them avail themselves of this
privilege. Many of them who do. no doubt, are
perfectly competent, and conduct their experi
ment in a humane manner. As to the rest, there
ran be no rtoubt at all that wanton cruelty and
needless suffering are an Inevitable accompani
ment of the "experiments" they perform.
For six successive years our society has pre
sented a bill to the New York Legislature in line
with our platform, which advocates "the practice
of vivisection duly limited to competent experts."
Our first two bills proposed to regulate the
practice of vivisection. We found we could make
no headway against the strong opposition inter
posed by the medical profession.
Then we became more modest In our demands.
We presented a bill in the following three suc
cessive years providing for the appointment of a
non-partisan commission to investigate and re
port upon the conditions surrounding the practice
of vivisection In New York State and to recom
mend a suitable law to regulate such practice so
as to prevent Its abuse without interfering with
legitimate scientific research.
All these hills met with the same opposition.
The medical profession opposed our efforts to
regulate vivisection with no less bitterness than
they opposed our humbler request for a commis
sion to investigate whether regulation of vivisec
tion w-as necessary.
None of these bills has ever come to a vote in
the Legislature.
A Ltvtng Cnlf. Its Whole Chest Wall Cut Oat to E xpose It* tansa and Heart. In fsed nt Imputable BledU
eai CollcRca to Illustrate to Medical Student* the Act Jon of the Heart. When the Chest Wall la Hemott*
the Luok* Naturally Collapse. To Keep the Animal Alive. Therefore, It In Necessary to Force Oxygen Into
It by Means of a I'urup. Thla 1a Done Through ? P'P e Inserted la the Trncbra. It Is Claimed by Thoaa
W liu Are Attacking the Abuse of Vivisection That Thj, Experiment ltcpented Venr After Vear Is Unneces
sary, and Tliut Students {should JUe Instructed In the ? ctiou of the lieurt in home More Humane Mbooci.
In several other States, notably Massachusetts,
New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Maryland, as also
In the District of Columbia, organizations devoted
to the same aims as the one I represent have been
making a similar fight for a legal inquiry into
the subject of vivisection.
The bills have been Introduced by societies
thoroughly in sympathy with vivisection, but op
posed to its abuse. They are not, as has been,
claimed by those who have most strenuously op
posed them, the work of anti-vlvlsectlonlsts who
were attempting thus to Insert an entering wedge
In the hope of securing the abolition of vivisection
eventually.
To class these bills as nntl-vlvlsectlon measures
is unjust. We believe that vivisection, although
Inevitably accompanied with an enormous amount
of Buffering among our dumb animals, is Justi
fiable if It is calculated to diminish suffering In
the long run, but we believe also that such ex
periments should be conducted discriminatingly
and by those only who are competent to perform
them and from whose efforts some results of value
may.reasonably be expected.
At the next session of the Legislature our bill
for the appointment of a commission to Investi
gate the subject will again be presented. Similar
bills no doubt will be presented in other States
where organizations are conducting the fight aloqg
the same lines.
Let me state here some of the reasons why
every reader of this page should lend his or her
support not only to the bills themselves, but to the
principle which they are intended to enforce.
No stronger proof could possibly be given of the
extreme danger of Inflicting unnecessary cruelty
and suffering upon animals in the practice of
vivisection than is found in the rules recently
adopted by the American MecUcal Association of
the United States regulating tne conduct of ani
mal experimentation in laboratories. These rules
are as follows:
I. Vagrant dogs and cats brought to this labora
tory and purchased here shall be held at least as
long as at the city pound and shall be returned
to their owners if claimed and identified.
II. Animals in the laboratories shall receive
every consideration for their bodily comfort; they
shall be kindly treated, properly fed, and their
surroundings kept in the best possible sanitary
condition.
III. No operation on animals shall be made ex
cept with the sanction of the director of the
laboratory, who holds himself responsible for the
importance of the problem studies and for the
procedure used In the solution of these problems.
IV. In any operation likely to cause greater
discomfort than that attending anaesthetizatlon.
the animal shall first be rendered incapable of
perceiving pain and shall bo maintained In that
condition until the operation Is ended. Excep
tions to this rule will be made by the director
i
This Inhumane Dcrlee for Breaking the Bricks
?f Aalmnls AVIthont KIIIIdc Them for the Purpose
of Experimentation Wan I'sed, It Is Claimed, by
Certain Philadelphia Professors and Surgeons, and
Formed One of the Prlnclpul Charcei Upon "Which
They Are Now Airnltlui; Trial. The Presiding
Judge Characterised It na an "Infernal Machine."
alone, and then only when anaesthesia would da
feat the object of the experiment. In such cases
an anaesthetic shall bo used eo far as possible
and may bo discontinued bo long as 1b absolutely
essential for the necessary observations.
V. At tho conclusion of the experiment the ani
mal shall be killed painlessly. Exceptions to the
rule will be made only when the continuance of
the animal's life is necessary to determine tho
result of the experiment. In that case tho same
aBeptic precautions shall be observed during the
operation and. so far a3 possible, the same care
shall bavtaken to minimize discomforts during the
convalescence as In a hospital for human beings.
These rules, It has been claimed In public hear
ings before our Legislature, are now posted in
practically all tho large laboratories where legiti
mate scientific vivisection Is performed. It Is also
claimed by the medical profession that every
effort is taken to enforce these regulations to pre
vent cruelty. This being the case the Society for
tho Prevention of Abuse In Animal Experimenta
tion recently caused some of these rules to be
framed In the form of an amendment to the penal
code, which was drawn in such a way as to make
the violation of these rules a misdemeanor, pun
ishable by law. However, tho insincerity of our
opponents to all laws suggesting the reasonable
regulation or restriction of tho practice of vivi
section was apparent when tho representative of
the Medical Society of the State of New York and
other organizations which are responsible for the
practice of vivisection united to oppose most stren
uously the enactment into a law of tho very rules
above stated, which the medical association had
determined to be necessary to prevent cruelty and
had caused to ba posted in all tho laboratories
under their control.
If It be true, as claimed by these learned gen
tlemen of tho medical profession, that the en
forcement of the above quoted rules In labora
tories is necessary to prevent cruelty, then why
should these gentlemen object to having these
rules framed into a law which could be enforced
by penalties of criminal punishment? Any oppo
sition to this form of legislation Is but another
indication of that insincerity which, while deny
ing the existence of any cruelty or wrong-doing,
violently opposes rither an Investigation to verify
their statement that there is no cruelty, or legis
lation which while protecting legitimate scientific
research would make punishable the abuse which
the existence of these rules concedes to exist.
In legislative hearings concerning the practice
of vivisection and in the public press for many
3'ears an attempt has been made to confuse tho
Issue. Each year lawmakers before whom these
bills have come have been told that there are only
two sets of advocates represented: Vlvlsectlon
ists and antl-vlvlsectlonlsts. That statement Is
unqualifiedly false. Do not be deceived by it.
There is a third party. It Is composed of
twelve thousand active citizens who thoroughly
believe In the value of vivisection, but insist that
Its practice should bo regulated by law. It Is this
party which has presented the bills In question.
Those who oppose our bills need waste no
breath in telling us that vivisection Is useful; wo
believe it. Spend no time In dwelling on its suc
cesses; wo admit them. Let them confine their
attention to a few straight questions:
Aro thoy doing good honost work free from
unnecessary cruelty?
Why are they afraid to prove this If It bo tract
Why do they not welcomo the opportunity to
prove It?
We do not object to scientific research. we do
object to any unnecessary cruelty or abuse of this
research and to the useless repetition of tho
tame old painful experiments simply to Illus
trate a lecture. We object also to schoolboy vlvl
section?although Dr. Coakley, one of the objec
tors from New York, at one of these hearings
told the committee that he advocated vivisection
by children?and vivisection in back yards and
cellars. They say they will be accountable to no
one, they will permit nelthor knowledgo nor In
quiry concerning this practice. They say It Is and
shall remain open alike to the expert and the
Incompetent, to the medical student, tho hospital
Interne, tho quack and the charlatan, and when
we say "why must It so remain?" their answer,
their one argument appears to bo "you are antl
vlvisectionlsts," which statement we say is a false
hood. . ?>
They have admitted that there Is often necefl
eary suffering in this practice, that there Is In
tense suffering, torture, h!deou3 suffering, but
necessary to true scientific research. Thl3 suf
fering is justifiable by law only when It can ba
shown to bo surrounded by every possiblo safe
guard against license or abuse.
Is it so surrounded by all who practice vlvi
Eectlon?
If so, let them prove tho conditions. With
them rests tho burden of proof, because suffer
ing Is Inherent In the practice. We have their
own admission of necessary cruelty or suffering.
We say that tho published records even of the
Rockefeller Institute contain case3 of suffering
which call for inquiry. We say that the unex
plained use of curare, In vivisection. Is prima
facie proof of abuse. .
Is what thoy hldo unnecessary cruelty or suf
fering?
Why do they oppose It?
Tho medical Journals, some of their best and
greatest men, say that many of tho medical
schools are grotesquely feeble and fatuous. Tha
Board of Regents of the State of New York ha3
Just now refustvl license to practice medicine to
tho graduates of twenty-four of these schools.
We object to a practice, necessary, difficult and
Justifiably painful, and In the sense cruel, being
open, as our law, or rather lack of law, loave3
vivisection open to every member of these and
other similarly Inadequate medical schools and
to every quack or impostor holding a medical
certificate In this entire State. Wo ask informa
tion a3 to the practice as It Is carried on In such
places and by such Incompetents. They oppose
the giving of any Information on this subject
Why do they oppose It?
That thero Is a large amount of this unprinci
pled and untrustworthy animal experimentation
in th? State is evident from tho fact that there
are for sale to tho public with no guarantee ot
their purity?or safety?here to-day (I am ad
vised by responsible druggists) between two and
three thousand different kinds of serums, each
claimed to ho a cure for a different disease, and
each tho result of animal experimentation, most
of them in private laboratories and many of them
by Irresponsible or unprincipled vlvlsectors.
We are asking protection for the public against
such an outrage. Vlvlsectors, why do you unito
to oppose restrictions which aro merely aimed at
such abuse?
Once mom, gentlemen of the medical profes
sion, why should you oppose the adoption hero of
something like tho English law? Surely England
?the country of Charles Darwin, Thomas Huxley,
TJ'ndall and Lord Lister, four of the greatest ex
perts of research of tho century?with its un
equalled iperiical colleges and hospitals. Is far
superior to us. You sent for ? n English surgeon.
Sir Frederick Halloek, to study and advise how
to Improve the disgraceful condition of medical
education in America. Four times since 1SOO the
S 10,000 Nobel prize for some distinguished dis
covery In research has been awarded to English
scientific men and physicians In England?onca
only In this country, and then this last year to
our visiting Frenchman, Dr. Carrel. For thirty
five years England has had a regulative law. A
royal commission sitting for six years, after hear
ing all the testimony, has recently upheld that
law. England favors vivisection duly safeguarded
by law faithfully administered, and so do we.
Why should anyone oppose this law? What do
they fear? I.oss of money, loss of prestige?
Surely not loss of opportunity for unnecessary
cruelty!
Against unnecessary cruelty and against un
necessary abuse and nothing else wo work. To
prevent this abuse and this cruelty we ask the'
Legislature to appoint a commission to investi
gate to the end that the truth may bo made clear
and such abuse as may be found to be existing
may be corrected by reasonable laws which may
be recommended by the commission. Wo hope to
secure it. We hope that some of tho great halla
of the Rockefeller Institute may be opened for
its meetings and that Dr. Flexner or other of its
staff may bo members of tho commission. We
hope for honest men with no axes to grind, no
facts to hide, no money to secure, who will work
together for the public good, to take vivisection
out of the mire of public distrust into which it
has fallen by its abuse, and to place It high among
the resources of honorable scientific research.
New Light On the Causes and Cure of
HE drink habit, when It 1b not within the
victim's control. Is a disease, not a vice, and
can he surely cured, according to Dr. J.
Aatley Cooper, in his new work on Inebriety. Dr.
Cooper Is Medical Superintendent of Ghyllwood,
the famous sanatorium of Cumberland, England.
The occasional drinker, who makes merry once
In a while on Saturday night, Is dismissed from
consideration at the start If there Is no Inherited
weakness they will never become slaves to alco
hol. Therefore, they belong 'to the province of
the reformer and the policeman, not the doctor.
The true victim of alcohol Is marked for prey
long before he tasteB liquor. Such a person feels
on uncontrollable need of the stimulant If he
feels it all tbo time he Is a chronic drinker and con
sumes about the same amount each day. The
periodic drunkard has either no inclination for
alcohol most of the time or so small a desire that
ho can overcome It. At Intervals of weeks or
months there comes upon him an Insatiable de
sire. This desiro, according to Dr. Cooper, Is clearly
enough a form of explosive Insanity and re6om
bios epileptic attacks.
That these periodic attacks are not nntirely a
weakening of the will or oven sometimes wholly
In the nervous system. Is proved by cases In the
6anatorlum. When a patient Is confined and de
prived of alcohol during one of these attacks, his
bodily functions are altered. Not only his disposi
tion becomes Irritable, but his tongue grows furry,
his breath foul and his appetite weak. Liver, kid
neys and stomach neglect their work and the
patient will go to any lengths to secure the In
toxicant.
At the end of the attack these organs spring
Into unusual activity, the irritation passes and
with it the thirst and morbid desire.
Such persons are defective in moral sense and
particularly lacking in responsibility. Responsi
bility is discomforting to them. This accounts
for "the otherwise Inexplicable habit some drinkera
have of being hopelessly intoxicated at exactly
the wrong time.
At a crisis, Instead of swearing off or merely
taking enough to brace the nerves, these unfor
tunates become literally paralyzed. The sea cap
tain who becomes drunk at the approach of a
storm and the soldier who comes to court martial
intoxicated, are examples.
The chronic inebriate who Is used to a quart of
whisky per day must not be deprived of his
stimulant all at once. The first day his alcohol
should be reduced 10 per cent; the second day 10
per cent more, reducing the amount to 80 per
cent; the third day to 70 per cent; the fourth day
to 50 per cent Up to thlB point the patient has
suffered only from a craving for alcohol. He
misses his usual quantity, but ho L3 able to sleep
and eat about as well as usual.
In "tapering off" the alcohol to a degree les?
than B0 per cent, other Bymptoms appears. The
patient is unable to sleep and hla kidneys show
disturbances and there is a loss of albumen.
Therefore, on the fifth day, a sedative should be
administered and the alcohol reduced to 25 per
cent Aa the alcohol on the sixth day Is reduced
to 10 per cent, the sedative should bo doubled, and
on the seventh day no alcohol at all, but In its
place a maximum dose of the sedativo. From thlB
point on the treatment consists in "tapering off"
the sedative until the thirteenth day the patient
should be taking neither alcohol nor any sedative.
Probably the best drug for toning the system
Rfter withdrawal are doses of a mixture contain
ing pot. brom. 40 grains, amnion, cart). 3 grains,
tr. capsici 75 minims, inf. cinchonae acidum up
to 1 ounce, every four hours. Thljj helps the
stomach to return to its normal state of ease and
appetite.
All this comprises tho first stago of the cure.
Whether or not, then, tho first stage of the
treatment of inebriety is carried out at home or in
a special sanatorium, there is no doubt that the
second stage is best carried out in such an in
stitution where those in charge have a thorough
knowledge, and, what Is equally important, a
profound Interest in their work, apart altogether
from its commercial standpoint. Wo venture to
think that there Is no abnormal condition to
which man is subject, where the treatment call9
for such untiring hope, energy, patience, sym
pathy. firmness and tact combined, as is the case
In the treatment of inebriety, and unless those
qualities are ingrained In tho superintendent of an
lnebrlato sanatorium, hia work will suffer. It la
work that he must do himself, and cannot con
stantly delegate to those under him.
We will suppose that tho first stago of treat
ment has been duly carried out at homo, or in
an institution, and that the patient is now com*
menclng the second stage in the best possible
environment of a well-situated and well-conducted
sanatorium. Wo see nothing advantageous in tho
administration of a routine course of drug treat
ment to all and sundry, irrespective of their in
dividual physical and mental symptoms. Speak
ing generally, we think that those drugs should
be used which have been proved to alleviate or
cure such organic or functional physical disor
ders as are obvious to the physician on the ex
amination of tho patient. We shall have occasion
to refer again to tho routine courses of drugs
that are still being used in the treatment of In
ebriety. Of the utmost importance in tho treat
ment of this -stage are occupation and exerclso;
the life should be an outdoor one as far as possi
ble, at all events a certain amount of outdoor
exercise should bo taken daily. Such exercise
should be as congenial as possible to the patient,
and preferably bo both mental and physical. Golf,
rackets, lawn tennis, croquet, bowls, are all ex
cellent forms of exercise for such patients as we
are now dealing with. If one particular exercise
Ib unsuitable, another Is thoroughly so, all pro
viding interest as well as exercise, and Insuring
(especially golf) long periods being spent in the
open. Hobbles of all sorts suitable to the patient'9
particular fancies should bo encoura&sd, and the
facilities for them should be provided In a good
sanatorium. Indoor amusemcnt3 and occupation
should also be provided, a well-stocked library
being a sine qua non In such an institution. A
certain amount of work, preferably physical,
should form part of tho treatment; many patients
will do such work If it Is provided for them;
many will do no work, or anything that suggests
work. We are of opinion that enforced work Is of
comparatively little value to the patient. Exercise,
whether mental or physical, is of little real valua
unless it is done with a will and with intelligence;
whereas forced work, while of some little valua
to the employer, is of even less valua to the
worker.
This is wonderfully exemplified in tho use of
dumb-bell exercises. Many people have used such
a listless routine manner for months, or even
years, without any, or with extremely little, re
sult to their physical development. Sandow
showed that this was so, and by the simple In
vention of h!s grip dumb-bell nt once insured tho
mind of tho patient being fixed on his work; the
moment his mind wandered his grip relaxed, and
he ceased to carry out his planned exercise. Work
with GRIP dumb-bells at once give results that
were previously wanting in tho majority of those
who had mechanically used the ordinary dumb
bell. ?
Discipline Is of great importance, but the ut
most care is necessary in administering It. Tha
majority of persons aro suggestiblo to a greater
or less degree, by which means they aro capable
of becoming impressed by repeated suggestions.
Sometimes the psychic treatment of an Inebriate
is better administered under so-called "hypnotic
Influence." Tho mind must, bo influenced and^ ra*
stored to normal self-control, either while the
patient is In a waking or In a hypnotic state.
This is the real cure, and continuous care and
treatment, sometimes oxtending over weeks and
months, la necessary. Dut It is worth while,

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