Newspaper Page Text
The Cotton Crop of 1866' j
The Augusta Chronical ct- miimI has an
elaborate Article on this subject, presenting ;
manv facts and arguments that are worthy of
public attention, and of the special consider- I
ation of the commercial class. We extract j
the material portion of the article referred to:
The first great and leading question to be j
solved is the amount of labor applied to the j
production of the present crop. In I860 there j
were something over four millions of negro !
slaves in the Southern States. According to
the census tables about one half of that num- j
ber were between the ages of ten and sixty ,
years. This would give two millions able to
do work. Of the four millions of slaves in
the Southern States in 18(50. two millions
and fortv thousand (2,040.000) were in the ,
States of Virginia, North Carolina, Tennes-i
see, Kentucky, Missouri and Maryland, and .
consequently were not to any considerable
extent employed in the production ol cotton
It is true, a few thousand bales were raised, ;
; ti.Pkrt States, but the labor ot ;
thoe States was principally applied to the i
production of provisions, tobnefo. gram ,
hemp, turpentine and stock. Tins would ,
leave in the cotton growing States about two j
millions of slaves, one-half of whom were j
working hands. From this number we must :
deduct those employed as domestics, and in :
the trades; also, some deduction should be ;
made for those engaged in the cities and .
towns as laborers, draymen, stevedores, por- ;
tort, &c. !
We do not believe that more than eight or
nine hundred thousand hands were employ- j
ed in the production of cotton previous to ,
the war. To these must be added the mini-
ber of white laborers who were engaged in ,
its cultivation. There were, in 1SG0, about j
three millions of white people in the seven !
cotton States. Of these, one-half, or one mil- j
lion five hundred thousand, were between :
the ages of 10 and 60 years. , About one half
of these were males. This would give the
cotton States seven hundred and fifty thous
and male white persons between the ages of .
10 and 60 years. Of these about one-third, i
or two" hundred and fifty thousand, were
owners of lands and slaves, who did not la- j
bor in the fields. Of the remaining live hun- !
dred thousand, it is supposed that two -fifths ;
were employed in the mechanic arts, trades ;
and professions. This would leave three ,
hundred thousand field laborers. To these
add the number of slaves employed in ngri- j
culture, and we have the following total field
Slaves, 000.000. '
Whites, 000.000. i
Total, ' 1.200,000. j
We are satisfied that this is rather over j
than under the number ac tually employed j
as agricultural laborers previous to the war.
Let us now examine for a moment the pre- i
sent supply of labor, both black and white, j
and see how it compares with that of 1SG0. ;
Unfortunately, we have no relia! le data to ;
aid us in the investigation ; we have, how
ever, a fact from which we may be able to ;
approxmitate a fair estimate of our present
labor supply. In the first place, we know
from the official reports that two hundred
and fifty thousand black men have been en
listed in the army of the United States as j
soldiers, teamsters, pioneers, &c. Of this num- j
ber it will be safe to calculate not more than
fifty thousand will hoe cotton this year. i
Then there is quite a large number who have :
flocked to the cities and towns to avoid field r
labor. We estimate these at one hundred ;
thousand. There is also a considerable num- :
ber of women and girls from 12 to 00, who
were field hands, but now are lying up on ;
the plantations in idleness, their husbands j
and fathers supporting them. A great many i
field women have also sought and obtained j
employment as house women, cooks cham- I
bermaids. washerwoman, fcc. These must i
be all deducted from the number formerly !
employed in the cotton fields. Thus we 1
have : J
Enlisted soldiers, &c. 200.000 ;
Engaged in cities and towns. 100.000 j
Women and girls not working 100.000 j
Women and girls doing house work 2-3,000 ;
Making a total of four hundred and twenty
five thousand hands withdrawn from the
production of cotton. To these must be ad
ded the l'umber who have died during the
war. These have been estimated as high as
one-fourth of the entire Hack population.
Without stopping to enquire whether this is
a fair estimate of the entire mortality of the
black race, we think that we may safely esti
mate the mortality among those between 15
and 60 to be at least one hundred thousand.
Then we have the followiug figures :
Slaves in the cotton States
employed in 1800 as field
From which deduct enlis
ted soldiers. 200,000
Engaged in cities and
Women and gilrls not
. Women and girls doing
house work, 25,000
Died since the war, 100,000500,000
Which leaves 400,000
as the entire available black labor now enga
ged in raising cotton. To this we must add
the amount of white labor thus employed.
We have seen that about three hundred
thousand whites were engaged as farm labor
ers before the war. At least one fourth of
them were killed or maimed during the con
flict. This would leave two hundred and
twenty-five thousand now at work in the
production of cotton. Then we have as the
entire available plantation labor in the seven
States of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi.
Louisianna, Arkansas, Texas, Florida and
in 1860. Thus we hare for the production
ot the present crop but a little over one-half
the labor employed in 1860.
In properly estimating the extent of the
growing crop, we should also bear in mind
the infirm character of the labor now em- j
ployed as compared to that of 1860. The I
experiment of free negro labor is yet to be
worked out. We believe that they arc so far
doing much better than the most hopeful
had anticipated. No one with whom we
have communicated, however, rates them as
full as eflicient laborers as under the old sys
tem. Something must be allowed for this
deficiency in the character of our present la
bor. This, as a matter of course, is a mere
matter of conjecture. Some say they are only
half as efficient as formerly some think they
do about two-thirds the labor they accom
plished before the war, and some put it a lit
tle higher still. But estimating each hand
employed, as good as in 1860, and we cannot
under the most favorable seasons expect
more than a half crop, or 2,000,000 bales.
There cannot be more than one-half the
land planted, which was cultivated in 1800,
. For want of effective stock, and the compel-
led nee of inferior implements, the prepara
tion for the crop has been .very imperfect.
The scarcity and consequent high price of
seed has compelled our planters to put too
little seed in the earth their planting will
be the cause of Lad stands. The condition
of the plough animals is very poor, on ac
count of the oreat. sejircitv of rnm rnH;nn
from the failure of the negroes to work and
house the last crop.
Taking all these things into consideration.
w ao not believe that a crop of more than
eigl tjen hundred thousand bales can be pos
sibly raised this year. If there should be an
early frost, or any very great extremes of wet
or dry weather, it will fall short of that
amount, Indeed, there are so many acci
dents likely to affec t the growth of the plant,
that it would be extremely .hazardous to
make an estimate of the crop, save upon tho
grounds which we have taken,
STATUDAY, - - JUNE 2, 18G6.
The President's Policy.
The representatives of the States should
be J.ov.vi. mix, willing to abide by and be
DF.VOTKI) TO THI'.UXIOX AND THE COXSTITL-
tiox ok the States.
Vlt, responsible positions and places ought
to be confined distinctly and clearly to men
who are inm tstakaisly and unqckstiona
ni. y loyal. President's Reply to the Virginia
I hold it my duty to recommend the ad
mission of every State to its share in public
legislation when it presents itself in the per
soTis of representatives whose loyalty cax
not HE qx-estioxed under any existing con
stitutional or legal test. President's Veto
The Constitution declares that no ttate j amendments thereto may be ratified Uy the
shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the j Legislatures or by Conventions of the States,
Senate of the United States without its con- .4 - or thj de of ratiflcation
sent. Then, where do we staud ? All that J
is needed to finish this great work of rcsto- ; may be proposed by the Congress. It Con
ration is for the two Houses respectively to J ventions, as well as Legislatures, should be
determine the question. Oh ! but some one ( :liowt.i to ratify, our Convention now in
will say, " A traitor might conic in !" The j . . u ' once ratif h foregoing
answer to that is that each House must be s J ; a
the iudsr. and if a traitor presents himself, ! amendments, and thus take the lead in the
cannot either House know that he is a traitor '. great work of restoration.
And if he is a traitor, can they not kick him j
out of the door, and send him back, saying A Holy Man Called to a " Dirty "
to the people who sent him, 44 Yor Mrsr ; Work. Our amiable friend, the Senior of
sfnd us a loyl max ?" Is there any difn- , . , .
- , . , i",;,.if the Sentinel, who preserves his temper as
cultv in that i It a traitor presents luinelt : ' 1
to either House, cannot that House say to ,
him, "Xo. vou cannot be admitted into this
body. Go "back. We will not deny your
people the light of representation, but they
must send a LOYAL REI'KESEN i -ai m
Pnsidt nt's Addi tx.1 to the Sfldiers and Sailors.
I will put an end to the Freedmen's I5u
reau just as soon as the South, by proper
action for the protection of the fkeed
mex. make it unnecessary. President's In
ttrriew irith Governor Cox.
Restoration .Mr. Howard's Amendment.
It will be recollected that the amendments
proposed to the Constitution by the com
mittee on reconstruction passed the House
soma days since, and were sent to the Senate
for its action. But consultations took place
afterwards between the majority in Congress,
and the result was a determination to make
some changes in the leport of the committee.
Accordingly Mr. Howard, of Michigan, mov
ed certain amendments in the Senate, which
were adopted. We give the proceedings on
the subject as follows:
After some further discussion the joint
resolution from the committee on reconstruc
tion was taken up. the question being on the
amendment of Mr. Johnson striking out the
The question was taken, and the amend
ment agreed to, by yeas 4:5, nays none.
The section struck out is as follows :
Until the 4th day of July, 1870, all per
sons who voluntarily adhered to the late in
surrection, giving it aid and comfort, shall
br excluded from the right to vote for mem
bers of Congress, and for electors for Presi
dent, and Vice President of the United
Mr. Howard offered a number of amend
ments, as follows :
Insert at the beginning of the first section
the words. " all persons born in the United
States and subject to the jurisdiction thereol
are citizens of the United States, and of the
States wherein they reside," making the first
section read :
All persons born in the United States and
subject to the jurisdiction thereof are citi
zens of the United States, and of the States
wherein they reside. No State shall make
or enforce any law which shall abridge
the privileges or immunities of citizens of the
United States ; nor shall any State deprive
any person ot life, liberty, or property, with-
out cuie process oi law, nor cieny to any per-
son wituin its jurisdiction tlie equal protec-
tion of the laws. .
The amendment proposed to the second
section makes it read as follows : i
Sec. 2. Representatives shall be appor- I
tioned among the several States which mav '
be included within this Union according to I
their respective numbers, counting the whole
number of persons in each State, excluding
Indians not taxed. But whenever in any
State the elective franchise shall be denied
to any portion of its male inhabitants being
citizens of the United States, not less than
twenty-one years ot age, or in any other way
abridged, except for participation in rebel-j
lion or oiuer eninu, iiic imsis ui icuiisnnu-
, cl i x. ii i i i .1 i
tion in such State shall be reduced in the
proportion which the number of such male
citizens shall bear to the whole number of !
male citizens not less than twenty-one years j
of?e ,lirh- Sta-te- -a ' . ... I
third section, which was struck out as above
No person shall be a Senator or Represen
tative in Congress or elector of President or
Vice President, or hold any office, civil or
military, under the United States, or under
any State, who having previously taken an
oath as a member of Congress or officer of
the United States, or as a member of any
State Legislature, or as an executive or judi
cial officer of any Stale, to support the Con
stitution of the United States, shall have en
gaged in insurrection or rebellion against the
same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies
thereof, but Congress may, by a vote of two
thirds of each House, remove such disability.
The following is proposed as
Sec. 4. All obligations of the United
States incurred in suppressing insurrection,
or in defence of the Union, or for payment of
bounties or pensions incident thereto, shall
Section 4, in the original resolution, it is
proposed to make section 5, and to read as
follows : Neither the United States nor any
State shall assume or pay any debt or obli
gation incurred in aid of insurrection or re
bellion against the United States, or any
claim for compensation for emancipation of
any slaves, and such debts and obligations
and claims shall be forever held illegal and
Sec. Congress shall have power to enforce
by appropriate legislation the provisions ot
this article. x
It is proposed, first, that all citizens of the
United States, without regard to color, shall
be alike protected in life, liberty, and prop
erty ; secondly, that representatives shall be
based on population, but that if the right of
suffrage shall be denied to colored men they
shall not be counted ; thirdly, that certain
persons shall be excluded from the right to
hold office, unless such disability shall be
removed by a two-thirds vote of Congress;
fourthly, that the public debt and bounties
and pensions shall be secured and made in
violate ; fifthly, that Congress shall have
power to enforce these proposed amend
ments. The third section provides that no person
shall hold any office under the United States,,
or under any State, who, having served in
the federal Congress, or in any State Legis
lature, or as an executive or judicial officer
of any State, or as an officer of the United
States, and taken an oath as such to support
the Constitution of the United States, after
wards engaged in the rebellion, giving aid
and comfort to the enemies of the United
States. Two-thirds of Congress may remove
this disability. The question therefore is,
whether certain persons shall be excluded
from office ami the Union shall be restored ;
! or whether, on account of these persons, and
because we may not want to exclude them
from office, we are to remain indefinitely out
of the Union. The people cannot hesitate
one moment as to their choice in this mat
ter. The chaff is to be separated from the
wheat ; and if any of the wheat should be
i about to be blown off with the chaff, Con
gress will interpose as chief winnower and
save every sound grain.
It is our deliberate opinion that the above
terms are the very best the Southern States
c:in obtain. If these terms should be reject
ed, heavier and more stringent terms will be
required. Delay in this matter will be dan
gerous. It is provided by the Constitution that
never man preserved it oerore, says, i-rovi
! aentiai necessity, not cnoice, nas piaeeci us
i iu our present position. What Providence
: wanted with us in this position, except to
expose the vileness of W. W. Holden, we
! have not been able to discover. We confess
it is a dirty business, but what our hands
find to do, 4 we must do it with our might.' "
Verily, neighbor, thou hast announced a
' new principle in the dealings of Providence
I with this sinful world. Who imposed this
" necessity " on Providence ? Neighbor, you
are blaspheming when you assume that you
made it " necessary " that Providence should
call "' you to a " dirty business."
Providence 44 wanted"' you once, so you
-aid, as a gospel minister. You groaned
uul said he had " called " you. You an--wcred.
You preached, and you printed a
cligious paper as long as it 'id, but when
it. ceased to pay you ceased to preach and
;rint. Just then, our venerable enemy and
your next friend of brimstone-breath and
cloven foot, " called " you to print a trea
sonable paper. You followed him. Your
lioly calling offered you cents, but when our
venerable enemy and your next friend jin
gled the dollars, you said " lo Satan, I am
tore. Providence is necessitated to let me serve
.ou." And you did it. What will come of
it we know not. You threaten us with your
onncrs. Better speak a few. more words for
Gratifying Intelligence from Washington
General W. T. Wolford, the member elect
to Congress from this Congressional District,
cclegraphs to this paper, as follows his tel
"graph bearing date Washington City, the
"15th instant :
4 General Howard has directed General
Tilson t use extraordinary means to supply
the destitute people of our devastated dis
trict with provisions.""
We make record of this considerate order
with pleasure. Doubtless it has been issued
through the influence of General Wofford at
Washington, his representation, and his feel
ing appeal in behalf the suffering people in
his district the Cherokee section of our
State, so long overrun and devastated by
Thomas' arm v. General Tilson cannot move
to sv,pl)iv tne destitute in that section of our
state too soon. Thev need prompt relief, or
we are assured, in manv places, starvation
wjU overtake manv, and they -will perish
Atlanta Ga .) Intelligencer.
,,- , ... it- ...
e ,eara t,,!lt mucl1 'hstrcss prevails m
some of the western Counties of this State,
on account of the extreme scarcity of pro-
visions. Gen. Logan, ot Itutherford, has in
troduced an ordinance in the Convention
asking for relief for those of his constituents
w ho are suffering. We hold it to be the duty
()f the State, at any expense, to provide for
,.,,r,. ,.:., ... 1 1, c i
its su tiering poor, ilienonusot the State
could be readily sold in New ork, to raise
money for this object. We trust it will be
done. Georgia has adopted this course. We
are sure, also, that Gen. lluger will extend
all the aid in his power to our suffering
Our amiable neighbor of the Sentinel
would have the world believe that he was
specially "called" by Providence from the
pulpit, to engage in worldly affairs. Du
ring the rebellion our neighbor preached for
the colored people in this City, and he drew
a very handsome support from these poor
people. To a very great extent they fed and
clothed him. He appeared then to have a
sincere regard for the colored people. He
seemed to think that, as slaves, they had
souls ; and he knew, from blessed experience,
that they had money. But as soon as the
Union troops reached here, and these slaves
were set free, our neighbor turned up his
oligarchic nose at these same colored peo
ple, and he has not since "darkened the
door " of their church. This brings forcibly
to mihd the language of the Saviour him
self, as recorded in the 10th chapter of
" I am the good shepherd : the good
shepherd giveth his life for the sheep.
But he that is an hireling, and not the
shepherd, whose own the sheep are not,
seeth the wolf coming, and leaveth the sheep,
and fleeth ; and the wolf catcheth them, and
scattereth the sheep. .
The hireling fleeth, because he is an hire
ling, and careth not for the sheep."
Willie P. Mangum, of North-Carolina, has
been appointed by the President Consul at
Nagasaki, Japan ; and J. C. B. Smith, of
Louisiana, has been appointed Consul at
Athens, Greece. Willie Person Mangum is
a son of Pri-: stly H. Mangum, and a nephew
of the late Hon. Willie Person Mangum, oi
Orange County in this State.
Bitten by a Mad Dog. A little girl and
boy were bitten by a mad dog, in Norfolk,
on Satoarday. The Norfolk papers call for
prompt action in regard to the canine raoe o,
th city, in consequence.
A Homestead JTfeteUef.of tle
We make the following extract from a
letter from a leading citizen' of Eastern
Carolina, addressed to a member ot the Con
vention now in this City. The suggestions
contained in this extract are well worthy of
serious consideration :
44 1 was much gratified, in the interview I
had with you, to find our opinions agreeing
so well. I was pleased to find that you ap
preciated the sad condition of our people,
and felt desirous to do what you can for
their relief. In this connection, I do not
refer to the General Government. I think
we are better off. as far as regards the gov
ernment, than I expected; and though I
would be pleased to see many things al
tered, yet have but little to complain of.
We must willingly submit to be governed
by the victors. We have no right to pre
scribe terms. But what I wish to refer to,
is the private indebtedness of the people.
You know their condition. Three-fourths
of the land-holders are hopelessly broken.
The profits of cultivating the land on thirds,
or with the present hired labor, will be
found very little ; the tax on cotton destroys
the profits, and not one in ten of the debtors
will be able to pay the first installment, un
der the stay law. In the fall of 1808, the
sales of land must be immense and many,
very many women and children will be
driven from their homes, without a shelter,
and no means of support. It will produce
violence and lawlessness. There is no argu
ment that appeals to a man's heart like his
suffering wife and children, and when they
are deprived of a shelter, he will be desper
ate. You already know all about this, and
I will not rehearse it. As far as honesty is
concerned, I do not hold that money clue in
1858 or 1859 is equal to money at present;
then credit was based on property that is
swept away, and I do not feel that is honest
to demand a dollar now for a dollar due
then. Sunie relief must be extended to the
debtor portion of the people. Anj' action of
the Convention will command more respect,
and be of higher authority than by the Leg
islature, and I sincerely hope the Conven
tion will do something. I can make no
suggestion. The delegates feel the pressure,
and miu.t judge of the remedy. One mode
of relief is fresh before the people I mean a
homestead law. It ought to have been
passed years ago ; its necessity now is press
ing. The people demand, and will have it.
Secure to every man a home for his wife
anil children beyond the power of any cred
itor, and you infuse new life; the family
will be stimulated to enrich and beautify,
and the whole country will smile under its
benign influence. I beg to urge upon j-ou
to aid in the passage of m homestead law.
You may not agree about the details, but
pass one of some sort, and the people will
rejoice, and hail you as benefactors."
MEMPnis, May 26. Gen. S. S. Alcorn.
United States Senator elect from Mississippi,
has made application to Gen. Fiske, of the
Freedmen's Bureau, for a teacher of a freed
men's school at Friar's Point, Mississippi.
All of the freedmen's courts in Tennessee
were abolished to-day by the assistant com
missioner, the law of the State making col
ored persons competent witnesses in all civil
courts having gone into operation.
The civil rights bill, legalizing slave mar
riages, giving their children the right of in
heritance, and making all persons without
regard to color equal before the law. has
passed both branches of the Tennessee Leg
islature, and became a law to day.
The Congressional committee are pursu
ing their investigations vigorously, examin
ing from ten to fifteen witnesses daily. Ev
ery facility is ottered them by the citizens
for making the inquiry thorough.
adjourxmext ok the legislature.
Nashvsi.le. May 28. The Legislature has
adjourned until November 8th.
The foregoing proves what we have fre
quently said, that with the States in the
hands of loyal men the Freedmen's Bureau
may be at once removed. Tennessee has
done well. Justice has been done to the
colored people, and the result is the Freed
men's Bureau has been abolished in that
State. We trust the same course may be
pursued in this State.
Our neighbor of the Sentinel would have
us to know that he Kill pray for us, and be
to us, until he finds out "it is an of-
j fence to God." We regard this 44 as the
j most unkindest cut of all." Our neighbor
j will certainly call down upon us an awful
' doom if he perseveres in this business. He
prayed for years for Mr. Davis and Governor
Vance, and the result was the former found
himself in Fortress Monroe, and the latter in
the old Capitol prison.
Wc are told that "J'asting and prayer"
should go together. If our neighbor would
eat less beefsteak his prayers would have
more strength. The injunction is, 44 Fast and
pray, lest ye enter into temptation."
The last Wilson North-Carolinian says :
44 We believe the trial of Jefferson Davis
and the South, will fully vindicate the right
of secession, and the government, authorities
fear an investigation. The health of our be
loved leader is failing, and little, hopes are
entertained that he will live through the
summer. His great and almost only desire
is now a speedy trial, and we trust it will be
The scenes of St. Helena are being re-enacted
at Fortress Monroe, and should the
imprisonment of Jefferson Davis terminate
as did that of the hero of Austerlitz, we at
the South must ever cherish for his captors
feelings of revenge akin to those which ran
kle in the bosom of the Emperor of France.
We shall 44 detest " the capitulation of 1865."
All such newspapers ought to be crushed
by the strong hand of power. Men who
write such stuff, and those who approve it,
deserve to be scourged out of the State.
The ee Case.
We learn that the Court adjourned on the
30th ultimo, for ten days, to enable the de
fence to prepare their argument. The case
will be closed by the 15th instant. There
has been no adjournment since the prosecu
tion closed, except at the request and for the
beuefit of the defence, to procure attendance
All the expense of the trial, with the ex
ception of fees to the counsel, are defrayed
bv the government.
The Convention. This body was engag
ed yesterday and day before in considering
the report of the committee to re-write the
The resolutions of Mr. McDonald, of
Moore, relative to the appointment of com
missioners to proceed to Washington, were
The Convention is despatching its business
Priest Marrying. The ehurchly hab
its of Rome are ' suffering serious inva
sions in Italy. Five priests were married
within a month, one being Franciscan Monk,
and it is said that such marriages are to go
on increasing. The Pope will, no doubt,
put his foot down heavily on such irregular
proceedings. " "
Proceedings of the Convention.
Thursday, May 31st, 1866.
Mr. Wilson made a report from the com
mittee on the stay law recommending the
passage of an ordinance.
The comniitte on salaries and fees reported
an ordinance recommending its passage.
The committee on the ordinance regulating
interest reported, recommending its rejection.
Mr. Logan an ordinance to allow the peo
ple of Polk county to vote in their county
in the districts attached to it for Members of
the General Assembly.
Mr. Moore, from the constitutional commit
tee, reported an ordinance as a substitute for
an ordinance concerning debts of the State
to be hereafter contracted, to be entitled an
ordinance concerning debts to be hereafter
contracted and revenue levied, making the
provisions of the ordinance also applicable
to county debts.
Mr. Mclvcr introduced an ordinance pro
viding that when persons were unable to
give bail, they should be sent to a work
house, and not to close confinement.
Mr. Grissorn introduced an ordinance au
thorizing an exchange of registered State
bonds for bonds now being issued by Public
Treasurer, an'1 extending the privilege only
to citizens of the State.
Mr. Grissorn moved that the rules be sus
pended and the ordinance just read be put
upon its several readings. The measure he
thought was perhaps of as much practical
importance to the great body of the people
of the State in their pecuniary distress as
any which may claim the attention of the
Convention. Whatever delegates might
think of the policy of stay laws in general,
there could be no objection to the application
of its principles, when adopted at all, to all
debts alike. This ordinance proposed noth
ingniore, though he was prepared to go much
further in his votes, for the protection of that
peculiarly unfortunate class the debtors ot
The country had been overwhelmed with
misfortune, the social fabric had been sha
ken and overturneilNorth-Carolina had been
stripped of her wealth her happiness, her
sons and her political power and the com
munity had been left the residuary legatees
of but little except debts and suffering.
In this hour ot their extremity the people
looked to this Convention for aid, and rather
than not afford it, he would prefer to abro
gate the jurisdiction of the courts in civil
suits altogether for a time.
Mr. Mebane introduced an ordinance to
incorporate the Co-operation Association, at
Mr Faulkner introduced an ordinance pro
viding against obstruction to the passage of
fish through the streams of the State.
Mr. Simmons introduced a resolution that
no business of a legislative character shall be
entertained by the convention after the second
day of June, unless recommended by the
The unfinished business of yesterday was
resumed, being the consideration of Mr. Cald
well's amendment to section 9 of the bill of
rights, dispensing with trial by jury for mis
elemeauors, giving such trials to magistrates,
but securing the right of appeal.
Mr. Mebane moved a substitute to Mr.
Caldwell's amendment to section 9 as fol
lows: "The Legislature may, however, pro
vide other modes of trial with right of ap
peal for midemeanors," which was accepted.
Mr. Caldwell of Guilford addressed the
House urging the adoption of the amend
ment to section nine.
Mr. Eaton said that he was not prepared to
surrender the right of trial by jury tor crim
inal offences, established as a bulwark for
liberty by our forefathers. Did the gentle
man properly comprehend the scope of the
worel misdemeanor. Bigamy, assault and
battery with intent to murder, or maim, or
commit rape, and perjury were misdemeanors.
Does this amendment propose to give
to magistrates the power to try all such
cases f Then the rich man might injure the
poor one choose a magistrate, go before
him and be acquitted. Out of so many magis
trates a corrupt one could be found, upon
whom the influences of wealth and position
could be brought to bear. He was opposed
to the change.
Mr. Phillips said that the provisions of the
constitution as to civil and criminal cases
were identically the same. But magistrates
had already been accorded juriseliction in
civil cases by the decision of the Supreme
Court, o ring to the increase of population
and causes of litigation. The trial of crim
inal offences, even the most trivial, have how
ever been confined to juries. It was for the
protection of personal rights ; but this kind
of protection has at length come to be a
grave nuisance, grinding into powtler the
people. A man commits an affray of an in
significant character, he h:s no choice of
trial but must go before a jury, fee his lawyer
and pay a fine. A magistrate could settle it
in a few minutes, and if the party felt ag
grieved the right of appeal was secured to
him. He was for allowing the Legislature
some "play" in the matter for the reduction
of this antiquated and complicated ma
chinery. Mr. Winston said that malefactors dread
ed the County Court but the Superior Court
more. They would not dread these magis
trates, whom they would aid to elect, per
haps. He was for maintaining the majesty
of the law, and by providing for the certain
punishment by jury deterring the wicked from
Mr. Dick said that he always favored a ju
dicious system of reform. That this old
method of forcing men into Court, for the
section as it stood allowed them no op
tion, for trial by jury ot the most triv
ial misdemeanors had become a great nui
sance. It deprives the poor man of his
money, which he has to pay for the enjoy
ment of a right, with which he would rather
dispense for a more expeditious method.
Give the Legislature the power to make laws,
regulating the jurisdiction of the magistrates,
securing the fight of appeal, however, by
constitutional amendment, and we would
have swept away at one blow a most com
plicated and burdensome system.
Clothe the magistrates with power and you
would make them respectable at once. They
can dispose of all these light offences which
now block up the way of justice, and which
have been so much increased recently by the
emancipation of the freedmen.
Mr. Brown thought that it was now neces
sary to relax the ritual of these ancient
forms of government and to simplify the
machinery of government, which being cre
ated to protect, hath now become oppressive
to the liberties of the people. Whole neigh
borhoods are now drawn to Oourt to testify
in criminal case's the most rifl. . g to the de
moralization of the people auci impoverish
ment of the country. There must be some
simpler method ; and if left to the Legisla
ture, no doubt that body would devise some
more satisfactory method of trial for misde
meanors. Mr. McCorkle opposed the amendment.
Mr. Conigland favored it.
Mr. Boyden favored it.
Mr. Moore of Wake in an able argument
reviewed the whole matter, and offered the
following amendment as a substitute:
"Provided, ruverthelets, That Courts may
be established and held in cities and incor
porated towns, and at. the Court Houses, in
which may be tried, without the interven
tion of grand and petit juries, as shall bepre
scribed by law, all misdemeanors except
such whereof the punishment may be corpo
ral, other than imprisonment, whenever the
accused shall elect to be so tried. Provided,
That in all cases where the party may be im
prisoned or fined above fifty dollars, he may
appeal to any Court having jurisdiction of
the case." , . .-
Pending this amendment, a communica
tion was received " from his Excellency, the
Governor, relative to the Geological Survey,
State title to certain Swamp -Lands, &c,
which, on motion of Mr. Moore, of Wake,
was referred to a select committee.
The Convention resumed the unfinished
The question recurring on the amendment,
offered by Mr. Moore, of Wake, to the amend
ment before pending, on motion of Mr. Lo
gan, the Convention adjourned until 10
Friday, June 1st, 1866.
A petition from Davidson county presented
by Mr. Jones, in relation to prosecutions for
violations ot civil laws during the rebellion.
Referred to the committee on State amnesty.
Mr. Dockery from the select committee an
ordinance to authorize the sale of the State
interest in the Western N. C. Railroad com
pany, recommending its passage.
Mr. Jones of Davidson a resolution to car
ry into effect an ordinance to pay the just
debts of the State and to prohibit the pay
ment of all debts in aid of the rebellion.
Mr. Jones of Henderson an ordinance legal
izing certain acts of the Courts of Pleas and
Quarter Sessions of certain counties. Refer
red to finance committee.
Mr. Moore, of Wake an ordinance concern
ing the marriages of persons of color re
pealing that provision of the law in relation
to marriages requiring a bond of $1,000 and
Mr. Moore moved to suspend the rules and
put it on its several readings.
Considerable discussion ensuing, Mr. Fere
bee moved to lay on the table. Agreed to.
Mr. Jones, oi Rowan, an ordinance to pro
vide for a better government of the Insane
Mr. Wright from committee on finance
recommending the rejection of an ordinance
to pay certain provisional judges.
Mr. Wright from same committee re
ported, recommending that ordinance sus
pending the collection of taxe3 to Jan. 1.
I860 also a resolution upon same subject be
Mr. Warren an ordinance authorizing Wm.
B. Campbell to collect arrearages of taxes.
the unfinished business.
Being the consideration of the amend
ments propsed to section 9 of the Decleration
Mr. Moore of Wake, proposed a substitute
for his amendment to the proposed amend
ment to the 9th section, as follows:
But the General Assembly mav establish
courts of record to be held publicly and at
stated times and places by one or more
judges or justices of the peace who may hear
and determine without any lury, grand or
petite, all misdemeanors, the punishment
whereof is not corporal, otherwise than his
imprisonment, whenever the accused shall
consent to be tried.
Mr. Mclvor addressed, the Convention in
opposition to the amendments.
Mr. ard opposed the amendments.
Mr. N. A. McLean also opposed the amend
Mr. McDonald desired a vote he was pre
pared for it.
Mr. McGehee in opposition to the amend
ment delivered a speech of marked ability.
Mr. Isoveleu tavored the amendment ot the
delegate from Alamance.
Mr. McDonald was opposed to the amend
Mr. Caldwell, of Guilford, addressed the
Convention, favoring the proposition of the
delegate from Alamance.
The question being on the amendment of
Mr. Moore, the yeas and nays were demand
ed and the amendment was lost, yeas 8,
Mr. Smith, of Johnston, an amendment to
the amendment providing that the Legisla
ture shall provide that such magistrates as
shall try the cases of misdemeanor shall be
elected by the people. Rejected.
The question recurring on Mr. Mebane's
amendment, accepted by Mr. Caldwell, the
yeas and nays were demanded, and res-ulted
in the adoption of the amendment as follows:
Those wno voted in the affirmative, are
Messrs. Adams, Bagley, Beam, Bell, Berry,
Boyden, Brown, Bryan, Burgin, Buxton,
Caldwell of Burke, Caldwell, of Guilford,
Conigland, Dick, Dickey, Ellis, Faulkner,
Garland, Garrett, Godwin, Harris of Guil
ford, Harris of Rutherford, Harrison, Haynes.
Jackson, Jones of Davidson, Jones of Hen
derson. Jones of Rowan. Joyce. Joyner, King,
Lash. Logan, Love of Chatham, Love of
Jackson, McCauley, Nat. McLean, McRae,
Mebane, Moore of Chatham, Murphy, Nor
fieet, Odom, Patterson, Pearsall, Perkins,
Person, Phillips, Richardson, Russell, Rush,
Smith of Johnson, Smith of Wilkes, Spen
cer of Hyde, Spencer of Montgomery, Walk
up, Winburne 08.
Those who voted in the negative, are
Messrs. Alexander, Allen, Baines, Baker,
Barrow, Bingham. Brickell, Brooks, Bynuni,
Dockery, Eaton, Faircloth, Ferebce, Furches,
Gahagan, Gilliam, Grissorn, Henry, Hodge;
Jarvis, Johnston, McCorkle, McKoy of Har
nett, McDonald of Chatham, McDonald of
Moore, McGehee, Mclvor, N. A. McLean,
McLaughlin, Moore of Wake, Polk, Pool,
Rumley, Satterthwaite, Settle, Simmons,
Sloan, Smith of Anson, Starbuck, Stephen
son, Stewart, Swan, Thompson, Ward, War
ren, Willey, Wilson, Winston 48.
The reading of the Bill of Rights was re
sumed, when in section 16 Mr. Caldwell, of
Burke, moved to amend by striking out the
words " ought," and insert "shall not," thus
providing that the remedy of the writ of
habeas corpus shall not be denied or delayed
in any case. Adopted.
Mr. Bynum moved to amend by general
consent section 7, guaranteeing to every man
in all criminal prosecutions counsel for his
Mr. Phillips moved to strikeout in section
14 the words "ought to," in last line, and
insert 44 shall." Adopted.
In sections 15, 16, 17, 22 and 23 the same
amendment was adopted.
Debate arising on the action of the Con
vention in substituting 44 shall" for 44 ought
On motion of Mr. Moore, the Convention
reconsidered its action in that matter, and
44 ought to " was again inserted.
The Declaration of Rights being read and
passed, the Convention adjourned, after
postponing the consideration of the balance
of the Constitution until Monday morning.
Public Schools in Raleigh. The Amer
ican t. and U. Commission, which sunrjorts
eighty teachers in North-Carolina, and four
hundred in other States, is now conducting
four schools in Raleigh with nine teachers
and over six hundred pupils. The schools
are held iu the African Methodist Church,
the Guion Hotel, at the Baptist Grove and
on the Fair Grounds. Sessions at 9 a. m.
daily, Saturdays excepted.
We are requested to state that members- of
the Convention and all interested in educa
tion, are welcome at any time to witness the
regular exercises. It
JOHN EVANS, SON OF MARTHA BASS, MY
husband deserted me Saturday morning last
about 8 or 9 o'clock, leaving me destitute, with
one child to tupporL He is a dark skinned man,
5 feet, 5 inches high, a large scar on the left side
of his neck, beside other scars on theewne side
of his body. ..
He has left me to tike np with another woman
in Person county, &c, with whom, lie stayed
last year. I am his lawful wife, and forwaru all
persons against him because of his bad conduct
towards me. He intends making his way, I
think,-with the woman before mentioned, to
Charlotte county, Va.
MART ANN EVANS,
may 29 tf Holly Springs,. "WTaka County
Honors to General Scott.
Washington, May 30. Official orders re
specting the death of General Scott and the
honors to be paid to his memory have bei n
issued by the Departments.
A large number of the most distingiiisi)eii
officers in the service have been detailed to
attend the Funeral at West Point on Fri
The Departments, Custom Houses &c
will be closed on that day as a mark of resuecV
to the memory of the deceased.
General Grant announces the death of Ger
eral Scott in general orders, in which h."
44 As the vigor of his life, whether in peace
or war, had been devoted to the service of
the country he loved so well, so, in his am
his country gave him a return in that vener'
ation, reverence and esteem which, won i,v
few, is the highest reward a nation can'nv,f
His memory will never fade from the nnnds
of those who have reverenced him k
"As a testimony of respect, officers will
wear a badge of mourning six months on
the left arm and on the hilt of their swords
Washington, May 29. Upon receivin-r
intelligence ot the death of Gen. Seott
President issued the following :
Executive Mansion, May 29, 18G6 Th
President, with profound sorrow, announce!
to the people of the United States the death
of Wmficld Scott, the late Lieutenant Gener
al of the army.
On the day which may be appointed for
his funeral, the several executive depart
ments of the government will be closed The
heads of the War and Navy Departments
will respectively give orders for the pay.
ment of the apropriate honors to the memory
oe the dceased. Andrew Johnson. "
Boston, May 29. All the church bells of
this city were tolled by telegraph this after
noon, striking eighty times for the death of
New York, May 29. All the flags in the
city and on the shipping, are at half mast on
account of the death of General Scott
The Cholera Increasing, It.
New York, May, 31. Unofficial reports
say that the steamship Union, 16 days from
Liverpool, arrived at quarantine yesterday
with upward of four hundred passengers
Thirty-three died of cholera on the trip!
The Peruvian arrived at Sandy Hook to
day, from Liverpool, with 750 passengers,
and lost 35 by cholera during the passage.
Twenty-eight, now sick on board, will he
transferee! to the hospital ship.
Dr. Henry G. Cox, an eminent Dhvsirinn
died to-day of parabysis. '
New York, May 30. Judge Nelson, of
the Supreme Court, has delivered a decision
in the case of a prisoner in the Albany peni
tentiary, saying that the trial of a civilian in
time of peace, by court martial, is illesal aurl
the conviction void.
The Memphis Riots.
The Secretary of war has sent to the nouse.
in compliance with a resolution of that body,
the reports of Gen. Stoneman in regard to the
j Memphis riots.
uen, otonenian, alter giving tne nistory of
the riots, concludes as follows : 44 As before
stated, the rioters were composed of the po
lice, firemen and rabble, and negroe-haters
in general, with a sprinkling of Yankcc-hn-ters,
all led and encouraged by demagogues
and office-hunters, and most of them under
the influence of whiskey. It appears on cvi
dencebeforethecommission that J. Creighton,
recorder of the city' made a speech to the
rioters, in which he said ; 'Wc are not pre
pared, but let us prepare to clear every ne
groe son-of-a bitch out of town. Very few
paroled Confederates were mixed up with
rioters on Tuesday and Wedneselay. the lar
ger portion being registered voters. Who
composed the incendiaries on Wendnesday
night remains to be developed."
Waltham w atches and Ayer's Pills are said
to be tlie higliest specimens of American art,
each of their kind : one in mechanics and
the other in medicine. With a Waltham
watch in one pocket and a box of Ayer's
Pills in the other, you should be at your
work in season with the health to pursue it.
Advertiser, Koricay, Me.
Hit the Kail on the Head Aahu
W. H. & R. S. TUCKER
JJAVE JUST PURCHASED ANOTHER
beautlfol Stock of
LADIES, GFNTS, MISSES AND BOYS
HATS, SHOES. AC,
At the very lowest prices before the late sud
den rise in Gold and Cotton. These Goods have
been received, and the same articles cannot be
bought now in New York within Twenty (20) per
cent, of the cost of ours.
AU Good3 by the yard have advanced within
the last week Iron three to ten. cents per yard.
We bought them whenr tlicy were down aud
much less than those that were boaght early in
the spring, and we are determined that the public
shall have tbc advantage ot our purchases.
We can afford to sell yon
GOOD GOODS CHEAP,
And we will do it, as
We Buy and Sell for Cash.
10,000 yds. beautiful English and Americad Cali
coes 15 to 25 cents.
3,000 yds. French Organdies- and printed Jaconet
SO to 75 cent a.
2,000 yards Mens and Boys Summer Cassimcres,
Nankinetts and Cottonadcs.
1,000 Ladies and Misses White and Black Derby
and Sundown Hata.
5000 pairs Shoes, Ladies and Muses, Mens
may 31 tf. W. H. & R. S. TUCKER.
NORTH -CAROLINA, )
Bektie County, f
Court of Fleas and Quarter Sessions, May Term,
S. S. Webb, Ad'mr. of W. Moring, J Attachment
vs. levied on
Willie Askew. ) laud.
It appearing; to the satisfaction of the Court
that the defendant in tbis case is not an inhabitant
of this State, it is ordered that publication be
made lor sis weeks in the Weekly N. C. Standard,
notifying the delendant to appear at the nest
term of this Court, to be held for the County 01
Bertie, at the Court House in Windsor, on the
second Monday in August next, and replevy the
property, or judgment final will be entered afrainsi
him and the laud levied en sold to satisfy U
plaintiff's del. , a
Witness, William P. Gurlcy, Clerk of saia
Court, at office in Windsor, the second Monday
of May, A. D. 18G0. n
WILLIAM P. GURLEY, CO. C.
Jr.n2, 186& . j33-w6t
of North-Carolin a
THE EIGHTEENTH ANNUAL CONVOCA
TION of thi body will be held in St. Jnn
Hall, Wilmington, N. C, n Monday, tbefourtu
day of Jnne, 1806, A I., 2o9G. Subordinate Chap
ters and Councils are requested to be punctual in
sending their representatives. ,
may 5 tt. THO&- B. CARR, Grand Sec'y..