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v. .,"Ktsr"".lr,&!. Arid, Sir, the courts of the Bister Kingtiom inoi
Tnltrfi R P. BUXTON -
Dear Sir The. imdersi,
nnKTioAtion "-h copy or3- yov
for publication; i j , j
- k tha flnnsl
abolishing impmww".-- ",.. ... -
- -.. , , -. Respectfully, - ' v
- - J.H.FOY, - '
'V . ' ; II. A. HODGE,
' :-' " . - WM. H. HAR1USON,
, . . Q. W. LOGAN,
" . i '"":i-" ;"ALEX. McIVOR.
. f 1 . ? j T. N. ALEXANDER
- T f- Ty, -Trt'1Rth 1866."
(?mnrr-Your3 of the present instant
received, end the request therein contained
is cheerfully complied with, v ".
- Yours respectfully,
..:--.Vr;- RALPH P. BUXTON.
T6 - Messrs. FoV, McDonald, Hodgk, Har-
bison, Looa, McIveb and AijBXAsdeh.
IMP11ISONMENT FOR DEBT.
SPEECH OF HON. RALPH P. BUXTON,
' " OF COSCBEBtAND, .
Delivered in the Contention, of North- Carolina
m the 2th of June, 1866, upon an Amend
ment to the State Constitution, See. 89, pro- -jmedhjf
him in these word:
. "HO PERSON SHALT EVER BE IMPRISONED
'i.' '' ', i;." 'FOB DEBT." - .,
judge Buxton said :
'Ms. President : -The proposed amend
ment in, my humble opinion, announces in
" brief terms, a sound principle which from its
great practical importance, and humane
character, I earnestly hope may be incorpo
r rated in the organic law of the State.
There is no subject, which every where and
in all ages has more occupied the attention
of law makers, than the question of the
r proper adjustment of the conflicting claims
of creditor and debtor. In times anterior to
the Christian era the creditor had full sway
he held in his hands the power of life and
. death, and as the insolvent debtor was re
garded by him as a criminal of the deepest
die, life was taken in expiation, and the life-
"- less body denied a sepulchre. Time amelior
ated in some degree the wretched condition
.- ot the debtor I. still refer to the Heathen
age. Life was spared, but the unrelenting
creditor was allowed to sell into slavery not
only the debtor, but also his wife and child
ren. The benign influence of Christianity
abolished these atrocities : but still, seyeri-
- ties, amounting to cruelty, were practiced
upon debtors ; they were regarded as culprits,
. : treated as such, and pined in prison until the
genius of British Liberty opened the prison
doors and bid them go free. Thus the prin
ciple contained in this Ordinance is of
English origin and is borrowed from the
ancient English Constitution. By that great
V. unwritten charter of English rights, the
right of personal liberty was guaranteed to
1. ; -every subject, as a right superior to every
mere private claim, and not to be forfeited
.... except upon commission of a criminal offence.
It was not considered consonant with the
spirit of the Constitution that a freeman
should forfeit his freedom on account of a mere
pecuniary claim held against him by a sub
ject. In addition to his private right to per
sonal liberty, it was considered that the
public had an interest in his enlargement
superior to every mere private claim that
the sovereign had a direct and paramount
title t the services of every subject, whether
those services were to be rendered in the
camp, or in the workshop, or in the field ; in
prison he could render none.
I But, sir, the poor debtor was not long suff
. ered to enjoy his theoretical immunity from
arrest. Creditors always were an enterpriz
" ing class prompted by interest, to say
. nothing of vindictive feeling, they were un
tiring in their efforts to regain their lost
ascendency. Their efforts, aided by the
astuteness of counsel and by the connivance
of-the Courts were at last successful; and
they succeeded in baffling, not changing this
humane provision of the Constitution. Thus
- ' in Bpite of advanced civilzation, in opposi
tion to the benign spirit of Christianity, and
.. in the very teeth of a direct provision of the
'English Constitution, the English debtor
once more found himself looking through
the grating .of a prison. How this astonish
ing and untoward result was effected is
familiar to the legal fraternity a brief ex
planation of the modus operandi may not be
" uninteresting to the uninitiated.
..J. - .Previously to any statutory enactment on
the-subject, the only mode authorized in the
- Courts of Common Law for compelling ap
pearance, or satisfaction of judgment in an
' action of debt was by distringas a process
directed against the property, not ther'
pf the debtor ; under which process, by suc
cessive distrainings, appearance was com
,'pelled, and the debt satisfied, or theprop
" erty exhausted ; when either of these latter
'results was attained, it was considered that
the end of the law was reached and that the
plaintiff should rest content. In an'action.
however,"for an injury accompanied by force
and therefore involving a breaclMof the peace,
a different rule was acted on. In this case
an arrest as .allowed and the defendant
held to answer-- The"distinction between the
two cases was well defined, well understood,
and for a long time strictly observed by all
the Courts." ' The Court of Common Pleas
was the first to lnake innovation upon the
constitutional rights of debtors.' Proceed-
. ' ing on the old idea that the debtor was in
some undefined way a criminal and the
mode of procedure perhaps suggested by
that idea this Court permitted the creditor
to prefer a fictitiovs accusation against his
. . debtor, in which he charged him with the
. commission of a known criminal offence 38
for instance, with a forcible trespass; this
- charge entitled him, by the usage of the
Court, to a capita for the arrest of the de
. fendant ; after the debtor was in safe custody
upon this charge, an ae etiam clause as it
was called, was added to the complaint, and
the Declaration alleged that the defendant
. . not only had committed the forcible trespass;
but. also owed the plaintiff a sum of money
- the real gist of the action. On the trial, no
evidence was offered as to the alleged tres
pass, but the debt via proved. Thus by a
species of legal hocus pocus, the debtor was
J'ISgk1 ont of his liberty by the Court of
of Common Pleas.
- The Court of King's Bench, originally of
.' "elusive cnminal jurisdiction, next infrin
: ed upon the rights of the poor debtor. Its
process, being criminal, was directed against
. the person. - When in course of time it be
came ambitious of extending its jurisdiction
to civil causes, it too listened to a false sug-
pton of a breach of the peace committed
" jf dant; and when by its BUI in.
JfiddUsa it bad authorized his arrest upon
, false charge, it detained him in custody to
- answer, the real demand a sum of money
doe the plantiff. Thus by usurpation and
cnicanery uate(L the debtor
. t by the Com . of King's Bench.
The Court of Exchequer, which originally
V . Soncerne1 merely the King's revenue and be-
fore which the King's debtors were called to
.i account, by summary' process, also joined
- t i Py against private debtors ; and
f Dg thB ri8bt to Punia either feigned
- t JS and breaches of the place,
adopted different expedient In its S
it allowed its suitor a
ThhUt ,'hfl ?,ighte8t foundation oV
truth, that he himself was a debtor to tTi
king that the defendant !
of money, which he refused to pay wher7hv
, he, the plaintiff, was less able VHhe
king's demand, and that the royal revenue '
was likely to suffer diminntion in conse
quence. This .writ was directed against the f
. person, and thus open a false suggestion of
pretended zeal for the king'a interest, this
court arrojpited to itself the.riht to im-
: vH nrison the king's subject for a private debt . inent
mil nnniniin. west a hoff-SflOt TOTOBU
English courts, inigiving scbpe to Jh imag-
i . --rti 2 : ,i haf! a irn wiui
i inauon. i uey iiongiu - -,
nT A'ht wa8 cmiitv of high treason,
fii.ifli Ordered Hhearrest of the'
traitorous debtor; who. was graciously :al
lowed to compound the felony upon paying
the debt. I am afraid. Sir, that if our courts
in North-Caroliw should arrive 'at the con-
elusion that every man who owed money
here was cuiltv of treason, ttiat ruey wouiu
not go so wide of the mark; so that if our
system of imprisonment for. debt is to be
continued, it might be well to provide for
the administration of the amnesty oath and
insolvent debtor's oatli together, and thus
purge the crime and. the -debt at the same
time. . , .
Mr. President, I have reviewed the history
of this question of imprisonment for debt,
for the purpose f showing that the principle
I advocate is no new-iangiea nnuou ui uiuu-
ern invention, no. spurious onspnng oi a
sickly sentiuxentality-but a sound, just,
manly principle, wnicn naa us piace m mo
constitution of ur sturdy ancestors, out
wliirh was undermined an-i subverted to tne
cupidity of creditors aided by the chicanery.
of the courts, l nis principle x uc&uc w
restored to our. Constitution, as a sate-guara
to personal liberty, personal security and
domestic happiness. . "
Sir, I desire to see stncKen irom our vimi;
all laws authorizing imprisonment for debt.
We have such laws. This very section of
our Constitution -proposed ' to be amended,
impliedly sanctions it, although inserted
seemingly for the benefit of the creditor.
The words " shall not be continued in prison "
evidently justify the putting of him there;
and are an interpolation warranted neither
by the letter nor spirit of the English Con
stitutions. So there is no need here to "re
sort to the subtle refinements and false pre
tences of the English courts, to which I have
referred. Our laws permit one citizen to
imprison another for debt, without the ne
cessity of alleging, as is often done, in the
writ, that the defendant is to answer a tres
pass on the case to plaintiff's damage double
the amount of the debt. I Iprotest most
earnestly against the further continuance of
... r " : -,,l
tills system IS IS wrong in priutijjic:, v,.
in practice, and ought to be terminated.
We now have a convenient opportunity to
apply the remedy the adoption by this
Convention of this amendment will cure the
tIia Hmps an sufroestive of the chanee. If
there ever was a people who required tender
treatment at each other's hands and at the
hands of their representatives, that people is
our own. For four long years tney nave en
dured the ravages of war and the hard yoke
of militarv rule. Peace has come at last with
release from despotism, but they have emerged
from the slavery of the ranks, to return w ith
ruined constitutions, with ruined fortunes,
to ruined homes. We may not hope to re
oair all the mischief that has been done the
ruin has been wide-spread and has involved
us all but we can be kind, considerate and,
above all, just. As legislators we cannot,
anv more than as individuals, take from one
man to relieve another's wants, neither may
we denv tm anv man. under any pretense, the
assertion of his just rights. We may neither
delay the creditor nor screen the debtor, u e
may and should be just to all. We may
and should Guarantee to all their rights,
whether of person or property. Among the
rights of person is the right of personal lib
erty. Let that be stipulated for and secured
to all bv an express clause of the Constitu
tion. To manv of our unfortunate citizens it
is their sole possession, their sole dependence
of support for themscives and their lami lies,
Let it not rest on the uncertain tenure of a
creditor's will, but let it be held by the sure
and indefeasible title of fundamental law.
Due reparation for violated rights and cause
less suffering, brought upon this generation,
we may not hope to make indemnity for the
past is impossible but we may and ought
to give the poor and helpless some assurance
for personal security for the future. Let not
those who have lately writhed in the grasp of
Conscript officers now be turned over to the
tender mercies of constables ; let not their
crushed and mutilated forms lie subjected to
the peine forte et dure of a squeezing Ca.
Sir, thetimes are propitious for human lib
erty a whole race lias latelv sprung trom
bondage this Convention lent its ready aid
and former masters have ratified the act. Let
us make one more effort in the cause of hu
man freedom, which shall this time enure to
the benefit of both races, and let creditors
- rise to the occasion and relinquish an unjust
domination over the persons ot men. Ifea
son, justice and humanity all teach that the
property not the persons of men should be
taken in satisfaction of debts. - Property is
the basis upon which credit is founded. Who
ever gave credit looking to the jail as secu
rity ? Who ever took credit, pledging his
person in payment 1 Imprisonment was in
tended for crime, not poverty, and it is wrong
to misapply it. Let us reform this abuse,
which has crept by stealth into the adminis
tration of justice. The time is favorable for
the change and it has not come too soon.
The necessities of our people demand this
enactment, and if it is right in itself the
should have it now, for t-hey will never neei
it more. They had it once, but were un
justly deprived of it by fraud and subterfuge
it existed in the unwritten Constitution o
our forefathers, let us insert it in the writtei
Constitutien of our own. In making thi
restoration we shall do no man wrong wt
shall deprive no man of right. We impaii
not the rights of property for any, but we es
tablish for all the rights of person. In thb
guaranty all are alike interested. The credi
tor of one man is the debtor of another. Tin-
creditor of to-day is the debtor of to-morrow.
Now. it restrains him from oppressing
then, it will protect him from oppression.
I repeat, sir, I would do the creditor no
wrong, lie is as much entitled to the protec
tion of the laws as is the debtor; it is just as
wrong to interfere with his rights as with
those of the debtor but his rights, as credi
tor j are those of property,. While I would
eay to him: ' Take the property, it is what
you bargained for, it is what you paid for, it
is justly yours and it would be wrong to icith
Iwld it from you," I would at the same time
say to him : Lay not your liand rpon the
person of your fellow man, it is sacred from,
your touch, it belongs to ntmseij, his family, his
country, his God, not to you."
This amendment will not wrong creditors.
I will mention how creditors are wronged
by legislative' action. They are wronged
when the law-making power interferes with
the enforcement of contracts fairly made, in
which value has been received and the con
sideration is uninstlv withheld : when Stav
Luws are passed, keeping- the creditor out of
1 . -1 i . . , . . -. 1 Jl
nis utruLs unui ins ueart sicicens wuu de
ferred hope and his family are reduced to
want t wJbcri property, iustlv his oTviu is se
cured from his reach under Homestead Bills
and Exemption Acts all these are expedi
ents of legalized fraud, are ill-disguised fcrms
of repudiation repulsive, abhorrent reputa
tion and I reprobate the whole of them.
8ir, it seems to me "that gentlemen who
hesitate jn giving this amendment their sup
port, lest they shoidd impair the remedv of
the creditor, are needlessly . alarmed. . I I e?
them to remember Jhat justice is the only
true and immutable ba.ris of human rights.
The rights of the credito r will be most securfl :
when' he is made to re.jpect those of the
debtor; the mercifui shall obtain mercy.-; I
verily t believe s that m uch of the dishonesty
imputed to debtors Is i, occasioned by the le
galized tyranny of crea'itors.'And on the
other hand it seems to .me that gentlemen
who advocate and vote for : measures of more
than doubtful propriety, for t1 avowed pur- i
pose of interoosiiifir in the tw 'Bum's behalf.
should make no oDnosition this amend-1
gnfetl-.respeciiuuy nguau coura,' iniiviug Trr" - -a
Ja property more dear than liberty i-
Thou urhr laim to he.r toar-jexceUence, '
nnnr man's friend, should ;e the most "j
ready to' guarantee to him this right; espe-v
,oii wHi it can bedone without a sacn--
fice of principle, and! without impairing any,
man's lust Waims.Jia no agrarianLin rojr
views I belong to -the conservative school; .
but I doaay that it i were a seeicer aner pui
niar fnvnr which Tun not.) I know of no "
measure in the advwsacy 6 -which I wiufd
sooner risk my hopes of political success,
than of that I am now urging. -" It is practi
cal, it is seasonable, and above all, it is right.
England is returninge to her ; ancient prac
tice and principle as regards this" question,
for which, la an evu Hour, ana, to me .uei
ment of her people, she suttered a departure
Since the introduction of this amendment a ";
paragraph in the public prints has arrested r
my attention, which I , beg leave to bring to ;.
the notice of the Convention. It is as fol
lows: ; ; ' : :' : "' ' .' ; '-
" Imprisonment for Debt tn England. TM ;
Bankruptcy bill now pending in the English ;
Parliament provides for the abolition of the
barbarou late of imprisonment for debt,' that
now disgraces zne siazuze oooks oj wujumu,.
This clumge is dictated both by humanity and
common sense, t novgn not tn x-aruamem,
Charles Dickens may be said to be the father
of this humanitarian measure, his writings
having attracted public attention to the barbar
ity of the present late, and made it odious."
-Two ot our sister estates, Wisconsin anu .
Texas, have incorporated this identical pro
vision in their.Constitutions. I nave copied
it verbatim from that of Texas. The princi
ple it announces is no stranger to the laws of
North-Carolina; it has already been applied
to half of our population. I refer to the
female portion. Ever since the year 1823
there has existed an enactment in these words.
" No female shall be arrested or imprisoned
for debt." It may still be found in our Re
vised Code. Let us now do justice to the
male portion of our population, also, by mak
ing this principle of universal application.
Has the law worked badly as far as famales
are concerned ? Who would desire to see it
changed as to them? Have fraud and
swindling, the alleged consequences, of ex
emption from liability to imprisonment for
debt, attended their exemption ? Yet single
women get credit, just like men, in propor
tion to their character and means ; they buy
and sell, carry on trades, and incur debts, and
no body trusts them the less, because they
cannot be put in jail for debt.
Sir, this old idea of the right of imprison
ment for debt being necessary for the cred
itor's security is all a mistake. Let him do,
like other people are required to do use
circumspection is his business, take care with
whom he deals, and thus secure himself ; and
not call on the law to practise a cruelty in
order to remedy his want of care. Do not
men have business dealings every day with
corporations, and yet neither Capias nor Ca.
8a., can issue against them ? Is it not the
ssme case with Executors and Administra
tors ? Who would be the representative of a
deceased person, if he were subject to arrest
for every claim brought against the estate ?
But, sir, I have heard it objected that the
change proposed is a radical one, and that
existing legislation is not adapted to it. Let
then the legislation be changed so as to con
form to it. If the principle is a just one, the
laws can readily; be'adjusted to fit it ; other
States have found no difficulty in doing so.
The very purpose in having a General As
sembly is to frame laws, in accordance with
the requirements of the Constitution, and
adapted to the wants of the people. The
argument "too much trouble" is sometimes a
very selfish one, and one which a representa
tive, when the interests of his constituents
are concerned, should never use. For the
protection of personal liberty, we insert in
the Constitution a just provision, let the
Legislature adapt the laws accordingly. .
Nor, sir, is it any argument to urge in op
position to this measure, that the condition
of the debtor is already much improved over
what it was in former times: that the im
prisoned debtor should solace his lonely hours
with this reflection, and not seek restoration
to liberty, that is, to light and air and health
and home all that makes life happy. Until
it shall be clearly established, as I contend
it never has been and never can be, that a
human being should forfeit all these bless
ings, as a penalty for insolvency imprison
ment for such a cause is inhuman and all
mere legislative efforts to improve fheim-.-prisoned
condition of the debtor, short of
his altsolute release from imprisonment, are
a tacit acknowledgment of the weakness of
the right to imprison him, and are arguments
in favor of the adoption of this amendment.
Heretics, or those so called, were once burn
ed at the stake : religious persecution after-'
wards assumed a milder form but that was
deemed no sufficient reason why an express
clause should not be inserted in the Consti
tution, guaranteeing freedom of conscience
and religious worship. Insolvent debtors
were once put to death; afterwards sold into
slavery ; they are now imprisoned. Wheth
er this species of persecution shall be con
tinued among us depends on the action of
this Convention. Adopt this amendment
and it is abolished for ever.
. It is sometimes urged by the advocates of
his barbarous system, that the.dcbtor is not
mprisoncd for debt, but for fraud fraud in
he contracting or fraud in concealment.
Unfortunately for the argument, and still
nore unfortunately for the honest insolvent,
he theory does not accord with the facts, as
an be readily shown by a reference to our
aws and to the practice of our Courts. It
's every day's experience, or was when the
ivil courts werein full operation, for debtors
to be arrested and committed simply for
want of bail ; the very first sentence of the
Jrst section of the boasted act for the relief
of honest insolvent debtors, (Revised Codech.
59) authorizes the confinement of debtors in
jail, where there is not the slightest sugges
tion of fraud, but mere inability to give se
curity and what is worse, this confinement
is to continue for twenty days before the
courts, justices, or judges are allowed to con
sider a petition for his release.. If ever there
was a relic of barbarism handed down and
preserved, here it is embodied in the legisla
tion of North-Carolina.
Rev. Code ch. 59, 31 enacts as follows:
" If any person shall be taken or charged on
mesne process for any debt, or shall he taken
or charged on execution for any debt or dam
apes rendered in action whatever, or shall be
committed for failing to give bond for the
maintenance of any bastard child charged
upon him, or for failing to pay any sum of
money ordered to be paid by him for its
maintenance: or shall be committed for the.
fine and costs of any criminal prosecution .
and shall have remained in prison for twen
ty days, the Court of Pleas and Quarter Ses
sions, or - any two Justices of the Peace of
the County wherein he may be confined, or
any Judge of the Superior or Supreme Court,
in or out of Court, upon petition of such
prisoner under his hand (whereof ten days'
notice shall be given to the person, his exec
utors, administrators, attorney or agent, at'
whose suit such prisoner shall be imprison
ed) shall, by warrant, require the Sheriff or '
keeper of the prisoner to bring him before J
Ouch County Court, Justice or Judge togeth-:'
ar wuu iiss oi. me several wnta, mesne pro
cesses and executions with which he is charg
ed; which warrant every such sheriff or''
Steeper ball obey. . . .. '" '
' ; Now,ifrv President;' I 'ask 'gentlemen of
t h Convention to look at this motley group .
oresented to their view by this section of tther
,ctJ persons 'arrested, for debt, unable to'
Sve security to appear at' trial ; insolvent7
r tebtors, onable to satisfy the judgment ; cou-i ;
icted bastardy defendants' failing to eom-l
( with' the rfirderS application, and conV
i temned criminals of various hues all on !
i heir way fojair, and the1 debtor at the head "
, -f imMMUM .
kether in indisctiminate-Wtercourse and are T,
them s' prisoners, "And," sir,; it. seems they'
ore to leave the prison in reversed .order or
rather the poor -debtor is to-remains jenina,
such aoTjeara to be the effect of proviso aU
tacheCtothis jHlf:'. P 1
cases - w nere tne prisoner.; is vcouiimneu iui
fine and costs, tor in -coses, of bastardy- as
aforesaid, notice shall be served Oh the Clerk
of the ".Court, by, which hetiytafi committed.
unless the Court, m its discretion may allow
him to take the oath i insolvency and be
discharged without notice to the Clerk."
In. th case ot. tne neptor tne uounj nas no
discretion as to dispensing with the required
notice, and so must stay jn clse custody
until the twenty days is expired before he is
allowed to come forward to take the oath of
insolvency. When he does' present himself
at last, for that purpose, he may be then met
by the the creditor with suggestion of
fraudulent concealment, and lyeontinuances
and appeals, both of. which are provided for
by the ct, athe case may oc procraciea ana
the imprisonment Drolonged until the de
fendant's constitution gives way and he dies
of duress. Such extreme cases are not com
mon, but thev do occur and that they can
occur under the sanction of our laws is a re
proach to our system of administration of
justice. While this clause remained in our
Constitution authorizing imprisonment lor
debt, perhaps this insolvent debtor's act
was the bes( that an able commission to re
vise the laws with the ablest lawyer of North
Carolina at its head could devise on the sub
ject. Mere ordinary legislation cannot reach
the evil, it is too deep-rooted, ine remeay
must be applied here, not in the Legislature ;
now is the time, this is tne place, ana tnere
is the amendment which will effect a cure.
Doubtless creditors are often defrauded ;
and certainly fraud, when it is discovered
ought to be punished but it should be pros
ecuted just like other oiienses against tne
criminal code, and punished after it is
Droved, and not before. And. sir, is there
no fraud on the other side and does not
this system of imprisoning debtors tend to
encourage it ? It is a common and notorious
practice, where a debtor is in tailing circum
stances, to have him arrested with a bail
warrant, not for fear he will run away, but
in the hope that he will do so, and thus sub
ject his bail, or that in some other way a 6nap
iudgment may be obtained against the
security. Whoever is familiar with legal
proceedings knows that perjury is commit
ted as well as oppression practiced under
the Ca. Sa. law. Printed affidavits of fradu-
lent concealment are carried about in con
stables' hats and are sworn to as readily and
as much a matter of course, as a statement of
the debt itself, and the defendant clapped in
iail. as a short-hand method of extracting
the money or if he is hopelessly insolvent,
with the deliberate purpose, that the misera
ble condition of himself and his family mav
excite the commiseration of his friends and
induce them to pay it for him
It may be-said, it the condition ot the
debtor is thus hard, let no man be a debtor,
abolish the credit syst3m. It is impossible.
So long as human society exists, so long as
men have dealings with men, so long must
they be dependent upon each other and come
under mutual obligations. As to trades.
commerce, manufactures, the most ordinary
business transactions cannot be successfully
prosecuted without trust and confidence, and
trust and confidence are credit And so long
as men are the creatures ot circumstance,
liable to accident subject to human infir
mity, losses will happen and human vicissi
tudes occur. The i ery ownership of property
mav entail responsibilities which will survive
its loss. Look at the institution of slavery
it is gone ; but how many liabilities, grow
ing out ot it, lias it left behind to be settled.
Look at our Banks they are broken; and
the stockholder lately so envied for the pro
ductiveness of his investment, has not only
lost his stock, but must answer for double its
value to the bank creditor. Riches do in
deed take to themselves wings and fly away
There are a thousand ways in which men
may be reduced to honest poverty without
perceptible fault or agency of their own
and shall their fe low men, by cruel laws.
add still greater bitterness to its already too
bitter cup ? How many ot our tellow citi
zens, who did tneir utmost to prevent tne
late cruel war ; who wrestled with God and
man to avert the impending doom, were drag
ged into the vortex, and lost their all all
save life and honor. Shall nothing be saved
from the destroyer ? Shall the character of
these men, under the sanction of our laws, be
aspersed with imputations of fraud by some
ruthless and unprincipled creditor, and their
bodies subjected to the indignity of a Ca.
Sa. 1 Yet such undoubtedly will be the case,
un'ess this amendment is adopted.
In conclusion, Mr. President I ask gentle
men, when voting on this measure, to reinem
ber the destitute condition of our people,
and to consider what extremites will be re
sorted to fo'r the purpose of enforcing the
collection of debts, when the courts are again
opened, tor civil business, and the machinery
of the law put in motion. Our jails will be
tilled with insolvents. I also warn gentlemen
of the fact that a large class of improvident
litigants will then be brought into our Courts.
who never appeared there before. I refer to
the freedmen. Let the Ct. Si. law be appli
ed to these necessitous people and allow
them to use it in turn ; and our county reve
nues will be absorbed by prison charges.
Mr. Jfresident, i nave done, l nave en
deavored to show that justice, humanity,
reason uud expediency alike require, that we
should abolish the barbarous law ot impri
sonment for debt.
REMARKS OF MR. KING,
On the proposed amendment, requiring two
years' previous taxes to be paid before a voter
shall be quaipca to note, arc.
u Mr. President: I trust Sir, that the
proposed amendment will not be adopted.
What Mr. President, would be the effect of
this amendment to the Constitution? It
would be, Sir, to disfranchise and exclude
from the ballot-box many poor and disabled
voters that have heretofore exercised the
privilege of voting. This amendment would
rlje impracticable, as well as unjust and in
jurious to a large portion oi our people, is
it contemplated, Mr. President, by the sup
porters of this proposition to exclude the
poor and insolvent voters from the ballot
box ? Such would certainly be the practical
effect of this amendment if adopted. I hope,
Sir, it will be rejected ; let the Constitution
remain as it now stands in relation to the
qualification of voters. -
It now, jut. r-r.siaent, only requires a
public tax to qualify a voter the first time
he votes, but does not require any tax there
after. It is certainly right for all to pay
their taxes that are able to pay ; but', Sir, do
not exclude from voting on that account.
Let the revenue laws bo executed, and let all
who are able to pay be required to do so;
but do not exclude from voting on account
of the failure to pay taxes ; this would ex
clude the poor and insolvent . voter, as well
as those that were able to pay. '.:,"-.'";..
, What Mb. . Toombs. Says. A lady, for
merly a resident of New Orleans but now en
route to Europe, has recently written an inter
esting letter to a female ' friend in this " city
detailing an ccount of an interview she had
at Havanah with Robert Toombs, ex-United
States Senator from Georgia.., Mr, Toombs
stilt avews his intention of yet calling the
roll of bis former slaves at the foot of Bunker
Hill, and defiantly aiserts that the invinci
ble giant of secession is not dead, ' but: only,
takidg a quiet snooze in , order to invigorate
himself for another - and," as Mr. -Toomba
hopes a more successful attempt to over
throw the Government of the United States,
THURSDAY, ; - JUNE Uf 1886.
The representatives of the States Should
be ioyaii men. willing to abide by and be
- " -1 ' j A JL .
DEVOTED TO THE UNION AND THE CONSTITU
TION of thk States.- s . -
Alt, responsible positions and places ought
d be confined distinct and clearly to men
who are unmistakably and unqcestiona
bLt ixitaiT--President's Heply to the Virginia' "
CommUtee. ''' r . ' ( ' ..
I hold it my duty to recommend the ad
mission of every State to its share in public
legislation when it presents itself in the per
sons of representatives whose loyalty can
not be questioned under any existing con
stitutional or legai. TE8T.Presiden Vt Veto .
Message.-'' " " .;""'
The Constitution declares that no State
shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in Ihe
Senate of the United States without its con
sent. Then, where do we stand ? All that
is needed to finish this great work of. resto
ration is for the two Houses respectively to
determine the question. Oh ! but some one
will say, " A traitor might come in!" The
answer to that is that each House must be
the judge, and if a traitor presents himself;
cannot either House know that he is a traitor? .
And if he is a traitor, can they not kick him
out of the door, and send him back, saying
to the people who sent him, "You must
send us a loyal man V Is there any diffi
culty in that ? If a traitor presents himself
to either House, cannot that House say . to
him, " No, you cannot be admitted into this
body. Go back. We will not deny your
people the right of representation, but they
must send a loyal representative."
President's Address to the Soldiers and Sailors.
I will put an end to the Freedmen's Bu
reau just as soon as the South, by proper
action for the protection of the freed
men, make it unnecessary. President's In
terview with Governor Cox. .
The Sentinel assails Mr. BryaD, of Wilkes,
as a " radical," because he offered and after
wards withdrew an amendment to the Con
stitution, requiring that State Senators here
after to he elected shall always have been
loyal-to the United States' government That
paper is both surprised and indignant t Mr.
Bryan. If Mr. Bryan be a " radical," then is
President Johnson also a " radical," for he
has declared, time and again, that if there be
but five thousand loyal men in a State to
them should be confided the control of affairs.
And if the Editors of the Sentinel will take
the trouble to go to Washington ' and ask
the President if he still holds this opinion,
be will tell taem in the most emphatic man
ner that he does. We speak " by the book."
One of the strongest proofs of the disloyal
feeling of the Sentinel and those for whom it
sjeaks, is the surprise and indignation it
evinces at the bare mention of loyalty as a pre
requisite for office. Things have got to such
a pass in this respect that the organ of Gov.
Worth hoots at the idea of loyalty.
The Sentinel is very careful to inform its
readers that Mr. Bryan served as a Captain
in the federal army. The Sentinel considers
this a hadge of disgrace. If the State were
fully back in the Union under present aus
pices, and if such as the Sentinel had control
of the Convention, it would not be long be
fore Capt. Bryan would be expelled from that
body for having served in the federal army.
Capt. Bryan's offence is that he was not true
to the Confederacy ! And yet such as the
Editors of the Sentinel and those for whom
they speak, are to govern loyal men. Never !
Our people will not submit to such degrada
tion. Welcome the Howard amendment
welcome any thing that will relieve our loyal
people from the selfish and polluting grasp
of such politicians! If such men are to
govern us, then the Union is a humbug and
loyalty an empty sound.
Capt. Bryan, with his colleague Mr. Smith,
represents a noble Union constituency. They
have both suffered in the Union cause. The
people of Wilkes have reason to be proud
that they are represented in the Convention
by such good and true men.
The Petersburg Index, in an article intro
ducing the recent speech of Mr. Harris, of
Maryland, to its readers, uses the following
" We publish to-day, in as full form as it
has yet reached us, the remarkable speech of
Hon. Benj. J. Harris, member of Congress
for the Fifth District of Maryland. That
such a speech can be delivered- in eight of
the house where the organized - murderers
choked Mary Surratt to death, or as is now
believed, hung her dead body, from which a
merciful God had released her pure sotd, is
indeed a notable sign of the times, and that
a Jacobin 'Speaker and Jacobin House sat
dumb .under, this terrible impeachment is
even more significant.
One of the participants in the ineffable
infamy, which accompanied that poor lady's
murder, lies in a suicide's grave, and a death
fearful and degraded would as surely finish
the rest of the gang, were it not that there
are crimes too heinous for the penalties of
The above is a gross and libellous attack
on the President of the United States, for he
signed the death-warrant of Mrs. fturratt
Such language is doing more than every
thing else to increase the ill-feeling between
the North and South. Just such as those
who conduct the Index did all tht y could
to dissolve the Union and destroy the gov
ernment, and now they are doing all they
"bah to prevent the restoration of the govern
ment ' They are diaunionists of the worst
stamp, i -i ; I . . -r '
The Knoxville Ccmmercial remarks : v i
"Manufactories are daily coming in this:
direction, and we are getting our share of
them. Rolling . mills, foundries, sash and;
blind factories, carriage and wagon makers, ;
and many others of like importance, are in
full operation here." f mt-..-s
This is the result of a loyal, State govern-;
ment in Tennessee. Tennessee is in loyal
hands, and capital and labor are pouring into .
the State, to develcpe her resources and to
restore her , to her former prosperity. ' A,'
similar result would be realized in North-
Carolina, if she could once' be placed on the
Bame loyal basis with Tennessee! ';' ,-j'f '
A writer in th e New Ybrk Times says there.
were 820 graduates of West Point in - the.
army in 1860. Of these i 197 resigned to join -
the South, and 138 graduates from the South.
.We Lave been - kindly .furnished Jby Dr.
Jobe,, Special 'Agent P; Department, for
tliisi State: with " thefoliowing list of Post
- Henry Dexter, .Arcaciia, .uaYiuiu.vvumj.
Mrs. Naomi Smithi. Fairview, Buncombe..; ,,v
; 0epliuie?.-Roy8tef? AHeniviHe, Person.: , ,
: MissL. D. Baggarstsfr, Oak Spring, Kutnertora.
X. Bradeliaw, Borneville, Yancy. VW'-'. -i -Jos.
jW, Bland, HatreU's. Store, New Hanover.
Wm. Zachnry, Saxapahaw, Alamance. ' :' -; A
; Jfts. H. Leak, Wilson's Store, Stokes. ,v-.; r
- Jno. R. Cloud, Columbus, Pot: : ' - ' ;
E. R. Mosher, Mltcheners Store, Johnston."
Mlsa M. J, Long, Pleasant Grove, Alamance.
Alex JacksonWUlIaipston, Martin. -
Miss S. J. Lee, Fair View, Davidson.
Jno 8. Gordon, South Creefc Beaufort; '.. ; SI.
Jas. R. Scrogg, Liberty B ill, Iredell. ,
Wm. Goucuer, Bath, Beaufort . : ..
O. Hadley, Powclton, Richmond.
Jno. W. Roberts, Clinton, Sampson. ;..;: .
E. F. Wyatt, ForestvlUe, Wake, .t.t- i ;,; .:"
N. L. Shaw, Harrollsville, Hert lord.
C. F. McLaughlin, Miranda, Rowan.' -.Jacob
Reardon, McNeill's Ferry, Harnett '
Miss 8. A. Falls, White Plains, Cleveland. '
John W. Terry, Bear Branch, Richmond. " '
W. D. Carlton, Morrisville, Wake. '
F. Bryan, Cherry Lake, Ashe. (
B. Beaver.-Pleasant Hill,' Northampton.'
R. F. McGuffins, Dobson, Surry. "' ";'
G. B.Kingi Amity Uill, IredelL. . . .
L. Hornaday, Saudy Grove, Chatham. , . ..
Mrs. M. Green, Warrenton, Warren.
M. A. Harrell, Gum Brunch, Onslow. .
Mrs. D. R. Freeman, Logan's Store, Rutherford.
Eliz. A. Poindexter, Red Plains, Yadkin. .
M. A. McMillan, Tcachy's, Duplin. .
John G. Yancey, Turkey Cove, McDowell.
Miss A. Shields, Wood Laun, Gaston..
John II. Bell, James ville, Martin.
Wm. S. Reid, Westminster, Guilford-.
T. Bostic, Bostick's Mills, Richmond. ' ,
John A. McMaunen, South Lowell, Orange.
J. M. M. Houston, Dry Pond, Lincoln. ' 1
John C. Pritchett, Monticello, Guilford. '
Mrs. R. Mitchell, Woodsdale, Person.
Miss A. D. Upchurcb, Green Level, Woke.
R. A. Stuart, Carbonton, Chatham.
Mrs. M. L. L. Smith, Blooinsburg, Halifax.
S. F. Terry, Reedsvillc, Rockingham.
S. T. Watkins, Ridgcway, Vfarren. . .
M. C. York, Elkln, Surry.
Miss S. L. Robatau. Barcluysvillc, Harnett
Wm. Henry, Black River Cliapel, New Hanover.
.Miss F..N. Watson, Gibsonville, Guilford.
John Carpenter, Leicester, Buncombe.
T. M. Holt Manson, Warren.
John W. Harper, Nashville, Nash.
A. B. Carson, Glade Creek,- Ashe. '
James Campbell, Cerro Gordo, Columbus. '
M. Coram, Richmond Hill, Yadkin. '
Wm. H. Blanchard, Warsaw, Duplin.
J. W. Noell, Mt Tirzah, Person.
J. R. Manly, Dudley, Wayne.
Mrs. J. L. Kirkpatrick, Harris' Depot, Cabarrus.
Mrs. E. L. Sberrill, Sberrill's Ford, Lincoln.
ThoB. Kellett, Faison's Depot Duplin.
E. R. Israel, Avery's Creek, Buncombe.
Charles Ellis, Grove, Chatham.
John Hancock, Fiat River, Orange.
Mrs. E. V. Bumpass, Centre Grove, Person. .
Lou H. Wells, Sandy Mush, Buncombe.
J. T. Lamon, Kingsboro,' Edgecombe.
M. Miller, South River, Rowan.
J. S. Wuldoo, Haywood, Chatham. '
N. Howe, Gulf; Chatham.
A. V. Dockery, Mangum, Richmond.
W. J. Moore, Sparta, Edgecombe.
Jas. McCormick, Marion, McDowell.
N. J. Davis, Mooresboro, Cleaveland. .
E. F. Jennings, Happy Home, Burke.
Miss A. Parker, Red Mountain, Orange.
T. Ragan, Gilmer's Store, Guilford.
Mrs. Mary Winslow, Caraway, Randolph.
M. 8. Black, Madison, Rockingham.
Mrs. C. C. Rogers, New Light, Wake.
Proceedings of the Convention.
Tuesday, June 20th, 1868.
A resolution of Mr. Caldwell, of Burke,
limiting debate to hve minutes to each speech
and two speeches was adopted.
The resolution to light the Capitol with
gas was adopted.
An ordinance authorizing an exchange of
ft Late bonus lor certain causes, with substi
tute from select committee, was put on its
third reading. The hour for the special or
AX OKDINANCK ESTABI.LSnlXa A CIKCULAT1NO
. MEDIUM, .
It was taken up and read.
Gen. Logan as chairman for the committee
proceeded to demonstrate the necessity of
giving to the oeople a circulating medium.
He thought that if it could be done without
damaging the credit of the State, the ex
change of State bonds issued prior to Jan.
1861, for circulating circificates would meet
the exigencies of the case. The ordinance
which he bad the honor of reporting con
templated such exchange and issue ; and he
thought it sufficiently guarded as to secure
public confidence1 in the circulating medium
proposed to be issued. . Mr. Logan explained
the provisions of the ordinance, and invoked
the serious attention of the Convention to
the subject; when
Mr. Foy offered an ordinance as a substi
tute. Mr. Smith, of Johnston, offered ah amend
ment to Mr. Foy's ordinance, which if accep
ted he said it would secure his support, as fol
lows: "Provided, That the provisions of this
ordinance shall not Apply to original seces
sionists." . .
Mr. McDonald, of Chatham, suggested a
call of the House to find out who are origi
nal secessionists. . .
Mr. Warren, thought the whole matter
unconstitutional. Tho constitution of the
U. S. provides that jno State, shall emit
bills of credit &c, nor make any currency a
legal tender except gold and silver. There
fore, he moved to lay the whole matter on
The motion was withdrawn, and Mr,
Caldwell, of Guilford, replied that he thought
precedent sustained this ordinance, as the
State had emitted shia plasters before and
their constitutionality bad never been de
nied; and that the stay law was far. more
unconstitutional than this ordinance.
Mr. Warren, renewed, his motion to lay on
the table, and the yeas and nays were deman
ded, which resulted as follows: - . '.
Yeas Messrs. Allen, Baines, Baker, Bar
row, Brick el I, Brown, Clark, Conigland,
Cowper, Dickey, En ton, Faircloth, Faulkner,
Gabagaa, Gilliam, Grissom, Bodge, Howard,
Jarvia, Joyner, King, Manly, McKoy of Samp
son, McDonald of Chatham, McGehee, Mc-
lvor, A at. McLean, McLaughlin, Norneet,
Pearsall, Perkins, Person, Phillips, Polk,
Pool, Richardson, Satterthwaite, Settle,
Spencer of Montgomery, Stephenson, Stew
art, Thompson, Walkup, Ward, Warren, Wil
liams, Winburne and Winston (9.
Nats Messrs. Adams, Alexander, Bagley,
Berry. Bingham, Bovden. Bryan, Burgin, By
num, CaiiwclL of Burke, Caldwell of Guil
ford, Dick, EUia, Foy, Porches, Garland, Gar
rett, Godwin, Harris of Guilford, Harris of
Rutherford, Harrison, Haynes, Henry, Jack
son, Jones of Davidson, Jones of Henderson,
Jones of Rowan, Lash; Logan, Love of Jack
sort, Lyon, McCaaley, McDodahl f .Maore,
McRae, Moore x of; ; Chatham Patterson,
Ramley, Bosh, Sloan, Smith . of Anson,
Smith of Johnston, Smith, of Wilkes, Spen
cer of Hyde, 8tarbuck, and 8waa-r45. ; '
JMr. MeGehee, a resolution of enquiry in
relation to the State finances. ; Adopted. -
: Mr. Settle moved that an ordinance in re
lation to railroads and Express companies be
made special order for to-morrow 9 o'clock, ;
THE , rOSSXTTmoiT,
.-The question -was announced tobe mvSS
the motion of Mr. Forkner. to amend Pf. o
f art Q abolishing ;property,.qualification
lor'a.seat in mo nouse oi..vonimons,? :,
A Mr. Moore; Of. Wake, opposed,? the-motion.
Mr. King, moved .'to make qualification
100 acres of land or a.( freeholdworth $300
" Mn Settle, saidJthat property, qualification
was a relic of the feu Jtal system. Its tenden
cies in monarchical governments were to con
servatism,' because it supported the landed
ansiocracy,- out - w republican ' governments
its tendencies were to radicalism. - He Kiri
the late rebellion owed itsorigin to the pron-
1. u .i i . i i
ci ty-uuiuci b, me yrnjr. pcupiv. unng opposed
to it almost to a man. Ar man mav hav
$100,000 in bonds ami yef not be entitled to
a-seat in the Commons. .Another man may
own $4( worth of rocks orand' and bold a
seat in tne.same iiouse. Where is the check -or
balance said tobe found here I But land -must
be screened -and protected, and land
alone. cThis looks like the days of the feudal
system and the institution of the laws of
primogenarure,", wheh land was the chief aim
of life, does it not?"- There are other indus
tries and interests equally as conservative us
land ana as Reserving ot protection.4 A man
may .be President of the United States with
out such a qualification, but lie cannot be a
Commoner in this State 'without it What
use of such a qualification - therefore? He
could not sec it . ": '-v . ' -
Mr". Smith, of Wilkes. , desired it to 1a
known that he also opposed: such property
qualification, - . . ... , .. . . . ..
Mn Jiaton tavored the qualification. He
denied that property-holders inaugurated
the recent war, but held that insolvents did it
i . r. - , , . .
jnr. unssom uaiu in uis opinion, mere was
likelv -to arise before-this-Convention no
question, involving a more important prin
ciple or reauiringamorecalm and d-lilirta'
judgment than the one under consideration.
It bad been discussed with zeal and ability
as appertaining to other official positions
under the government, but its present pro
posed application was characterized by pecu
liar merit. It was a theory which had been
most fully endorsed, by the- action of this..
Convention, that our government was a sys
tem of checks and balances, every interest
equally entitled to representation and pro
tection, and every class guarded in the en
joyment of political rights under the Con
stitution. In this way the weaker interests
were protected against oppressions by the
stronger, and the many were restrained from
aggressions upon - the few-- the rights of
property and the. rights of persons, each
guarded with jealous care, were harmonized
in an equitable compromise. The strong
arm of the one should not . be lifted in con
flict against the overwhelming numbers of
the other. He hoped that the spirit of this
great compromise, which was the harbinger
of our domestic happiness, and the palla
dium of our liberty, would not be ignored,
in the most sacred instrument within our
power to shape, the Constitution . of the
State. . , -; ' ;; . '
We were perhaps legislating not for a day
or for ourselves only, but for future ages and
for posterity. ' A wrong thus, hallowed and
perpetuated is of extraordinary consequence.
By the action of this Convention, the Con
stitution has surrounded the Executive De
partment and the Senate with property qual
ifications, and now in the name of justice
and in accordance with the theory of our
government is the popular branch of our
General Assembly, to be the representative
of the voice of the people in truth and real
ity, or in name and shadow, only? Reject
this property qualification in the" House of
Commons, and you place the white citizens
of North-Carolina upon equal footing, with
equal privileges in the government, ' Adopt
it and yon disfranchise more th&n four-fifth
of the tax-paying white men of the State I
Our friends in this hall, with commenda
ble zeal, have struggled successfully for a
basis of representation in the apportionment
of members of the General Assembly, upon
what they recognized as the true theory of
free government . But let me tell them with
due deference, that without striking '.this
odious and oppressive restriction from our
Constitution, they have caught the shadow
and missed the substance. . .
You invest the Counties of a larger white
population with the right of increased repre
sentation and at the same time disfranchise
more than four-fifths of the citizens of these.
very Counties from participation in this right
which you hold so sacred and so den r. 'To
use an argumentum ad hominum, - of what
avail to four-fifth of your people is a right,
if they are excluded from its exercise. - What
good reason has been or can be given for this
exclusion and disfranchisement Why should
foS -frfth of the citizens of North-Qarolina,
possessing -a like proportion of tins intel
ligence and the patriotism of the State, sur
render to the remaining one fifth the ad
ministration of the laws and the government,
with only the poor privileges reserved of
elevating others to positions to which they
themselves cannot aspire. . :
Its folly is only parallelled bylthe striking
example of venality in holy evils of.4 Belling
a birthright for a mess of pottage."
- What is free suffrage in elections to office,
with wholesale restrictions in the exercise of
its functions and the enjoyment of its pri vi
leges. It is the beaded .bubble that floats
upon the rim of the cup, and not the cool and
refreshing draught beneath the foam. v '
Upon our actum in this regard, depends
the solution of the question whether the
popular voice shall be represented at all jn
the administration of the government, or
whether it shall be bushed in our counsels as
heretofore. . : r . .--
The experience of the past should afford
wisdom to guard, against the evils of the fu
ture. The powerful influence of exclusive
interests without sufficient power to counter
act and control them may fee; traced in the
pages of history through many . long cen
turies of madness and folly. Their advocates
and defenders 'have erected monuments of
their mistaken policy -so; numerous and so
glaring, J hat a thousand in repulsive form
greet every Jook and every, thought as the
eye and the imagination survey the devasta
ted fields of our once happy country I :.
North Carolina's status to day, stripped of
her wealth, her children and her political
power," writhing in humiliation "and welter
ing in blood, towers in this category as a
melaneholy example !- ; . " -
Gentlemen seem reluctant to make this
alteration because the old constitution con
tains it In the proposed change we need
not be ashamed ot the illustrious example of
the great and wise' men who framed the
Federal constitution. -They required no
property qualification of a President,member
of Congress or any other officer. - - '
' An amemun'ent was offered: by "Mr. Baker
requiring a residence of five years and taxa
ble property of $500. V Lost -
On Mr. King's amendment the yeas and
nays were, demanded, and 'resulted as fol
lows: -, -. .. - . - -.
; Ykab Messrs. Alexander Bagley, Baines,
Berry. Boyden.'BrickelL Buxton, Caldwell
of Burke, Caldwell of. Guilford, ; Faircloth,
Ferebee, Gilliam, Godwin, Harris f Guil
ford,. Hodge,; Joyner,- King; - Lash, Manly, .
McDonald of Moore, McGee, Mcl vor, N. A.
McLean, Nat McLean, Moore of Wake, Mur
phy, Patterson, -.Perkins, Phillips, ' Polk,
Rush. Satterthwaite. Smith of Anson, Smith
of Johnston, . Spencer , of Hyde, Spencer of
Montgomery, BtarbucK, Stephenson, i nomp
son, Walkup, Warren, Wilson, Winburne,
Winston and Wright 50. ' .' "',""
Nays Messrs Adams, Allen, Baker, Bar
TtirKTham. Bradlev. Brown. Brvan. Bur-
gin, Clark, Dick; Ellis,- Faolkner,' Foy, Fur-
cnes, lianagan, uariana, uarrett, urueom,
Harris of Rutherford,. Harrison, Haynes, Hen-
ry,JacKsoa, Jams, Jones ot Davidson, jone
of Henderson, Jones ' of Rowan, Logan,
Love of Jackson; Lyon, McCauley, McCor
kle, McKoy of Sampson, McDonald of Chat
bam, McLaughlin, iloora of Chatham, Nor-
? " - . , .,- .- - i.'-, ".
, v:.;... . -