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SPEECH OF EDW1KD C05IGL1XD, ESQ.,' .,
In Convention,' June 13A.r' 1866, in reply to
Gen. 'Logan, of Rutherford, and CoL ' By
ntim, of Lincoln, on Hie proposition to make
the white population of the State, the sol
basis oj represeHiMLum.
"Mr President ; It was not until the
Amendment of the gentleman from Ruthcr-
ford, proposing to base representation, in the
Senate, ana commons, on wnite population
alone was submitted to the Convention, on
Monday last, that I abandoned the hope of
avoiding toe discussion or tnissuojecc re
lieve that it ought to be allowed to sleep, ana
I desire that it should. This Convention was
called together for a certain .specified pur
noae. which mimosa it has already fulfilled.
It never occurred to the people of the State,
that we would arrogate to ourselves the pow
er of entirely remodelling the Constitution.
But, notwithstanding this general power was
never delegated to us, we are iorccu
niriAmtinn of a proposition, radically to
change one of the most conservative features
in our system of Government. We are not
permitted to avoid the discussion of the
question, if we would, and, I trust, as it has
been forced upon us, that we will meet it in
a spirit of firmness as well as calmness and
moderation, with the purpose solely of en
lightening our minds, that we may be better
enabled to form a correct judgment.
I beg, in the outset, to acknowledge the
courtesy of the delesrate from Lincoln in
submitting his statistics to my examination.
I have so thoroughly considered them, since
the adjournment ot the question, 1 nave ocen
tempted to wish that figures were bauished
from the world. I became, however, sensible
of my error, on reflecting that figures are my
main defence against the delegate marching
down upon us at the head of his " white le
gions." The realization of the expression of
my impatience would place me somewhat in
the situation of the young lady, who, over
wearied by the pertincity of a suitor, wished
that there was not a man on earth, but whose
nervous svsteni became exceedingly shocked
bv the consideration, that if taken at her
word, her matrimonial prospects must be for
ever blasted. Let the delegate from Lincoln
marshal his hosts. I am prepared to meet
him not indeed at the head of an army
with banners, but at the head of an army of
figures, in solid array so powerful so over
whelming, and of such formidable aspect to
the gentleman on the other side, that the
delesrate from Rutherford himself notwith
standing the easy placidity with which he
discharged this bomb shell among us, stand
ing aghast, will, in his terror, exclaim
" Ansrels and ministers of arrace defend us !"
But before I proceed to consider the statis
tics of the delegate from Lincoln, I beg to
be allowed to examine some of the princi
ples enunciated by him. I gather, from his
speech, that his chief ground of complaint
is the apparent inequality, in political pow
er, between the white population of the
East, and the white population of the West.
He desires that each white person in the East
and each white person inrflje "West shall have
the like political power in the Legislature of
the State, and he proposes to effect this jhjU
tical equality by trampling upon the repre
sentation of property, by placing the weight
of political power in the hands of a numeri
cal majority, and that the majority of one
class of the population only, and that, the
class which" predominates in his own sec
tion. The bare statement of the question is,
of itself, sufficient to prove that if carried
out, it would be unfair, oppressive and un
When the delegate from Lincoln speaks of
population, he must always be understood as
meaning white population. When represen
tation is to be considered, the negro is with
him of a nature so impalpable, that he can
not be counted, or even seen ; but when taxes
are to be levied, he is always found to pos
sess the form and substance of a man. But
it is alleged, that representation cannot be
accorded to the negro, without admitting
him to the right of suffrage ; why then did
he have representation among us as a slave i
In a state of slavery he was represented as a
person and not as property. And why, let
me ask, if this be the reason of his exclusion,
that, by the delegate's system of apportion
ment, white females are not represented, and
the right of suffrage is denied to them. If
this right necessarily follows the right of
representation, how can the delegate answer
the question ? Besides, if the numerical ma
jority of whites must also have the political
majority, wny aoes tne gentleman deny to
white females all expression and exercise of
political power ? The white females in-North-Carolina
outnumber the white males
by a majority of 2,576. And they are ex
eluded from the polls, and denied all voice
in political matters. I am not the first to
submit these questions and considerations,
but often as they have been submitted, they
have never yet been successfully answered,
and can not consistently with the delegate's
position. The truth is, that in no state of
society is suffrage accorded to a majority of
the represented class.
I am, I confess, somewhat surprised to
hear the doctrine of equality so earnestly
urged in this Assembly. Whence did this
doctrine take its rise, or rather when was it
folly developed? I answer, in those dark
and terrible days, when the cry of " equality"
in the mouths of. an infuriated populace,
, caused to be torn down all the barriers erect
ed to protect property and civil rights, and
caused to be enacted those scenes of blood,
at which, even now, the world stand aghast '
From the " DhilosoDhers"
brought about the French revolution, molt
of the arguments enforcing the equality of
uinu uave oeen arawn, ana wherever they
have been reduced to practice, in the govern
ment of a State, by conferring the whole
political power on a mere numerical ma
jority, without regard to interest, the State
cujjraneu in us system principles which
ovrvuci ur utter, win carry it aown to de
We, Mr. President have no popular excite
ment on this subject the people scarcely
'clu w aware mat we are considering it
on J 4.1 I . . . .
ov, uiuc uu luujr seem io ue interestea there
in, ijut even it popular clamor did prevail
l stand not here to bow to it. I will not be-
- come an moiater even at the shrine of the
idol which the populace may erect and com
' J?a? x me worebiP- I hestitate not to say,
that I scorn and repudiate, as dangerous and
unjust, the doctrine, that a mere numerical
majority, which does not embrace, but is
antgonistic to a majority of interest, shall
be the sole governing porer. And even
when a majority of numbers is the sole gov
eraing power, it is upon the principle, that
S f maJ-my ia BUPPsed to represent a
majority ot interest. But when it appears
that a majority of numbers does not repre
sent a majority of interest, as it appears that
a majority of white numbers does not in
.North-Carolina, to adopt it as the sole ov
ermng power would be suicidal to our best
interests, and against the warnings of ex-
" perience, fe
"Wbat then," I may be asked, " is the true
basis of representation i" To which I reply,
a majority of numbers and majority or in
terests combined. Whenever either unduly
preponderates, encroachments are made on
, the ope side and resistance is made on the
other, a continual struggle for ascendancy
stakes place, which causes continual turmoil
and discontent, degenerates often into fac-
tion, and becomes destructive of the best in
4 tereste of the State. My desire, therefore is
to e bleridedVin one beautiful whole, num
bers and interests, ' working harmoniousiv
together, and witholding, if possible, aHn
Preponderance from either. The eastern
part oft he State possesses much more prooer
InrV 6 aSFegate tua the western part
L EyV ,arg,er 8hare of the Public expenl
!; ? adpt tllerefo-e, the basis of repre
sentation proposed by the amendment, wou7d
b asserting the power offeree, would plate
the weak "man at the' mercy of the strong
: man, and would present the strange anomaly,
of the East contributing far more - largely
than the West to the expenses of the Gov
ernment, and yet represented only by a small
minority in each branch of the Legislature.
That representation should be based on a
majority of interest and a majority of num
bers combined, is fortified by the authority
of the best writers on government. I beg to
refer to the essay of Mr. Calhoun entitled
" A Disquisition on Government," vol. 1st of
his works, pages 28, 29 and 30, edition of
A majority of numbers and of interests
combined, or, what is the same thing, a
union of persons and property, is the true
basis of representation. What is the basis
of civil society ? I answer, property to as
great, nay, to a greater, degree than personal
security. I have never read of any state of
society, how rude soever, in which the pro
tection of property did not iorm a constitu
ent element. The Indian in his wigwam,
claims as his own the quiver of arrows,
which his ingenuity has fashioned, or the
buffalo robe which he has acquired by his
skill in the chase. The Icelander, in his hut
of snow, appropriates to his own use the seal
which he has captured, and the Laplander
cherishes, with solicitude, the sled and rein
deer which form the principal share of his
worldly goods. In every period of the world's
history in every place where' men congre
gate, and that i3 in all places where they ex
ist, from the days when Abel was a keeper
of sheep and Cain a tiller of the ground, until
this day, the acquisition of property has
been the main stimulant of man's energies,
and the infringement of his right, to what,
he claims as his own, the surest means of
evoking his passions and resentment. In the
more refined nations, what is the main sub
ject of deliberation in all legislative assem
blies ? Is it personal security ? No, but the
protection of property the means of secur
ing to every man what is justly his own.
And yet, at this late day, we have a propo
sition here, which ignores the right of pro
perty to any share in the representation of
the State, and proposes to place it in the
mere numerical majority of white persons,
which would place the East at the mercy of
the West. I beg to say that I pre fer to have
the distribution of my own property in my
own hands. I am not willing to place it in
the hands of others. IV white man in the
East paj-s one dollar tax, while two white
men in the West pay only the same amount.
Is not the Eastern man efititied to protection
in the appropriation of Ins dollar against the
numerical majority composed of the other
two I Can there be a plainer proposition ?
And yet, the proposition before the Conven
tion would deprive the Eastern man of all
power of appropriation and disposition over
the fund which he contributes, and while
Dearmg tne larger share ot the expenses of
the Government, would make him but a
cipher in directing their disbursement.
in mrtlier support ot mv position. I beer to
reter to the debates of the Convention of
1835. I read from the speech of Judge Gas
ton, page 1 82 :
" In the Constitution of a State all the
operations ofwho.se government are not only
direct upon its citizens, but wholly confined
to matters of interior concern, the only in
terest, likely to be often arrayed against each
other are those of profit rtt ami of pcr"it.
Such a government is formed for the purpose
of protecting property and persons, and
would be inadequate to the end if left either
at the mercy of the other. It can never, in
deed, be the true interest ot any individual,
or of any body of men. to oppress or injure
others ; but every day's observation, and it is
to be feared that every day's experience, must
convince us that a fancied immediate advan
tage, magnified by the mists of passion, cften
tempts us to forego any permanent good, and
wrong our fellow men, under the delusion
that we are benefiting ourselves. It is right
that government should be so constituted as
to bring the steady influence of interest in
niA .F -!... -. ? i .
. in me iwiuuiaiuis oi uuiv. aiiu, says
Alexander Hamilton: "The best writers on
government have held that representation
should be compounded of persons and pro
perty," vol. II, page 431. I also refer to the
Federalist, No. 54.
Having thus endeavored to prove that the
true basis of representation in every well re-
guiatea government should be persons and
property. I will now proceed minutely to
examine the argument of the delegate deriv
ed from statistics. I shall first consider those
relating to the complexion of the Senate.
First allegation. The tight extreme East
ern Senatorial districts, with a population of
50,:J93, are entitled to eight members. The
eight extreme Western districts, with a popu
lation of 201,785, have eight members, 6.290
voters in the Eastern arc equal to 25,219 in
the Western district.
Reply. The population of the Eastern dis
tricts is, in fact, in the aggregate, one-half of
that of the Western.
The eight extreme Eastern districts were
assessed in isou tor btare taxation to the
amount ot $5.8,004. The eight extreme
v estern aistriets paia a tax of $98,749. So
that one white person in the Eastern pays as
uiuun to tne expenses oi the State govern
ment as three white persons in the Western
Second allegation. Hertford has a popu
lation of 3,947 and one Senator. Buncombe
uisliu.1 nits a p)juiauon oi uu,uuu and one
senator. One voter in Hertford is equal to
seven in Buncombe.
Reply. The aggregate population of Hert
ford is more than one-fourth of that of the
The taxes of Hertford assessed in 18G0
were $7,834. Those of the Buncombe district
were $14,792. So that one white man in
mum mi. us lour wnite men
in ijunconiDe district.
Third allegation. Martin district has a
population of 9,028 and one Senator. Hay
wood district has a population of 24,694 and
one Senator, one voter in Martin equal to
Iteply. The aggregate population of the
"""" "'since is more than two-thirds of
mat o! uie uaywooa district. Martin dis
trict was assessed in 1800, $11,057 Hay
wood district was then assessed $7,832. S"o
that one white man in the Martin district
pay3 as much towards the expenses of the
Government as three white men in the Hay
wood district. J
Fourth allegation; The population of
Hertford, Bertie, Northampton and Martin
distr cts is 21,097, and hn.t four Senators.
The population of Buncombe, Haywood
Iredell and Surry, is 119,206, and have four
Senators nearly one to six.
Reply. The aggregate population of the
said eastern districts is nearly one-lmlf of
that of the said western districts. The tares
assessed on the said eastern districts in I860,
amounted to $42,219. Those then assessed
on the said western districts amounted to
$38,000. So that one white man in Bertie,
Northampton and Martin districts, pays
more taxes into the public treasury than six
white men in Buncombe, Haywood, Iredeil
and Surry districts.
But, says Col. Bynum: "It is admitted
that property must be protected ; but how
does that prove that the poor land of Hen
derson is not entitled to equal protection
with the rich land of Hyde ? That the poor
man s little is not as dear to him as the rich
man's much and that he is not as anxious
to protect it by wholesome laws V
To wuicu I rcply, in the words of a great
statesman and a great master of the Eng
lish language. I read from the works of
Edmund Burke, who. sneaking f th
V rights of society, says : " In this partnership
an men nave equal rights, but not to equal
things. He that has five billings in the
partnership has as good a right to it as he
that has five hundred pounds has to his
larger proportion. But he has not a riirht
to an equal dividend in tha niw r ?k
joint stock; and as to the share of power,
authority and 'directidri, -which "joach indi
vidual ought to have in the management of
the State, that 1 must aeny to. oe among tne
direct original rights of men in civil Bociety ;
fori have, in my contemplation, the social
man and no other. It is a thing to be set
tled by Contention.'?
I commend tlie whole beautiful essay from
which the above jpsfcrnct is taken to the con
sideration of thOasAvtto hear me. It is en
titled " Reflection's. iOn the Revolution in
Franco." I ask for nothing that is unjus
I desire to give the West that due weight in'
the councils of the State to which her num
bers are entitled, but I "ask for the East that
protection to which her interest is entitled.
I protest against the principle which would
place that interest at the mercy of the mere
numbers of the West. If a white man in
Henderson pays a tax of one dollar on his
land, and a white man in Craven pays two
dollars on the like quantity, it is revolting
to every man's sense of justice that the white
man in Henderson should not only be equal
ly protected m the enjoyment ot his proper
ty, but should also have the right of dispo
sing at his will, of two dollars belonging to
the white man in Craven for every one dol
lar of his own.
I was greatly edified by the movements of
the gentleman from Rutherford in his intro
duction of the amendment under considera
tion. An amendment which deprives the
East of all representation of her property,
and all protection save the generosity of the
West ! The air of sincerity with which he
enunciated his political dogmas was admira
ble. He was actuated by a desire to pro
mote the interests of the" East ; he desired,
for her own sake, to rectify her own mis
takes ; he hoped that the West would be al
lowed to come to her ; and he was so very
affectionate, that I thought he would open
his arms and give us one long and loving
embrace. I watched his countenance, under
the impression that I might detect a smile
lurking around the corners of his mouth
but no, he was as calm as a summer's morn
ing. I envied his consummate composure. I
have not had time to examine the benevo
lent provisions which the gentleman's ordi
nance would make for us, as the printed
copy was placed in my hands only a few
moments before I got up, but I take an ex
ample therefrom almost at random.
lo Halifax and "Northampton united th
delegate proposes to give one Senator, and
to the County of Yadkin he proposes to give
one Senator. Those counties have a white
population of 12,550. and an affsrresrate 11011-
ulation of 32,814, and were assessed in the
year 1860 by way of taxation, $33,095.
Yadkin has a white population ot 9,106,
an aggregate population of 10,714, and was
assessed in I860, $4,438. So Yadkin, with
a little over two-thirds the white population
of Halifax and Northampton, not one-third
the aggregate population, and not one-seventh
the taxation, would, under the dele
gate's amendment, be entitled to an equal
representation in the Senate. The remark of
the delegate, that should his purpose to
serve the east, as well as the west, be defeat
ed, he thanked God he had done his duty,
can now be duly appreciated. It reminded
me of the Quaker's prayer :
'"God bles3 me and my wife,
My son and hU wife,
L's four and no more.
Now uud forever more,
" God bless Rutherford and Polk and Mc
Dowell and Burke and Yadkin, but let Hali
fax and Northampton stand out in the cold."
But notwithstanding the delegate's placidity
oi i-oiuueiiance. i couiu not help recalling,
during the delivery of his speech, the old
" Will yon walk into my parlor, said the spider
to tlif tiv ? "
We all know the fate of the fly had she ac
cepted the invitation delegates can make
I will now proceed to examine the com
plexion of the House of Commons, under the
report of the delegate from Lincoln, appor
tioning the representation on the white basis :
Edgecombe with a white population of
6,879, an aggregate population ot 17,376,
and taxes assessed iu 1300, to $24,349, is al
lowed one member.
Watauga pays an aggregate tax of $1,493,
an. I with loss than two-thirds the white pop
ulation of Edgecombe, with a little over one
fourth the aggregate population, and with
less than one-sixteenth the taxation, is al
lowed one member.
But it may be said that the sources of taxa
tion have diminished in the East; to which
I reply that it is reasonable to suppose they
have diminished in the West in a like ratio.
But to meet this objection I will add the tax
on real estate and polls. The real estate tax
of Edgecombe, $5,407. Watauga $778,03.
Poll tax of Edgecombe, $4,686. Watauga,
$432, so that Edgecombe pa3"s seven times a
larger land tax than Watauga and more than
ten times the poll tax, and yet they are to be
equal in the Commons.
Halifax has a white population of 6,641,
;u)uiatiuii oi ia,44, a tax a-
tion assesse d in 1S60 of $18,039. a tax of
real estate of $4,560 on poll3 of $5,017, and
is allowed one member.
Polk has a white population of 3,317, and
an aggregate of 4,043, an aggregate taxation
of $1,502, and a tax on real estate of $738,
and in polls of $350, and is allowed one mem
ber. So Halifax with nearly twice the white
population of Polk, more than four times
the aggregate population of Polk, more than
twelve times the aggregate taxation, six
times the tax on real estate, and more than
twelve times the poll tax, has only the same
representation in the Commons.
Beaufort with one and one-half the white
population of Jackson, nearly three times the
aggregate population, nearly nine times the
aggregate taxation, four times the taxation
on real estate, and seven times the poll tax,
is entitled only to the same representation
in the Commons.
Bertie, with a white population of 5,806,
an aggregate population of 14,310, assessed
for taxation in 1860,$11,272, in real estate,
$3,531, on the poll $3,630, is allowed one
member in the Commons.
Alleghany with two-thirds the white pop
ulation of Bertie, one-fourth the aggregate
population, one-ninth the aggregate taxation
one-fifth the real estate tax, and one-ninth
the poll tax, is-allowed one member.
But lest it may be said that I cite extreme
cases, I will select three among the smallest
counties in the east in white population, and
compare them with some counties in the
west. It must always be remembered, in
this argument, that the proposed amendment
to the constitution apportions the Senate, as
wen as uommons on the white basis.
Jones, Hertford and Warren, have an se
gregate white population of 11,074, a whole
population of 20,960, an aggregate taxation
of $27,954, on real estate $6,396, on the poll
nu are anowea three members.
1 ho three counties specified are equal in
aggregate taxation to Yancy, Wilkes, Polk,
Macon, Haywood, Cherokee, Buncombe,
Henderson, and as Clay, Mitchell and Tran-
ynama were lormed irom those counties
since the assessment, I add them also. The
counties are allowed thirteen members.
One white person in Jones. Hertford and
Warren pays more taxes than five white rjer-
sons in the counties specified.
isew iianover, including Lilhneton. wlnoh
has ever been established, was assessed $33 -
270 in 1860 in aggregate taxes, and is allow.
ed two members. j
Iredell, Davidson Yadkin. Wilkea '
Union are allowed ten members, and pay
nearly the same aggregate tax of New Han
over. 1 he white population of these coun-
ties is 56,823, the white - population of New '
Hanover is 10,617; One white nnrsnn in '
New Hanover pays as, much tax as five
whjte perons in the counties specified.
The delegate from Lincoln selected parti
cular ase8 for coraparisoni v; I have been far
more general. Hut to put .the matter Deyona
doubt, I beet to submit that the white popu
lation of the east is almost two-thirds that of
the west, while the aggregate population is
aDout equau tiivmg to the west tne centra;
counties, each white person in the east pays
about $1.60 to the head, in the west about
75 cents. ... Dividing the aggregate taxation
of the east by the aggregate population, it is
aiscoverea tuat eacn .wnite person, negro,
mulatto and. quadroon in the east pays more
t&the support of the government, than each
white person in the west. , And yet it is
seriously proposed here to exclude the whole
colored race from representation, not only
depriving the east of the representative ben
efits to be derived from one-third of her pop
ulation, but also depriving her ot all repre
sentation for her taxation. To consummate
such a measure would violate every princi
ple ot justice,
We have been cited. Mr. President, to the
example of other States. Does my friend
irom Lincoln desire to follow their example ?
Would he exchange the Old North State to
day, the general contentment and happiness
ot her people, their public and private vir
tues, for any one of thera in her wealth and
prosperity ? Can he, looking to his poster
ity, ask for them any better fate than to live
in a land such as North Carolina, with con
servative principles which preserve her peo
ple irom the moral leprosy ot those States
whose example we are asked to emulate ?
l es, Mr. .President, many ot them have given
up tne conservative principles ot their con-
stitutions, and, with them, their public vir
tue also. Politics with them is now a lob.
and the public servant has become the pub
lie peculator. Does he desire to see lmnlan
ted here those principles which have there
contaminated the body politic ? 1 know he
does not. I know he has an eye single to
the honor and interests of his State. Of all
men in the western delegation noted for their
conservatism and ability, it is to him I would
have appealed to stay the progress of radi
calism. But when even he approaches, with
uplifted dagger, to strike the life out of the
constitution, in an agony of despair I am
forced to exclaim " Et tu Brute!"
I have no purpose to cripple the resources
of the west. My bosom never glows with a
warmer feeling of patriotism, than when con
templating her unbounded treasures and the
generous character of her people. My voice
shall never be raised against any practicable
ind honest efrort to aid her industrial ener
gies, and I hope to live to see the day when,
starting at Weldon with my children and
friends, I can go on a pic-nic excursion to
the Blue Ridge, there to enjoy the hospitali
les ot its people and inhale health from its
nvigorating atmoshere. The whole State
requires our whole exertions every section
of it needs our aid in its further develope-
ment. w hue l picture to myselt the subli
mity of the mountain scenery of the west and
her exhaustless mineral resources, when I tie
sire to aid her people by every advantage
that internal improvement can irive. I turn
my eyes also to that section of the east, for
which comparatively little has been done
lying on the shores of a. vast inland sea, in
terspersed with fine rivers, the lower Roan
oke, the broad and deep Chowan, the Per
quimans, the Pasquotank and the North
River, all capable of floating ships of heavy
burden, flowing into the Albemarle Sound,
and yet almost shut out from the ocean. Let
me hear the echo of the steam whistle in the
tunnels of the mountains ; but let me see,
also, the commerce of the Albemarle region
make its way in ships and steamboats
through a magnificent canal, into Norfolk
harbor, and pass the capes across the broad
Let us unite our energies, let us do equal
justice; but let us spare the Constitution
spare it, I beg you touch not a single con
sertative feature, and ere a generation passes
away, you will thank God that you resisted
temptation and retained those" principles
which, in their operation, preserve this good
old State from the demoralizing radicalism
of the dav.
The Rival op Niagaka. Livingstone,
the celebrated traveler, in his recent book of
travels in Africa, thus describes the most
wonderful geographical discovery of modern
ine victoria iaiisot the &arntesi river
are among the most remarkable curiosities o
the interior of Africa. For several mile
above the cataract the river is smooth and
tranquil, flowing by lovely islands thickly
covered with tropical vegetation. Loft'v
palm trees, with their fruits in golden elus
ters, grow abundantly upon the hanks..
Many flowers peep out near the water's edge.
But these charming islands are soon succeed
ed by dangerous rapids. It is only when the
river is very low that thev can be passed in
saiety. jiepnants ana Hippopotami are
often swept over the fall, and of course.
smashed to pulp.
In entering the race of waters, the party
was requested not to speak. " as talkms
might impair the virtue of medicine." There
were places where the utmost exertions of
the canoemen had to be put forth to force
the boat to the only sate part of the rapid
ana to prevent it irom sweeping down broad
side. At times, it seemed as it nothing could
save the canoe from dashing head-long
against the rocks, but just at the nick of
time the word was passed to the steersman
who, with ready pole, turned the craft a little
aside, and it glided swiftly past the threaten
On reaching the falls a spectacle of inde
scnbable magnificence was presented to the
travelers. 1 ne cataract is lormed by a crack
across the river, the bed of the Zambesi, at
that place. 1 he lips ot the crack are still
quite sharp, except about three feet of the
edge over which the river rolls. The walls
go sheer down trom the bps without any
projecting crag. The cleft is in length a few
yards more than the breadth of Zambesi,
wnicn was iouna to he, by measurement, a
little over 1850 yard3, but this number was
retained to mark the year m which the fall
for the fir3t time was examined. The width.
at the narrowest point, was found to be 80
yards and at the widest somewhat more.
Into this chasm, twice as deep as Niagara
Falls, the river, a mile wide, rolls with deaf
ening roar, forming the Victoria cataract.
It is broken into partial falls by rocks and
islands, in all making 2,700 feet of perennial
falls. The whole body of water rolls clear
over quite unbroken, but after a descent of
ten or more feet, the entire mass suddenly
becomes like a huge sheet of driven snow.
Pieces of water leap from it in the form of
comets, with tails streaming behind, till the
whole pyramid is changed into myriads of
rusuing, leaping acqueous comets. The
amount is probably exceeded by Niagara,
though not in the months when the Zambesi
is in flood.
The vast body of water necessarily encloses
in its descent a large volume of air, which,
forced into the cleft to an unknown depth,
rebounds and rushes up loaded with vapor
to form three or even six columns, as if of
steam, visoie at tne distance of 21 miles.
On reaching the height of 200 feet from the
level of the river, this vapor becomes con
densed into a perpetual shower of fine rain.
Mr. Lever tells a good anecdote of an
Irishman's giving the password at the battle
of Fontenjoy, at which the great Saxe was
Marshal. " The password is Saxe now
don't forget it, Pat," said the Colonel.
" Sacks r Faitn and I will not. .Wasn't my
father a miller ?" . -
Who goes there ?" cried the sentinel, af
ter he had arrived at his post.
"Pat was as wise as an owl, and in a sorto
whispered howl replied: . , e ' , . - -.
."Bagsl yer honor 1" '' ' , .
The annual expenses of the city of Paris
amount to over $40,000,000,
THURSDAiVt - ., JULT 13, 1800.
rue people ot this state will vote on
the 1st Thursday in August next to rati
fy or reject the Constitution, lately adop
ted by the Convention and ordered to be
submitted to them at the polls.
An account of the movements of the hostile
armies in Europe, prepared from the last pa
pers, will not prove uninteresting.
It seems that Victor Emanuel with an ar
my of eighty or ninety thousand Italians
crossed the Mincio, on Saturday June 23d,
and advanced upon the railroad connecting
Peschiera, an Austrian fortress, with Verona
and Venice. On Sunday morning before
Verona, the Austrian army, commanded by
Archduke Albrecht, encountered the Italians.
The battle lasted throughout the day, one of
the longest of the year, and finally ended
favorably to the Austrians. The Italians
were steadily driven backwards, and finally
recrossed the Mincio, after losing 2,000 pris
oners, guns, &c., together with many killed
and wounded. They captured 600 Austrian
prisoners. This battle was within the cele
brated Quadrilateral. Both sides fought with
valor. ihe Austnans outnumbered the
Gen. Cialdini commanding the right wing
of the Italian army was expected to cross
the Po, at Polesello, about the same time,
and commence a direct march upon Venice.
The Italian fleet left Tarento for th
purpose, it is supposed. But owing to the
defeat of the main army under Victor Eman
uel, Cialdini's movement has been abandon.
ed. The fleet was allowed to nroceed
Lraribalcli with forty thousand volunteers
is said to be in the Alps to the extreme left
of Victor Emanuel, contemplating a sudden
loray into Austrian territory. The Austrians
are garrisoning the passes of the Alps.
me Italian papers, notwithstanding the
serious defeat sustained by Victor Emanuel,
are cheerful and the troops are said to be
eager to renew tue contest. The Ttnliana
believe that Louis Napoleon will not allow
the Austrians to overrun Italy again. Upon
the receipt of the news of the defeat of Vic
tor Emanuel, Napoleon delayed his contem
plated departure from Paris. The news
doubtless caused much concern in that city.
The London Times suggests that Austria
should now open negotiations with Italy for
the cession of Venetia, arguing that it will
detach Italy from Prussia, make a truce
along the Southern border, and give Austria
leisure to transfer thousands of her troops to
Bohemia to meet the advance of the Prus
sians upon Vienna.
The Prussians have entered Austrian Bo
hemia. Several unimportant engagements
had taken place between the Austrians and
Prussians, the latter in the main successful.
The Prussian needle gun is said to be a most
effective weapon, its usefulness having at
length been practically demonstrated.
The Hanoverian army, which has been at
tempting to elude the Prussians to escape
to Bavaria to join the Austrians, is still sur
rounded. Its capitulation was hourly ex
The movements of the Austrian army un
der Bcnedek in Bohemia are still unknown
to the public.
The secession of representatives of differ
ent Northern German states from the Diet
continues. They are controlled by Prussian
influence. Some five or six recently with
drew. Seventeen thousand fresh troops from
South Germany have arrived at Frankfort,
at which place the Diet is held.
The British Ministry have resigned. Derby
is expected to head the new Ministry. No
announcement has yet been made.
We have no further particulars of the
recent revolt in Madrid, in which one thou
sand citizens lost their lives. It is believed
to have been effectually quelled.
Russian seems quiescent. Her troops are
on the Austrian frontier of Hungary, but there
is nothing to indicate that she will join the
contest, unless there be a revolt in Hungary,
when it is evident Austria relies upon her to
Thus fur in Germany the energetic move
ments of Prussia have secured her many suc
cesses, but in the South the victory of Aus
tria has evinced the power and determination
of that government. The war threatens to
become more bloody and protracted, than
at first supposed.
"M" of the Sentinel, formerly " Y Y," for
merly " Q," properly "S" Zero or better,
if we do not make too fine a point upon too
small a subject, "O 1," i. e. naught minus
one freely translated " a little less than noth
ing," is engaged in successlully " coliooting and
canoodling with the two antagonistic powers"
of Truth and Falsehood, through a column
in the Sentinel specially appropriated to his
use, though we must not be understood as
implying that such a thing is at all unusual
to other columns of the Sentinel.
Formerly yclept " the little blower" of the
Clarion, he has been promoted to the honor
able station of " the little cohooter" to the
Sentinel. The honor is deserved ; for he
alone can reconcile the " two antagonistic
powers" of Truth and Falsehood, being evi
dently in colioot with the latter, while he
beautifully canoodles the former !
Success to " the little coUooter,"
His honors will never decay ;
Tho' once he was famed as a " tooter"
Far greater bis glory to day I
The attention of persons of color, formerly
slaves, who lived together as man and wife
prior to the 10th of March, 1866, and who
live in the same relation now and intend to
continue the relation, is called to the fact
that unless they appear before the County
Court Clerk and record themselves as mar
ried, they will be liable to indictment at the
next Fall Term of the Superior Court.
It would be a kindness, as it is a duty, for
all employers to inform their servants of this
requirement of the law, as it will no doubt
save the colored people much trouble and
expense. ' ' . ; - .
The speech of Edward Conigland, Esq., on
the basis of representation, will be found in
our columns to-day.
The speech of Mr.' Bynum on the
subject but with different views. -will appear
fin oar next. , .
: The Constitution. ( j v
The revised Constitution of, h State, &a
adopted by the late'Cohventioif and ordered
uj us suumittea to toe people, nas peen
laid before our readers. - We doubt not but
that it has met general approbation; .
are for it. It was critically Considered
and thoroughly discussed in Convention,
and adopted as a compromise between the
East and West
We expect to publish a series of able ar
ticles upon it. Meanwhile we invite all to
perusal it carefully. The extra Standard,
which are sent out with each number of the
paper, containing the Constitution, are in
tended for circulation. The Secretary of
J State has ordered their publication, and this
method is taken for their circulation. Scat
ter them freely. Let the people be thoroughly
informed before they vote.
The Williamston Expositor hoists the name
of D. D. Ferebee for Lieutenant-Governowr.
(Observe the aristocratic orthography of our
The Expositor is precocious. The office of
Lieutenant-Governor, (we follow the spelling
of the honorable committee on the Constitu
tion,) depends upon the ratification of the
revised Constitution ; and there are serious
doubts whether Mr. Ferebee's name, taken
in such a connection, may not defeat the
Constitution, especially in Eastern Carolina.
The Colonel may be a Colossus in Camden,
but he is a manikin at Rome.
1 he proceedings of the meeting of the
Goldsboro' loyalists, recently published in
tne standard, have received the usual atten
tions from the rebel press of the State.
Stand up, ye loyal ! Though few, ye cannot
be harmed, for the day has at length arrived,
when the only weapon left the chivalry is
that venomous yet impotent abuse, which
even Washington encountered, and Anihikw
Johnson dened. Do you not remember
when it was the bullet, the rope and the
It is announced that Judge Fowle has been
designated by the Governor to hold a special
term of the Superior Court for the County of
Alamance, commencing on the 4th Monday
in the present Month.
The Fall Term of the Superior Courts will
be held as follows. We clip from the Sentinel :
1st Circuit, Judge Merrimon.
The government of the United States is
composed of three co-ordinate Departments
executive, Legislative and Judicial. We
receive the protection of all these Depart
ments, and owe our allegiance to them, for
ming, as they do, the government of the
W hy is it that the rebel papers of the
South denounce and villify the Legislative
and Judicial Departments of government and
alone praise the Executive ? Do they owe
no allegiance to the Legislative and Judi
cial Departments ? Do they consider them
unlawfully organized ? Do they wish to edu
cate the public mind for another revolution ?
We owe our allegiance to the whole the gov
ernment." What do they mean by constant
ly abusing Congress and the Judiciary ? Are
they striving to divide the departments of
government, and break it up ? Whither
do the present teachings ot the Southern
press tend ? To the restoration of the Union,
or to its destruction I
The- Western Democrat.
We invite attention to the following char
acteristic articles, cool and sensible, from the
pen of the experienced Editor of the Western
Democrat, at Charlotte, N. C. :
TriE Election. Before taking sides in
the State election we think it would be well
to wait and see what issue is to be made
anu woo tue candidates are. We are out
and out opposed to radicalism and repudia
tion, demagoguism and huuibuggery, and
although we do not like Governor Worth's
course,, in all respects, believing that he has
been influenced by old party feelings too
much he having almost systematically ig
nored, in his appointments, men who had
been democrats, and especially in appoint
ment of Railroad Directors yet we would
hesitate before offering opposition to him, if
we thought there was any danger of his be
ing beaten by any man who sympathized
with the Northern radicals or favored repu
diation of private contracts. Our office
holders should be honest men, and no trick
ster ought to be placed in a position where
he might do harm, or misrepresent the sen
timent or wishes of the good people of the
State. There are plenty of men in the State
who would make as good a Governor as Mr.
Worth probably a less partial one and if
such an one can. be elected, no harm will be
done. Hut, let us watch and wait, for a
while, at least.
Don't Fket. The people of the South
are gloomy and discouraged at the aspect of
ii.iLionui unairs. iney see the way the radi
cals are driving things to destruction, and
they conclude that the prospect for future
peace and prosperity is bad. It is bad
enough, but there is hope for improvement,
and all difficulties, may yet be overcome unrt
radical rule crushed out. Don't fret
The war now going on in Europe causea
uneasiness and fear that something terrible
will happen, or that property, goods, stocks
nr thai- TT.:,l t!i.x J . '
uvi wuuu win ue iniunousiv attected hv it.
uuiku n.i.Les may oecome in
volved, and a call made upon us for soldiers.
But, according to radical theory, we are not
in the Union, and of course Ilnnln Ram vn'
iorce joreigners. to tight in hia army. So
uon c iret.
And some are gettinc nnpnsv nr o;t-i
about the approaching elections in Nortlk
Carolina. It is too. early to. raise a fuss
about such matters better wait until the
heat of Brimmer is oven and .the blood and
bile circulates corrective Onr fripiwla vf th
Raleigh Sentinel seem to think it would be
awful bad policy to run a candidate against
Gov. Worth, and they now have a great deal
to say about being united and causing no
division among ourselves fofo-ettino- tin.
last Fall they were foremost in engendering
division and strife while many of us plead
for harmony, and for the sake of peace were
willing to take a -gentleman for Governor
whose previous course we could not and did
not fully endorse.. Rut eircumBt.iir.pa !.
cases with the Sentmtl. We shall , .-
the matter stands towards the first of Sep
tember. In the meantime. we hnnp that r
amiable cotemporary will not fret.
We hope the people will not pledge them
selves to any particular tanxL. until thv as
certain who are to . be the candidate Be
.cautious, and when, sore yon: are sight, then
gw-ahead.rx-A,f;.v-x . . : .- . ..
We intend-to fceep cool, and not fret.-
Sufficient unto the da; is the evil thereof.
., Vfe are indebted for the basis of this article
to the able letters ., by JProt, ' Ahfens, cones-'
pbndent of the New orWatchmanaX the
Lutheran University of Gottingen Germany.
There are twenty-five f theBe Universities
The oldest, that of Prague, was founded iii
1348 ; the youngest, that of Munich, 1827
These great institutions were all orounized
and are still supported by the several gov
ernments. There are a great many colleges,
but these form part of the University as at
Oxford or Cambridge. In Germany the
student must graduate in a college before he
can enter the Universities. The German
Universities are organized upon the model of
the University of Paris the oldest institu
tion of learning in Europe which was fram
ed after the model of that of Alexandria
where Euclid, Diophontus. and tin. ni..,i."
fathers, Cleincnt, Origen, Athonasius and St
Gregory StCtrained for their high voca-"
These Universities have four denart mpTlta
or professional schools. u '
L The Theological Department which
ranks first in importance. D. D. is thp hi,i..J
academical degree that they can confer
They require of candidates for the pulpit to
pass a successful examination on the follow
ing : " Oriental philosophy, hermeneutics
antiquities, church and doctrine
thomiletics, catechetics, liturgies, and theory
of church government." (We hope we mav
be pardoned for observing that we knnn.
several American Doctors of Divinity who
did not pass an examination upon that cur
riculum.) It is peculiar to these Universities
that they do not require that onlv divine
shall teach theology. Edward of Gottingen
a member of the philosophical faculty, is Sow'
lecturing on the book of Job and the writ
ings of Solomon.
11. The Philosophical Department.
IIL The Department of Law. embmoin
history of the civil, criminal, and common
IV. The Department of Medici?. Tn !,;.
last, Germany has always been second to
The Lecture is the vehicle of rrt
The student very rarely comes into person.
contact with the professors. At the ap
pointed time the professor appears upon the
rostrum, bows politely, delivers hia Wtnm e
fifty minutes length and retires. The pro
fessors do not use text-books. Each instruc
tor must furnish his own text. A man can
not be a teacher here who can only look over
the text as the pupil recites he must, tinrlop-
stand his department thoroughly, or he can
not proceed at all. The students have the
privilege of the fresh effusions of the instruc
tor. If he is not attentive to these lectures,
he can never hope to pass his eiamina.iim
upon his application for a-desrree. A srstpm
that allows such entire independency in its
teachers has, however, its verv seriona Huff
and in this peculiarity of their educational
system do we find a partial explanation of
the origin of those innumerable theories and
wild doctrines that have emanated from these
famous schools. That each professor is re
quired to furnish his own text explains the
fact that Germany has supplied the world
Before a young man can matriculate as a
student in the University, he must have be
come - a Dachelor of art." In the prepara
tory studies, which differ little from those nf
our American colleges, the tutorial system is
rigidly observed. There exist no sectarian
or other tests (besides those of scholarship
for admission into a German Universitv
Greeks and Jews," Englishmen A
and African students may be received,
and are in actual attendance at those insti
tutions. The student at these Universities is em
phatically an independent man thn
and mastership of the college havp .paa.rl
The diligent student finds here every advan
tage and at small cost. ' He comes into daily
contact with the masterminds of the times;
he has access to monster libraries nrw. r.r-ht
furnished museums and literary societies
with every means that he can use. and p.vpw
stimulant that can arouse and every drill
that can discipline the intpllpnt. Tn tho
lazy and immoral, universitv life is the ini
tiatory to utter uselessness and ruin. The
Sabbaths are spent, bv the- mat
students, in excursions and free and easy re
creations. On such occasions a barrel full is
an essential accomoanvment Tn h ,
pected of piety is to be suspected of weak
ness in the upper story.
juueuing in the mild German, form ta.
still in common practice. Bat very many of
unwe smuenis are models ot good conduct
and of studious application. Most students
visit three or four Universities during the
period of their University studies. The style
is to spend the winter season at Berlin,
Leipzig. Vienna, and Munich, and the si m
mer season at Gottingen, Boon, or Heidelberg.
(During the last year a young man from
Georgia received tle highest honors confer
red by the University of Heidelberg, the first
American, we are informed, that has ever re
ceived such a distinction.)
Germany is, by all odds, the place of cheap
education. As the professors are salaried
men, the students pay for a course of lectures
a mere pittance, sav five or six dollars
Lodging and board are proportionally cheap.
(Prof. Ahrens writes from Gottingen.) UA
student who abstains from the revelries of
the gay and voluptuous, who dresses nicely
but not extravagantly, may spend a year at
a German University, and enjoy all its noted
privileges, with two hundred and fifty dol
lars." ... , t . - - J
GKItMAJ TOTVBBSrriES IN THE CHRONOLOGI-
CAI OEDER OF THEIB FORMAT tOK. .
(A.) From the fourteenth centttry.
1. Prague, founded Aj D. 134ST?omfli
Catholic. ' .1. ... . -
2. Vienna, 1360 Roman Catholic and
3. Heidelberg, 138& Evangel cal.
(B.) From the fifteen ih es tturv.
4. Leipzig, founded 1408 Lutheran.
5. Rostock, 1419 Lutheran.
6. Greifswalde, 1450 EvangelicaL
7. Freiburg, 1457 Roman Catholics.
8. Tubingen, 1477 Mixed.
(?.) Erom the sixteenth century.
9. Wittenberg, founded 1503 Lutheran.
10. Marburg, 1527 Evangelical.
1 1. Konigsberg," 1545 Evangelical.
12. Jena, 1558 Lutheran. .
13. Olmutz, 1581 Roman Catholic;
14. Gratz, 1591 Roman Catholic.
(D.) From the seventeenth century,
15. Giessen, founded 1G11 Mixed.
16. Salzburg, 1623 Roman Catholic.
17. Kiel, 1C57 Lutheran.
18. Innsbruck, 1672 Roman Catholic.
19. Halle, 1694 EvangelicaL -(E.)
From the eighteenth century.
20. Breslau, founded 1705 Mixed.
21. Gottingen, 1787 Lutheran.
22. Erlangen 1747 Lutheran and' Ee
(F.) From the nineteenth-century
: 23, Berlin; founded 1810 EvangelicaL
: ! 24, Bonn, 1818 Mixed.
25.; Munich, 1827 Roman Catholic..
. Hermeneatics The science of uit8irpne.tati''n-
t Homilectic Pertainiiurto familiar andsoci-it
intercourse for the spiritual benefit of the Jiearets-
Catceheties Oral instruction to wopUs ac
cording to the ancient manner of teaching.
- Athouoh the EoTFTi-Uts coald preserve th
remains of the' dead trom,. decomposition, they
coald not prevent the teeth of the living front
becoming decayed.. Id this 'respect modern sci
ence is ahead of ancient art. for 8ozoDONt actO"-
lly embalms the molar and Incisors and keep
them white and spotless. ' J ll
Humility glorifies God nride dishonors'
bitn humility makes men to be like angels ;
J3ri.de makes angels to. become devils.