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How Windows Are Being' Put Into the
Side of Kilauea, "the Most Spectacular
and Continuously Active
First Stex3 Toward
Tapping Its Tre
mendous Heat and
'HE dragon that lies under the rocks nnd
bleak, twisted lava of Kllauca and as every
serious-minded Hawaiian knows snouts
forth flame and ushes and steam when affairs on
the island are not to his liking, is about to bo
Science knows strange disregard for omnipo
tent creatures who shake the earth with their
wrath and hurl red-hot stones upon vineyards
and cocnanut groves. Accordingly a stcainhoveI,
hydraulic probe, compressed air machines, nnd
all the other trappings that have penetrated the
fastnesses of other mountains and conquered the
depths of the earth beneath cities and mighty
rivers soon are to be set up at the side of ono of
the most constantly active volcanoes in all the
world. And if it proves that a fiery dragon in
deed lies curled at the bottom of the grotesque
pile, the group working under direction of the
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory are more than
likelv to drag him out by the tail for the islanders
who have suffered from his evil disposition to
demolish as they see fitl
It may a? well bo understood at once, however,
that thir scientists are not looking for dragons.
What they expect to discover is a method for put
ting to practical use- the steam, gas and energy
thoy now believe to be stored inside of the grim
old smoking mountain.
The proiect of setting Kilatiea to work is the
most terrific of the age. It is more gigantic in
one way than even the conquest of the air, since
science in that engagement worked with an ele
ment that at least was not virulently antagonistic.
Mastery of the mountain means a long fight
Mildred Leo Clemens.
Cousin to Mark
Twain, Who Hiked
Her Way Across the
Smoking Mountain in
t Momently It
Might Have Erupted.
'sv . . smm-tf ' writ, ,
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hrsMove ' -WlitSISMi
Orator FT ' W T?3 -rAm
as the m&&- a ' T ?
QSP0ff Pictorial (I) 1789-Wipcd out pari of t!u, army of mMU 'M
ttp 3f ---iMMF Conception of Keona, a Hawaiian chief, ami burned their - IM
rf::'l 0H' 'ience Proposes vc and children in death with a blast of CM
0 .-x&P yj&k& 10 lunnel Heneath the uiphuru buh, a uliowcr ol incanotscftu 1.1 u
against clouds of scalding steam likely to bo re
leased without warning; it means braving the
horror of the deadliest of known gases; chemicals
so at variance with the human body as to cause
instant death if the smallest particlo penetrates
It also means constant danger of beingcrushed
beneath rocks hurled with the force of gtin-fire,
and burtiud to death under uhuwera of red-hot
ashes nnd lava.
The heads of the Hawaiian Volcano Observa
tory, who plan to supervise the work on the
ground are nothing daunted by peril! They will
betrin by boring through the great sulphur walls
whL-h form the sides of the mountain, and again
thnugh the deposits in the actual floors of tho
craters. By this means they will find it possible
How Science Proposes
tunnel Heneath the
Craicrntwl ! r.....
the Chamber of Gases and Fire of Kilauea
Which (he Photograph Above Shows
in Actual Eruption.
to measure the heat at various levels and to de
termine the quantity of steam at intervals. Also
the mineral nature of the formation will be re
vealed, i .ItiW1Je onY n fcw 'Pars "Tf t,lnt many physl
cJste held to the theory that tA- earth ie a molten
hall covered by a thin crust of ground. It was
bclievod that volcanoog wore merely vents to this
great inner fire, and being connected with the in
terior mass of moHf.ii rock were, ina sense, con
nected with each other. 1
It hag been derided now, however, that the
earth it a solid body and volcanoes venti of groat
Interior lake of molten matter. There is, there
fore, no common centre for all the volcanoog of
Another theory long hold is that a volcano
was virtually a steam engine. The presence of
bodic of steam under influence of great heat and
presfur- va supposed to account for the blowing
oif of the head of the mountain from time to time.
But observations from the station in Hawaii
show that force could not of iUelf be sufficient
to ci4use such tremendous upheuval, since the
quantity of steam i limited. It it to tap the
heat and energy stored in this steam that plpos
will Ik; run through the earth to conduct an end
less supp.y to points where it might be
-I 1 1 L . .
ufu iu neai noust and run ongmus.
Other conduits will be run from
Kilauea, if plans work cut, for the
purpose of carrying boat. This u
a more obscure project than trans
porting steam, since less is under.
stood of the store of warmth. Ob
servations made in many parts' of
the world indicate that the temperature riso
with amazing rapidity on the downward way.
The rate of increase is so rapid on a one-mile
lcvol that, if it increases accordingly ut a five or
ten-mile depth, the earth's surface will be de
cided a mere shell over great interior bourcoa of
beat. It now is stated with some certainty that
Xmtpvrt i'eutur Sml, I'jtt,
rv.iiauea s Most
(1) 1789 Wiped out pari of tin, army of
Keona, a Hawaiian chief, ami burned their
wiu-s and children to death with a blast of
sulphuroUH gas, a shower of incandescent
embers and clouds of heated steam.
(2) 1810 Projected laa tu a height of
sixty feet from top of dome.
(3) 1808 Was accompanied by earth
quakes and great Iosh of life.
(1) 187!) Knocked tho bottom out of the
1880 Repeated itself no often that
there were forty-one eruptions and earth
l unites during the year.
there is a complicated labyrinth of passagoa be
low the pround in which the heat varies.
With the top of KiUuen covered with power
houeet enginos, workmen's shacks, tool shads and
till the other signs of industry, ronmnco and ad
venture will b driven a little farther into th
place where outworn thinR go. For since Mark
Twain brought the strange corners of the Ha
waiian Islands before an interested public In hi
"Houghing It," the volcano has bean a goal of
tourists, specially feminine ones.
Mildred IOo demons, nmsin of the humorist,
was one of the most recent explorers of Kl'auua.
A gmduute of the University of California and
well known as a locturer and writer, she made a
pilgt imago to the smoking mountain with a com
pany of native guides, after visiting the extinct
volcano Ilolekala on the Island of Maui. Shu
climlod to tho top of tins mountain, 10,082 eot,
and descended into the bowl. Walking the seven
nnd a half mi'e across, she emerged through a
gap which really was a fissure in cooled lava.
Jack Iondon, Alice Roosevelt and a few other
nature lovers have made this SBme perilous trip.
And by the wav -it must be admitted that
dmd old Vesuvius, wbi,:h has smokod complacently
above tho Hay of Naples since Koine was in its
glory, is a clow rival for popularity with tho
Hawaiian mountain. Despite the nu.v activity of
Voauvius, which began last February, women al
most daily are climbing as hostile sides and peer
ing into the glowing crater. Since February a new
cone iias formed which ejects u stream of Java
30 feet wide and pours out masses of reddish
smoke and red-hot sini "s. The floor of the cra
ter, which i' yellow with -ulphur, is over a rpjar
tcr of a mile acus and nr-re tnan -00 feet deep.
Kilnuaa, nowever, has 61 craters, 22 of
which constantly emit columns of gray smoke.
Vertical walls of brilliant flame rise from their
pltr. And though the height of the mountain
Is no greater than that of Vesuvius, the crater Is
2000 feet across and its circumferenro five and a
half milos. And despite the terrible play of light,
and swirling clouds of smoke, gases and steam,
the crater always is traversable ebout tho edges
of the nVrv lakes and streams of tnolUn lava.
This accounts for the popularity of tho mountain
as n gHthuring place for travelers.
An interesting comparison between Vesuvius
and Kilauea liss been made by n scientist.
"The crater of Vesuvius may be accessible af tar
an eruption, hut as a usual thing there is aeh
a heavy discharge of vapor and cinders long be
fore the lime that descending the bowl is impossi
ble. Kilauea always is aeeeHHiblo.
"Kven before an eruption one may stanJ on
the brink nf the great pit and watch the boiling
caldrons and ."weeping lava floods and blowing
cones. So set are the courses of the lava strvaina
that tho crater may be traveled with safety ami
camping places may be made at the edges . ' tlw
fierv lakes, if the heat is not too jrrt."
Kilauea, besides being the mu&t spectacular
and continuously active volcano on earth, is like
wise a marvelous storage-dump of chemicals, TJio
vaporj emitted by the liquid lavas are composed
largely of steam, according to reports of investi
gators, with very little smoko. Sulphurous add
is the mrwt common of the vapors next to water.
It has the odor of burning sulphur. Hydrogen
escapes with the liquid lava, released by the ae
liun of extreme heat on watur. Chlorine is emitUd
when uea water finds aic-sa to the lava column,
leaving chlorides as incrustati ms oi. the lavas,
among which are common salt and iron chloride.
Hydrogen sulphide likewise U found, s we)
as carbonic acid, hydrochloric acid and nitrogen.
I'yrito, matcasite and iron sulpnides in the rocks
bolow the crater are believed to be the source Of
sulphur nnd its gases.
In caverns about Kilauea sulphates are pre
duced by oscaping gases. Gypsum, hydrous alumi
num sulphate and aluminum sodium sulphate,
glaubcr salt and blue vitriol are loposita of tho
gases, which chungu the rocks to earth.