Newspaper Page Text
DMtttfeer 14, ifli
REMOVING A LARGE BRANCH
Cut Should Be Made Parallel With
Main Stam From Which On la
To Bo Rtmovad.
(By VT. B. TIIOnKHKIl, Washington.)
In tho removal of largo branches
from old or bearing trees always mike
the cut parallel with tho branch or
main item from which tho one la re
moved. Thla frequently means a
larger wound than It would make If
(he cut la made at right angles to tho
limb that la to bo removed, but such
wounds will heal quicker and are leas
Injurloua to tho tree than the much
Cutting Off Large Branches.
1. Proper method of removing a
?. Branch broken down from cut
3. Dead stub left to rot back.
4. Slump of branch left by bad
5. Same three years later.
6. Decay resulting from bad prun
7. Cemented cavity.
8. Tinned cavity.
9. Burlaped cavity.
mailer ones that leave tho collar of
tho branch to bo covered with healing
tlssin. I)o not hcsltnto to remove
largo useless or superfluous limbs
from trees, but always make smooth
rleun cuts with it saw, and If neces
tary to prevent splitting the stem or
peeling the bark, make two cuts tho
first from six to twelve Inches out
from where the limb is to be Anally
cut off. Nothing can be applied to the
wound to hasten the healing.
PROPER GRADING OF APPLES
One Excellent Method Is to Construct
Wooden Trough With Different
An excellent method of grading ap
ples Is described by Ray Malcolm In
the Farm and Fireside as follows:
Hake a trough, mounted on legs.
lth ft receiving box as shown In
Grad the Apples.
drawing. Cut two holes, one larger
than the other, In trough. These boles
grnde the apples by letting small ones
drop through first hole, second or
medium ono through second hole.
while largo onea roll out at end of
trough. Tho trough must bo mounted
high enough so aa not to tire the op-
etntor, for ono person will lmvo to
1 keep tho large and medium-sized ap
ples out of tho small hole and tho
large out of the medium hole. This
can bo accomplished best by reach'
tug band under trough and knocking
apples up out of the boles.
Food Value of Fruit.
Here are a few facts worth consid
ering. Uaked apples are more nutrl
tlous than bakod potatoes, and will
produce more work. Dates, prunes,
tigs, nprlcola and raisins are dried
fruits always avalluble. Instead or
looking upon them aa merely supple
mental to food like confectionery
we should remember that they nre
really umocg the most healthful, pal
atable and concentrated of vegetaMe
Among fresh fruits, bananas, ap
ples, figs, grapes, blackberries, straw,
berries and oranges have decided food
value and may be used aa economical
Krarrea of nourishment.
Some Fruit Trees for Poultry,
It seems that there Is no doubt that
(be plum troe Is the fruit best suited
for the poultry yard. Frequently the
plum trees In the poultry yard are the
only ones on tho place that bear
crops. The benefit comes from the
destruction of every Insect that gets
on or tear lbs ground, either In fallen
fruit or otherwise. Then the fertility
distributed around tbe root furnishes
abundant avaftable food for all or the
Of course, pluv trees for tbu poul
try yard should be pruned high.
Three or foor feet for the first limb
will bt about right
I If I
4 b 0
CARE IN HANDLING APPLES
Fw People Appreciate Importance of
Preventing Bruins While Pick.
Ing or Packing.
(Hy fl. VAN HMITIt.)
Few peoplo ronllro tho Importance
or Handling apples with car while
picking, packing and marketing. Ap
pics are bruised very easily, and cs
pcclally those varieties having a ten
dor flesh or skin, nrulsea mean not
only an unattractive appoarance, but
a real waste of fruit by having to
cut out tho bruised tissue. Probably
tho greatest damage from bruises
however, results from tho fact that
tho bruises furnish an entranco for
fungus or rot spores. These spores,
or - fungus seeds," are aa line as
dust and float In tho air. If they
happen to lodge on a bruised or
broken spot on the apple, they" take
root and grow and spread through
tho apple, causing It to rot. Wrap
ping or covering tho apple may not
always protect It, as the spores may
have lodged on tho apple before It
was picked. However. If tho skin
and flesh of the applo can be kept
Intact and not bruised or broken
there la not much danger of the fun
gus or rot finding Its way Into the
To prevent bruising, apples should
not be dropped or thrown Into
bucket, box, or barrel, nnd In pour
Ing from one vessel to another care
should be taken that tho apples aro
as closo as possible to the bottom
of tho vessel In which you aro plac-
Ing them before the pouring begins
KILL THE PEACH BORER NOW
Do Not Walt Until Spring, for Then
Eggs Will Be Hatched and Inteetc.
!!) W. II. UNDHHWOOD.)
(Jo to your blacksmith with a ten
or tuelvo Inch flat fllo nnd have five
or six Inches of tho small cud mado
Into tho shapo of a sharp-pointed knlfo
blndo with one sldo of the blade flat
and tho other half round.
lloth edges of tho blado must bo
Ilcnd this blado to a crescent shape.
with the flat side on the Inside of the
bend. Put a good handle on nnd you
have an Instrument with which you
can sit down to a tree and scrapo nIT
sides of It without moving. Tho dl
amctcr of this bend should be at least
three Inches. '
After the first frosts, go through
tho peach orchard with thla little
Fllo for Scraping Tree and Half
Instrument, scraping the bodtea of the
trees at least two Inches from tho sur
face of the ground.
A small diamond or half-dlamood
shaped hoe, with a handle not over
two feet long, Is another tool you
must havo to get over the trees
In the late fall, most all eggs have
hatched out, and most of the little
grubs will be between the earth and
bark, within a few Inches of the top
of the soil. In scraping the rough bark
or outside of the bark of the tree.
you will get 95 per cent, of them.
In the spring go over the trees
again. In three or four days after
going over the trees tho second time.
go over them a third time. Then
you can readily seo all you havo
mtiscd the second going over. In the
third going over draw the soil back
to the trees, leaving tho dirt a little
the lowest at tho baso of the trees.
When tho apples ore stored see that
not a slnglo rotten one is Included.
All our small fruits are benefited by
some alight protection during the win
ter. Raspberries are best protected by
covering with clean straw or marsh
Hum tho trash raked from tho gar
den and orchard. Fire Is a sure rem
edy for bugs.
It Is usually better to protect rasp
berries over winter by burying In the
soil In the mora northern localities.
If you have not already done so you
should go over the orchard and rake
up every rotten apple on the ground,
haul them away from tho orchard and
The secret of dwarfing Is to starve
the trees. Tho Japanese produce oaks
of great age but which are so amall
that thoy can be held In one band like
an ordinary houso plant.
If dead and unsightly limbs have
not been taken off the trees, now la
a good time to do so. Paint with
white lead the place from which the
limb came. Cut close to the tree, and
do a clean, smooth Job.
In tbe northwest the state experi
ment stations are working on tbe pro
duction of special dwarfed trees
for the prairie regions. Stand
ard stock Is grafted on certaU roots
ucb as very small growth n quince
or wild apple.
THREE HORSE EVENER FOR
Bl acksmith Furnishes Hitch
(.ration Which He litis Often Made and Will Answer
the Purpose For Which It Is Designed in
Three-Horse Evener for Wagon.
In reply to a query n dlngrnm of a
three-horse evener Is given, the Idea
being for two horses to wnlk In the
road nnd ono on the outside.
In the first place. If two horses arc
to work on ono side of the tongue
tlicro will be some side draft to be
equalized, hence thcro must bo some
way of doing this so that each horse
will be drawing his proportionate
sharo of the load. The accompanying
cut Illustrates tho appearance of the
evener, u portion of th tongue nnd
nxlo of tho wagon viewed from be
neath. II Is the axle. II Is' a block
of wood fastened utjder tho. hole
where the King pin conies through so
that tho Iron bar A will bo allowed to
move hack and forth under tho nxle,
freo from tho obstruction of any nuts
or bolts that nay bo there. Tho bar
A is a flat piece of Irou 2i to 3
Inches wide and onc-hnlf (o five-eighths
inches thick, fastened at-1 by means
of tho King pin being lengthened suf
ficiently and having a key In Itft end to
hold It in place. One arm of this bnr
A la twice as long as the other, good
lengths belcK twelve and six Inches,
FOR THE DAIRY
Youna Animals Need Milk for a
Whllo an Much aa lloblco and
to Keep Growing Must
(By Z. W. 1NUHAM, Pennsylvania.)
In order to raise cattle in the east
with any profit, or without loss, we
must have one or the other of the
beef breeds. The 8horthorn8, Here-
fords and Aberdeen Angus, ure all
good and each has Its admirers. 1
prefer the Shorthorns because the
cows are generally the better milk
Whatever others may think they
ran do, 'or havo done, I can't raise
good calves on dishwater, milk bIoj
and hay tea. Young calves need milk
for a while ns much ns babies and to
keep them growing right along they
must have it.
We prefer to havo our cows calve
In the fall, both on account of winter
dairying and for raising tbe calves
which If kept In a warm stable ilur
Ing the winter and fed milk, hay and
meal will sooner obtain the sizo most
profitable for their disposal to the
Our calvoo, when taken from their
mothers, are each provided with a
separate pen for convenience In feed
Ing so they need not fight for the
food bucket, rob each other of their
mess, or suck each others cars and
navels when done drinking.
The latter Is a vicious habit which
I hoy goon ncqulro when two or more
are penned together und unless pre
vented It soon causes a blemish on
Each calf Is provided with a feed
Ing bucket in a box which Is nailed
fast to the aide of tho pen. This pre
vents the bucket from being upset
and the milk spilled by the calves'
greedy butting, otherwise tbe feeder,
for safety, would have to stand and
hold It while the calves were drink
ing. As soon as Nvo begin feeding tbe
calves Bklm milk, which Is about ten
days after being taken from the cow,
a handful of wheat middlings Is put
Into the milk of each calf and the
calves are fed twice a day.
The quantity Is gradually Increased
until a pint or more can be fed to
advantago twice a day. After they
have become fond of tho middlings
it Is better to feed It to them dry In
stead of putting It Into the milk- so
that they will have to eat It slower
Instead of gobbling It down.
Oats, corn and rye ground together
make good feed for calves In addition
milk, but there Is more danger in
edlng this kind of meal than mid
dlings as It Is more likely to produce
diarrhoea or scours, A little flaxseed
meal will Improve tbe. ration and sup
ply the place of other foods.
llefore they are four weeks old
tbey are fed a little bay, or rowen,
In addition to their milk and meal.
There Is more danger of feeding too
much skint milk than too little, as
too liberal feeding of It Is apt to
bring on tbe scours.
Com calves can (land, nwro tho?
Shown In Accompanying Illus
respectively. J Is the point of attach'
mont for the ordlnnry wagon double
tree. Instcod of having tho ordinary
double-tree here, two pieces of flat
Iron, D nnd K are used, K being twice
as long as D. These two arms nrtl
culate at J, the wagon hammer hold
Ing them In place Instead of the dou
ble-tree. The diagram shows these to
bo fastened underneath the tonguo,
This In for greater clearness In illus
tration, lit practice they should rest
.on top of the tongue Just tho same as
tho ordlnnry doublc-trco. Tho two
rods, C, connect, D nnd B with the
bnr A, under the axle as shown. Tho
single-tree F fnstenes onto tho end of
D and tho double-tree O onto tho end
of E. Thus a hitch for three horaea
Is provided, the draft Is equalized
nnd there, are two horses on ono sldo
of tho tongue and one on the other.
A sickle bar from a cast' off mower
Is good material for the bar A. Show
this diagram to your blacksmith and
If. he is any good he ran make an even
er that will anawer the purpose splen
dldly, where three horses aro required
on the wngon.
others, hut about five quarts at a
mess twice a day -is enough for any
calf If It Is supplied with hay, meal
Wo provide our calves with water
after they liavoidrunk their milk nnd
Rive them nil they want. Skim milk
should bo warmed to blood heat be
fore feeding to young calves.
Fed to calves, tbo milk makes them
grow faster nnd pays as wall as
when fed to pigs. They are provided
with a shelter In the pasture to go
under when It storms or the sun is
hot nnd they nppreciate It highly.
AatomoToiIe Plow la Invented Toy
Kansas Man Plowafaarea
Held Down to Worltby
In describing a recent Invention ot
Oliver II. Lincoln and Edsou 0. Park'
hurst ot Brownell, Kan., the Scientific
This invention, the sectional view ot
which Is Illustrated herewith, relates
to automobile plows, and it has for its
object to provide one, with traction
wheels disposed near tho front and at
all times times in the same position
relatively to tho engine, whether the
plow Is being driven in a straight lino
or la being turned to one side or the
other, tbe plow-shares being dlsposod
under the engine and being held down
to their work by the weight thereof.
By a movement of a lever the plow
shares may be moved up or down to a
position where they will engage tbe
earth and will do the general work de
sired, these plow-shares being secured
to the lower frame having the trans
Necessary for Good Shelter,
The birds must have access to
shelter during the rainy weather. A
thorough soaking when they are
nearly bare of feathers, la apt to re
sult In an attack of roup, or cause
chill that may throw tbe bird
back for weeks. Hut the ben that
gets through tbe molt early and
quickly will almost Invariably prove
a good winter layer.
Relief for Ingrowing Feather.
Sometimes wlieu a fowl Is thick in
tbe uiolt It will be seeu constantly
pecking at one particular place on
Its body. This may be caused by one
or more of the new feathers falling to
pais through the skin and cuuriuf!
If a needle Ik passed under the cov
ered end of the feather, It will t.able
It ty be drawn above tbe skin.
Five Great Schools Under Gne Managemeit
PGR THE ASPIRING YOUNG PEOPLE Of
What Arc Year Talent T
What nre Year Alms?
Bcrca Has the Training That la Best Par TOO.
'Are yen not far advanced? Then enter the
FOUNDATION SCHOOL, Thos. A. Edwards, Superintendent. Her ft
WlU be placed with other llko yourself, under a special teacher, sad aaaa
ssoet rapid progress. Tou will master Arlthmetio and the eomao
branches and be ready to use them. You will have singing, drawing, tana
and household management, and free textbooks. One year la Use reus
elation School costs less than 190 and le worth $1,000.
Are you aiming to be a teacher? Then Join the
NORMAL SCHOOL, John Wirt Dl'nsmore, Dean. Hero you wtU be m
trained that you will fear so examination, and you will be taught hew te
teach. The demand for Oerea trained teachers tar exceeds the supply.
Are you Interested in earning money!
THE VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS, Miles E. Marsh, Dsarv
MeunUIn Agriculture. Home Science.
Woodwork and Carptntry. Nursing.
Printing and Book-Binding. Bualnste Course, Ete.
Here you soon double your earning- power, and learn to enjoy defeat
things la a superior manner.
Are you desiring the next best thin to a College Course? The take
two years or three years in the
GENERAL ACAOEMY COURSE. Franole B. Matheny, Dean. Tw
Tears, or three years, In such practical studies as will fit you for aa hones
able and useful life. Tou select your studies from auch as these: PhyasV
ology tho science ot health; Civics the science ot government; Oramnaa)
the art ot correct speech and letter-writing; Ethics the science of tiga
and wrong; History necessary for politics, law and general Intelligence)
Botany necessary for tho doctor and Interesting to every lady; Physios
the science of machinery; Drawing, Bookkeeping, etc, etc.
Do you wish to prepare to enter College? 8 tart tn the
BEREA ACADEMY PREPARATORY COUR3E8, Francis E. Maths.
Dean. Beat training In Mathematics, Languages, Science and History. Tact
Academy has Its own class-rooms and Men's Dormitory, and a large body
of students of high character and ability, able Instructors, and use eC Cak
Vege Library and apparatua
The College Itself stands apart from all the other schools ander its resrsr
aurement and has long maintained the highest standards known in the Sou Us.
To conform to tho Carnegie standards wc have diminished our former re
quire mental Required and elective studies wrth opportunity to oonceatratev
tn particular lines. Largest coll ego library hi Kentucky. Leboratorteev
equipped for etudect practice. Courses leading to the degrees of A. B, Bu
B, D. U, and D. Fed.
MUSIC (Singing Free). Rood Organ, Voice Culture, Piano, Theoryi
Band, may b taken for special tees In connection with work la any of the)
Berea, Friend of Working Students. Berea .College, with Its affiliate!
schools, Is jnot a money-making Institution.' It requires certain fees, baaV
It expends many thousands ot dollars each) year for the benefit ot Its sttv
denta, giving highest advantages at lowest cost, and arranging for students'
to earn and save In every way.
OUR 8CH00L 18 LIKE A FAMILY, with careful regulations to protaea
the character and reputation of tho
the best families and are earnest to
be sick the College provides doctor and nurse without extra charge.
All except those with parents la Berea live in College buIlcUngaV
aaslst In work of boarding hall, farm and shops, receiving valuable traba
Ing, and getting pay according to tho value ot their labor. Except ta. wis,
ter It le expected that all will have a chance to earn a part of their aaaJ
pensea 'Write to the Secretary before coming to secure employes eat. '
PERSONAL EXPENSES for clothing, laundry, postage, books, eta, vsrr
with different people. Berea favors plain clothing-. Our climate la the tct.
but. a students must attend classes regardless of the weather, wans Wraps,
and underclothing, umbrellas, and overshoes are necessary. The Co-eperav-
live store rurniines Doom, toilet articles, work untrorme, umbrellas
other necessary articles at cosL
LIVING EXPENSE8 are really below coat The College asks m
for the fine buildings In which students live, charging only enouga
rant f n iu, for HMtilnr rnaJl-a ffl1.
towels. For table board, without coffee or extras, 11.35 a week. In the fall,
and $1.60 In winter. For furnished room, with fuel, lights, washing ot seeV
dlng, 40 to 10 cents for each person.
SCHOOL FEES are two. First a "Dollar Deposit," as guarantee tear
return of room key, library books, tc This is paid but once, and Is return)
when the student departs.'
Second an "Incidental Fe" to help on expenses for care ot school bulleV
lngs. hospital, library, etc. (Students pay nothing for tdltlon or services of
teachers all our Instruction Is a free gift). The Incidental Fee for most
students Is 15.00 a term, $6.00 in Academy and Normal, and $7.00 la Colle
PAYMENT MUST BE IN ADVANCE, Incidental fee and room rent trjr
the term, board by the halt term. Installments are as follows:
and l'oundatton Academy
FALL TERM School. and Normal Collec-
Incidental Foe $ B.00 $ 6.00 $ 7.'
Room B.60 7.00 7M
Board. 7 weeks 9.45 MS .4
Amount due Sept. 13, 1911 ,...$20.05 $22.46 $X3.4.
Board 7 weeks, due Nov. 1, 1911....... 9.45 9.45 .4t
Total for term $29.50 $31.90 $32.M
If psld In sdvance $29.0O S31.40 I4Z4B'
Incidental Fee $ E.00 f 6.00 $ 7.tv
Rosea (.00 7J0 TJ
JU-d, 6 weeks 9.00 9.00 9M
Amount due Jan. 3, 1912 $20.00 $12.20 $113
Board 6 weeks, due Feb. 14, 1912 9.00 9.0S I.
Total for term $29.00 $31.20 $3M6
If paid In advance $28.60 $30.70 $I1J
Incidental lee $ $.00 f 6.00 $ Uf
Room 4.00 CjOQ sV
Board. 6 weeks 6.7t $.7$ 6.7
Amount due March VI. 1911 $16.76 $17.75 $1S.TS
Board 6 weeks, due May L 1912 6.76 6.71 S.7B
Total for Una $2SJ$ II4.Se $MBB
Hssldlnsdvanee... S2S.N S24JM fJaBB.
Plan Now, Come Jamtary 3d
Any able-bodied young man or young woman can get an educatlem air
Berea If there is the will to do so.
It is a great advantage to start In
tlnuous study. Many young people waste time In tbe public schools go
ing over and over the same things, when tbey mlgbt be Improving asaeat
faster by coming to Berea and. starting
best young men and women from other
Make your plans to come January
For Information or friendly advice
D. WALTER MORTON, erea, ky,
young people. Our students come fr
do well and Improve. For any who i
ttvtita n vaiKIrr rt Kjllnv
the Fall and have a full year of eeav
In on new studies with some of Ua
counties and States.
write tc the Secretary.