Newspaper Page Text
True Scope of Government' Agrlcul
tural Experiment Stations I Not
(By a P. Adorns, Acting Director, Ar
kansas Experiment Station.)
An Agricultural Experiment Station
Is primarily a rcsoarch Institution;
secondarily, ono for tho dissemination
of knowledge, rclatlvo thereto. Its
object is to study tho underlying prln
clples Involved In tho science of ng
rlculturo and then to placo tho rosults
of such study nt tho disposal of tho
The experiment station In its func
tion as a research Institution, Is often
misunderstood. This Is because tho
term "research" Is an unknown quan
tity with a great many people. Two
often a "test" Is looked upon ns being
a piece of research, while in reality
it is something far different. A test
docs' not' yield nbsoluto knowledge,
but places the tester in a frame of
mind to believe that something is
going to happen Just because it did
once before. It doos not tell him that
something is compelled to take placo
If nature's energies are properly!
brought to bear on each other. Tho
latter U what research does. It gives
to man a law and dispenses with the
services of tests, trials, etc., which
occupy tlmo. Tests, however, have
their part to play and will be consid
ered In connection with my treatment
of the dissemination of useful knowl
edge. The idea of research carries -with
It, necessarily, that of unsolved prob
lems, and aa tho primary function of
a station Is one' of research, It should
be organized and sustained accord
ingly., Investigators of tho highest
type 'are' absolute essentials, as they
are really the foundation upon which
an experiment station rests. Flno
buildings and structures aro beauti
ful to behold, but they give up no se
crets. Good farms will always yield
crops, even under untoutorcd tillage,
as nature Is unrelenting with her en
ergies, but Just how and why they do,
she remains silent How nature util
izes her energies is tho problem for
the Investigator so that man can
take better adrantage or her re
sources. To win success his prepara
tion must be of the best. Nature is
Just. as obstinate In denying man her
secrets as she is untiring In her ef
forts to feed his hungry body.
Demand 'for Investigators Is Growing.
To answer this, fundamental re
quirement of research the demand for
investigators is becoming greater:
every year. Part of the federal ap
propriation, tho Adams fund,, can bo
used only for tho highest grade of
research work, and It the stations'
efforts do not measuro up to that
standard tho fund, reverls fo the Uni
ted States treasury. It behooves col
leges to lay special stress on the
training of Investigators, otherwise
the fundamental requirement of the
experiment stations will not be an
swered. To this end I quoto from a
recent report by the Commission on
'Tho development of research effort
has not been symmetrical and log'
leal. Adequately trained men havo
not been provided In sufficient num
ber to expend in the way of capable
Investigation the entire . amounts of
national and stato appropriations that
have, been applied to agricultural re
search. This Is" ono of tho reasons
why the moro difficult agricultural
problems havo so largely remained
"As to this matter, we may quoto
from a personal letter of a well
known Investigator: 'The demand fir
agricultural research has been great
er than the supply of men capable
of carrying on research or education
al work. Tho agricultural colleges
and the agencies of research havo
been created by law, but tho law
cannot create men. The agricultural
ff colleges have developed a consider
I able proportion of undertralced men,
without poise or sustained Judgment,
and. -Under the.se conditions the, per
sonal element enters Into the work
of the stato and national Institutions,
and In the majority of cases most or
the difficulties arising in tho field
iaybe traced to the personal equa
tion'' or Inadequate men."
"It Is hero that tho standards of
education have a direct and Imme
diate relation to tho quality of re
search effort. In thoso colleges of
agriculture in which high educational
standards are maintained, tho various
forms of agricultural research aro In
general,' of high character, corre
ipondteg to tho moro elovated char
icteriof tho academic administra
tion. , A debasement of educational
Ideas reacts with certainty upon the
work, of scientific Inquiry. In theso
matters college authorities aro some-1
tlmBS helpless In the face of unin
formed Dooular opinion, which ratet
tho Yftluu ot an Institution by the
number of names in ' s catalogue."
Investigator is Not Merely a curio.
Tho Investigator, after being pro
duced, cannot, howevor, work empty
handed. If, a roal luvostlgator Is the
priceless possession ot a state, he it
not to bo considered a curio, nor be
merely tho recipient ot high admira
tion. He Is In greater neod ot a lab
oratory whcroln to carry on his In
vesications; or a farm whereon to
extend his research, nnd his time
should not bo taken up by routine
duties: cheaper mon can attend to
Whlto the station should search for
new truths, yot Its obligation to the
farmer Is to present to him facts at
ready worked out, and this dlssoml
nit Ion ot knowledge should bo car
ried on In such n way as to bo oi
Immedlato and greatest value. In
fact, tho greatest needs of most oi
our experiment stations at present
aro ways and means for the diffusion
of facts among peoplo whoso taxes
create and maintain them.
Thcro nro three methods by which
tho station can placo Itself Into true
co-relation with tho farmer; first,
demonstration work; second, farmora'
Institutes, and third, bulletins, nows-
papor articles, etc. All of these moth
ods, named In order of their Impor
tance, may bo known collectively at
Until recent years bulletins, and an
occasional Iccturo by a Btatlon man,
wero tho only means ot Imparting
useful knowlcdgo to tho farmer. Ex
perience has taught tho station, how
ever, that bulletins are poor convey
ors ot Information, ns compared with
actual demonstration. Tho nverags
man would much rather sco some
thing than read about It; so a woll
conducted demonstration In a commu
nity Is of, moro value than all that
printers' Ink and verbal Juggling can
bestow. Co-operation with Individual
farmers themselves is tho Ideal and
only wny for an experiment station
to servo its constituents. It might
seem a great undertaking to start
co-operation of this kind, but expe
rience teaches tho practicability ol
Farmers Will Co-operate. .
In every community is to bo found
a man who Is willing to placo bit
dairy, Acid or orchard at tho disposal
of the experiment station, provided
the latter furnishes plans. Informa
tion and all guldanco necessary for
the proposed demonstration. The
building of a dairy barn, under the
Immediate supervision ot a man fron
tho experiment station. Is far bctte
than long-dlstanco communication
through bulletins. Tho establishment
of proper crop rotation! tho conduct.
Ing ot orchard planting and its sub
sequent caro, or tho development ol
auy phase of agrlculturo can bo. car
rlcd on directly between the farmer
and the cxporiment station, Every
community should have a demonstra
tion farm of some kind. j
Around this tho institute work
should center. In order that the In
formation reach tho greatest number.
Here the station man should cxpToln
why such and such things are carried
on In certain manners on the demon
stration farpj. After this, the bulle
tin then serves its purposo by being
a ready reference, wherein tho farm
er can look up details. The old meth
od of putting a bulletin Into the field
and demonstrate some fact, either
through tests, rotation plan or
spraying procedure; then. In the
farmers' institute, all these things
should bo carefully explained. This
renders tho bulletin more intelligible.
To properly perform its function!
and meet its obligations an 'experi
ment, station needs two sots ot men.
Ono of theso carries on tho Investi
gations and other disseminates useful
knowlcdgo among tbo peoplo. Men
ot tho latter group should have most
of their tlmo to bo In different parts
of tho I state organizing Institutes ..and
permanent instltututes of various
kinds. They should carry on co-operative
work with farmers in tho several
districts, nnd in any and every way
posslblo distribute practical Informa
tion wherever it might bo needed,
Nearly everybody could profitably
keep a few chickens, and there would
bo plcasuro In It for all who" have a
fondness for birds and other animal
life; If tho work was dono properly.
Tho usual excuse Is that chickens
are too much trouble Perhaps they
aro when kept the way most pjoplc
keep them on town lots, Tho fault
gonorally lies with tbo method of the
brecdor Instead ot with tho chickens.
Thcro Is no excuse for tho filthy, ill
smelling yards and houses, nnd whor
over these aro found thoy aro. an evi
dence ot laziness or neglect upon the
part of tho owner. There Is nothing
tedious or laborious about the work,
but thcro are Uttlo things (bat must
bo dono dally, and If theso aro done
at tho propor time tho fowls need not
bo anything other than a pleaeure
and a profitable sldo lino.
Thojo must bo no guesswork about
feeding tho calf. Tho stomach of
the young, colt is easily ruiued by
illpieKJuetho4s of, feeding. Think
f thlji when tomnted to feed milk
that is too hot r too cold In a bucket
that Is not afc clean and swcot as !t
ihould b it ' -V' ,, , ..
Milk that sticks to thQ aides of tho
lli.iWbecees sour is a bad propo
iWw!Tw It way 'cause an, attack of
MtXitfAra.'l Thl trouble., means a
WMk ltl the calf's growth, perhaps
rttt(4 caf)(ad loathe pndan anl
tuil of HtU'e value.
Trees Killed By Pungt.
In extremely warm countries It not
infrequently occurs that lichens gir
dle fruit trees und -Wit thorn. It Js
usually tho citrus orchards that suf
fer greatest, but no kind of fruit
bearing trees enjoy, ontlro Immunity
from these ' parasitical vegetable
growths. ' '
This disease Js no(t contagious to
other trees, even 'those 'growing very
close by, and this (a' said to - be. .the
first caso ou record la southern Cal
fornla, " '
On& of tbc First Req
uisites for Hsfclfcb
A certain well-known society girt
who la noted for the freshness ot her
complexion nnd tho general air ot rest
fulness and well bolng that seems to
emanate from her was recently asked
to tell tho secret ot how sho managed
to keep so well. She answered non
chalantly; "I Just sleep nnd I sleep right."
Naturally, for words aroused aomo
curiosity, and a discussion followed ns
to Just what was meant by tho words
"sleeping right." After listening for
sotno tlmo to the conjectures and
questions of tho group ot girls with
whom sho was conversing, tho girl
whoso careless words had sot tho ball
ot conversation rolling condescended
"In tho first place," she said. "I
sleep with tho windows open. Noth
ing Is worse for ono's health and good
looks than alcoplng In a room where
tho windows aro closed and the air Is
Impure. Then I sleep on a bed that
Is hard rather than soft. Too soft a
bed Is enervating.
"Then I sleep on a pillow that Is
hard and small. I am careful to bo
warmly covered, but I bavo tho cover
ings light ot weight and pllabto. 11 Is
better to havo lighter covert and
moro of them than two or thrco heavy
horse blankets that tiro the body
merely by resting on it.
"No matter how late I cot home, I
always follow out a regular program
before I nm settled for tho .night I,
first of all, take a warm bath. Then
I rub down well with Turkish towels.
When I nm all aglow I slip on gown
ana bathrobe, put my feet Into warm
slippers, and then drink a cup of hot
milk and cat a cracker or two.
."Next I massage my face for about
flvo minutes with cold cream. I put
another flvo minutes Into tho work of
brushing my hair vigorously. Then
I am ready for bed, clean, warm, and
well fed, and with a comfortable sense
of having performed every duty that
I should have performed.
"I know that sometimes ono feels
too tired to get ready to sleep right
Ono comes homo fagged out. and the
ono thought In tho mind Is to get Into
bed as quickly as Is possible. This
Is all wrong. I have dono this and
have found that after I was onco un
der the covers I was Incapable ot
sleeping. I was cold, nervous, and
hnd a wretched feeling that my face
was dirty and my hair tousled. After
a fow ot theso nights I made' up my
mind that, no matter how late tho
hour or how tired I felt, I would get
ready for bed in a proper manner and
"As a rule, I sleep about nine hours.
and I find that I do not feel right un
less I get fully this much ros't.,. Sleep
Is not only tho power that keeps me
well and full ot energy, It la my. medi
cine No matter how poorly I am
feeling, a good, sound sleep will usual
ly set me right"
This girl has, In reality, solved tho
problem ot right living. Physicians
agreo that sleep does moro tor the
human body than any other one thing.
Therefore, If a woman would bo beau
tiful, and well, and a pleasant person
to have about, alio must sleep and
HOLDER FOR THE HATPINS.
Adornment for Room In Cheaply-Made
An attractive hatpin holder which
may bo cheaply made, yet Is quite an
adornment to a girl's room, is concoct
ed from a Ions. spool. These may bo
ot any desired alzo, but thoso which
hold baby ribbon nro bust
Tho rims of tho spools aro finished
In gold or silver paint and tho body
covered with a gay bit of brocado, or
a bit ot silk hand-painted or embroid
ered. As thoro Is no strain on tho
outer part ot tho spoon, the covering
can easily bo pasted.
Narrow ribbons aro tied to each end
to form a loop by which tho holdor is
suspended. These aro finished at the
top with a small rofcettc. Through (bo
heart of tho spool Is thrust a core of
cork or of wool, through which tho
hatpins aru easily stuck from either
Water In which boots hare been
cooked and to which a tablespbonful
pf alcohol has been added is tho only
harmless rouge. Tho January Dellno
ator. " f -
Slarjt Has Been Atan
doncd for a straight
Fancy lamp shades havo assumed nn
almost straight aide lino Instead of the
slant which onco characterized theso
dainty trifles of silk, brocade nnd flow
ers. Among tho newest French shades
Is ono resembling a section of n cylln
dcr having the uutaldo covered with
Milan loco, In a rich yellow tint with
a lining of roso-colorcd silk. Tiny rose
satin flowers border tho top, which Is
finished with nn edge or gold laco with
frlngo added to tho bottom. Each
quarter of tho shado has n vertical row
of tiny silk roses reaching Its entlro
height. Theso aro placed. In douhlo
rows In rather a conventional stylo
without giving a stiff look to tho use
Fur a dlnnor tablo shade there la
nothing moro attractive and pleasing
than ono of rose-colored silk fulled
over tho framo and with a narrow gilt
galloon at tho upper and lower edges.
Then over tho shirred silk goes a lat
tice of narrow gold ribbon with gold
sequins holding the Intersections of
the ribbons together.
Gold passemcntcrlo Imparts a dainty
touch to a dlnnor enndio shade which
has tho frame covered with gold-col
ored silk shirred on rather full and tho
top nnd bottom edges finished with
gilt laco. Festoons of tiny gilt roses
add a rich touch to this ornament. Tho
flowers nro draped In shallow curves,
with long dangling fringes or ropes ot
roses trailing down the frame, whom
tho festoons nro caught up to the top
or tho shado.
Flowered silk ribbon or material by
the yard can be contorted Into most
delightful lamp shade by shirring n
width or length of it over a firm wire
framo and lining tho shado with a thin
plain-colored silk. lloforo sewing on
tho passcmentcrlo a short silk fringe
can be fastened around tho bottom and
then an Incb-wldo silk or gilt galloon
ho sowed ofer this, with passemen
terie ornaments decorating tbo upper
part at Intervals.
For a moro elaborate and less sub
stantial shado they are using tullo
shirred very full over silk with fringes
for tho bottom and passementerie trim'
mlng tho top In a deep band. The een'
ter ot the shado Is decorated with
handsomo paxscmeiitcrie In an arbor
effect, nnd tho whole shado Is then
lined with rose or gold silk. Thcro aro
fow colors suitable tor this purpose;
rich yellows, rose pinks and cream col
or produco vory good effects.
Hats ar nearly all dark.
The hlpless girl la In the holght of
Ilodlcea aro absolutely flat nnd close-
Skirts nro long, narrow and high
Tho vest Is an important featuro
this winter. - 1
Hairpins with tho open arched tons
aro most stylish.
Um aro for tho most part long, and
flat, and straight
Children's whlto fur hats sound a
wido rango of style.
Tho slipper Is colored to matoh or
contrast with tho gown.
Whlto fur of every sort and kind will
be much worn tho coming winter.
Plaids seem to be the favorlto wear
for schoolgirls, both largo nnd small.
Women's calling cards bavo changed
slightly In shape and aro now almost
The Bow Under the Chin.
At small evening affairs whero
slightly low gowns aro worn there has
como about a pretty fashion of wear
ing a band or colorod velvot ribbon
around tho neck.
This Is tied in n small flat bow di
rectly under the chin, fllrls who havo
good features and woll shaped faces
should wear It, but it is rrther trying
to thoso who havo not.
It Is directly copied from tho old
Ilouchcr pictures and was adopted by
the women ot that day. It is prettier
when worn with a gown that Is not
vory low, and It goes well with a
slightly Bquaro neck.
It must bo tied nt the vory lop of
tho neck. It put nt tho base It de
stroys tho linos from eartlp to shoulder.
. Thero Is uulto a fashion for wearing a wide trlnlo bow of soft satin or
si Ivor or, gilt gauze in tbo lislr. This sketch shows Just how thin. Is adjusted.
The'doubld flllof is of tbln sliver and' goos 'Half way round. the head,' bringing
the triple bow of- silver gauze at tho eldo of thohoad back ot the ear. This If
a very pretty ornament, and" la usually most becoming to any girlish faco,
ON WILD CABOOSE
HEJHES A TRAIN
CONDUCTOR SWINGS ABOARD AND
WARNS ONCOMINQ FLYER IN
NICK OF TIME.
Denver, Col. Conductor William
McCoy of the Denver & Illo flrnndo
road, become tho hero of a thrilling
rldo over La Vein Pass tho other
morning. Hoarding a runaway ca
booso ns it passed Wnlsonburg stn
linn, going nt thn rato of SO miles nn
hour and Raining momentum every
moment, ho saved a passenger tram
McCoy was In tho depot when he
heard tho sound ot tho approaching
car. Thinking part of tho trnln which
ho had como In on, and which ho had
left to be switched, had broken loose,
He Wat Madly Signaling. the Oncom
ho ran out nnd saw tho caboose com
Ing down tbo track. Quick aa thought
ho remembered that a paaaengcr train
was coming In within a few minutes,
and that the flying caboose waa on
tho same track.
Ho took his' life In bis hands and
swung on the runaway car. He tried
to put on the brakes, but was tinatio
(o. Something had given way, which
accounted for the car breaking loose.
At tho samo instant that ho learned ot
tho brake's failure to work he aaw thn
distant light of the passenger train
coming up tho divide.
In a brief second he had taken the
lantern from tho rear of tbo caboose
and waa madly signaling the oncoming
Engineer Henthorno or tho iassen
ger train saw the signals, stopped his
train, and began to back up with all
The wild caboose gained on tho en
glno as' both neared the Junction, but
tho train reached safety In tlmo tor n
brakeman to Jump off nud throw tho
switch, permitting tho caboose to take
the Y toward Trinidad.
On tho V track It soon struok the
heavy grndo on Tuna bill nnd stopped
Tho passengers on tbo train did not
know tho danger until it was all over.
Then they realized Hint only tho pros
ence of mind of Conductor McCoy and
the prompt notion ot Engineer Hen'
thorno hail prevented what would
probably huvo been a aevcro disaster.
FIGHT PERILS DIVER'S LIFE.
Two Men Stop Pumping Air to Worker
In River, Dut He Is Saved.
New York. Left without air be
causo tho two men whoso duty It waa
to pump It to him had atopiwd work
to fight each other, George Smith, a
diver, barely encared death 60 feet un
dor tho surface ot tho East river the
other day. He was revived with diffi
culty after bolng hauled out of the
water, llenjamln Parkins, one ot the
combatants In thn fight, is in a hos
pital with a' fractured skull, wbllo his
assailant. Thomas Itussell, la under
arreat charged with folonlous assault
Smith was working on the hull of
tho sunken sound steamer II. M.
Whitney. A disagreement between
Itussell and Parkins, who were work
ing tbo air pump, was followed, ac
cording to tho police, by Hussoll grabi
blng a plcco of Iron plpo and striking
Parkins on the hcud. Parkins full un
conscious nnd Hussoll leaped ovwr-
board and swam nway..
Moanwhllo tho diver, deprived ot
nlr, was holpless and momentarily in
danger ot death. Somo tlmo elapsed
beforo thoso on tho dredgo realized
his plight. Then two men Jumped to
tho pump and others signaled tho
dlvor. Thoy got no rosjionse and fran
tically began hauling Smith to tho
surface. Finally tho dlvor was draggod
out of tho water.
Smith afterward said his sensations
ps the nlr supply failed wero horrible.
When ho felt the air falling ho sig
naled to his mates above, (lotting no
reply on tho signal rope, bo watted to
be drawn up, but felt the awful pres
sure bearing him down. Just as be
waa about to "go- to sleep," aa ho ex
pressed It, ho full the air renewed,
hat waa unable to reply to any signals.
Hairy .Hermit Is Captured.
Khamokln. Pa. State police cap
tured Jojeph Mahunsky ou tho moun
tilna with whiskers 18 Inches long and
hair ou l is head hanging almost to his
'dices. He wan warmly clad with
rough looking apparel. Ho said ho was
a hermit and lived In the woods be
tween horo nnd Mahony City tho paat
year, cxlitiug ou route nud herbs.
I .A I AICIII 111 lit...
f IsaaaaaaaaaM MiV. .
Mil WILLIAM A mr r.
Third A. M !. E
''I have brer, r
In tho head for tit; t- iV?0'1
- - - -- .....hi... ,4 r ...
dim wltlinnl hm i -Q
l ... ... 1 k-si
enMS Itaelf, but fr jr
. ! havo used t v j t , T?
!.. I. u.t-- ... .
111711. CHIT -,.
Mr. A Tli..,. . - ii .
.MUIIVI, llllt,, 11 CI, . ll
and was sore and t a" ,.
.-i, in iiiKiii tin n tci
Bmn ing aim ipuimg.
"I Jiau n ii-ii w r
nWit to irlvo nr. lt ' V.
a. ' ' " k--.il
irr i enma.
"Aftrr I lin.l fnVrn .1 .. ,
H. MILLia 1 llfill -f'tl mi - t
with catarrh for e 3 ',.-f 3 1
"I think If 11.
with calami x . J t v ,
vrntiui never regret t "
Peruna Is maa-.-'a,-,;i4 U
K your tiruetltl lar mfn.
Almanac tor iyuv.
I Jab 111 h . t- n
m r mmm s?
Um. I thllllM tht Kb It.
lal.l -I -
uiibuip ii no w -3 1 :i
"elderberries" Is. ii c! tS
He Wouldn't St'.!.
Tbo owner ol t : . ' rl
tato decided to sc t 1 r
cuiibuiivu nit ca a w - -
Ing tbo plare tt- a ' I
acrlntlon of It. ati e.'. ills
client for appriTa1
v 1 ir 1 tun a v 1 1 - -
his ebalr cent- '
After tho f- 3 r
silent a few r - 1
thoughtfully I C i
I'vo been looking f - 1 -ptaoo
all my IK '
that desertpti- a 1
HI No, 1 won t sc r w
1 r x
His Vccab. 7'
Ho was an or -
vory particular n' ' !
speech, eons' an"
that bo would uso
lie, however, aa t
thon to associa' w "i
Ho played with a .
whllo one day a-1
homo thcro was an t '-
"1 llko that It
f likn him vcrv r;'s H
bcautifullr. II k s r.:i
HER MOTHER IN
Proved a Wise, Ccod frVi
. . 1. f.
A mime woman 1 - -
wlso, good friend nt :r -J"
jokes nolwlthstad V S
'it is two rrara 1 - "
I'OILUIU III UUI 1-
troubled with! 1
r. win hlotchv C 1 T T .
meals I often s -ff - Z.
often told me 11 ' '
. mon I. Hut w! 1 Id t- l"
1 ..,l,n' V
: ... - .- -.H-TDi
i.VMI.i vlafMRT L I I'11- .
remarked that sir t ' rf
Sho laugli if' J"
i. .. 1 !' -
10 rnatu b---.
. 1-- 11
home, and it w v.-' '
,1 'coffee' (IV ' '
1 havo no moret ' r
o. thine of tho I .7.
. .I.....,! ! l'
.u . ......
a nos ciearcu ,
"My grnudti"'; j!;f(
n 1 Willi I T L nt,!
Id her to irav etc -
ok tea but lia. wa ,
MQI.a fllinll v wr' '
UHtum , 1
Sho iravni:u - - iJt
over tho grca'cr p
'something sho had r" rf((
for years. , , v-'-j
tiroscnt good l 3 r-
Namo given l" I v:itf
Creek, Mich H"' 'rt
-ntn " lh ultra. 1 " ....1 1
n 1 hkb. . ....t f
... .!.... i'w:
one uvvrmf " ",4 !U
re in-uulufi "