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TIrE RItVER PRESS
Vol1I,- F-ort Benton, Montana, Wednesday, Flebruary 2, 1881. No, 15,
WILLIAMS, WRIGHT & STEVENS,
PUBLISHERS AND PROPRIETORS.
Terms, ..........................$5.00 per Year.
RATES OF ADVERTISING:
One Column, 1 year .............................$175
", 6 months ........................ 100
'" 3 " .......................... 75
IHalf Column, 1 year............................ 100
, 6 months .......................... 75
S' 3 .. . ......................... 40
Onec Third Column, 1 year ................... 80
6 months .................... 40
3 months ..................... 30
i Quarter Column, 1 year......................... 75
6 months ... ................. 40
" 3 months ....................... 30
Three inches, 1 year .......................... 50
6 months ......................... 35
3 months........................... 25
Irrofessional Cards, 1 inch, 1 year.............. . 15
Rates for Transient Advertisements given at office.
OFFICIAL DIRECTORY OF MONTANA_
DELEGATE IN CONGRESS.
Hon. MARTIN MAGINN1S, Helena.
Office. Name, Residence.
GO vernor .......... BENJ. F. POTTS,.......... Helena.
Secretary........... JAS. H. MILLS......Deer Lodge.
Chief JTustice.. ..D. S. WADE.............Helene.
ANSOCinte Justices E. J. CONGER .....Virginia City
soca u ces " W. J. GALBRAITH, Deer Lodge
U. S. District Attorney, J. L. DRYDEN....... Helena
U. S. Marshal, ALEX. C. BOTKIN............
SurveyorGeneral..R. H. MASON............Helena.
Register Land Office, JAS. H. MOE........... "
Receiver Land Office, F. P. STERLING...... "
Collector Internal Revenue, T. P. FULLER... "
Collector Customs, T. A. CUMMINGS....... Benton.
DrSTRICT ATTORNEYS AND CLERKS.
First District, F. K. ARMSTRONG........ Bozeman
Second District, ALEX. H. MAYHEW....Deer Lodge.
Third District. T. J. LOWRY............ Helena.
Clerk 1st Dist. Court, THEO. MUFFLY.Virginia City.
Clerk 2d dist. co'rt, GEO. W. IRVINE, 2d, Deer Lodge
Clerk 3d Dist. Court, ALEX. H. BEATTIE .... Helena.
UNITED STATES ASSAY OFFICE.
Assayer, RUSSEL B. HARRISON ............. Helena
Melter, M. A. MEYENDORFF ......... .....Helena.
Auditor, JOSEPH P. WOOLMAN ...........Helena.
Treasurer. D. H. WESTON....................Helena.
Warden of Penitentiary, W. W. BOTKIN Deer Lodge
Sup't Public Schools, W. EGBERT SMITH.... Butte.
Supreme Court Reporter, C. HEDGES... ....Helena.
Clerk Supreme Court, ISAAC i. ALDEN......Helena.
UNITED STATES EXAMINING SURGEON.
W. R. BULLARD...... .. .... .......... ..elena
BOZEMAN LAND DISTRICT.
Register,DAVIS WILLSON ................Bozeman
Receiver, J. V. BOGERT ...................Bozeman
H. P. ROLFE,
ATTORNEY AT LAW,
(Av.ociatcd with Sanders & Cullen.)
i U. S. Deputy Mineral Surveyor.
Ten years' experience in government surveying. The
.nst instruments used. Collections, insurance
mining, homestead and all land claims
OFFICE, NEAR WETZEL'S,
FIRONT STREET, FORT BENTON.
JOHN W. TATTAN,
S ATTORNEY anid OUNSELOR AT LAW
SOffice of the County Clerk,
FORT BENTON, - - - MONTANA.
J. A, KANOUSE,
Attorney and Counselor at Law,
FORT BENTON, - - MONTANA.
NOTA}RY PUBLC and JUSTICE OF THE PEACE.
Main St., bet. Baker and St. John.
JOHN W. DEWEY,
United States Dep. Mineral Surveyor
BENTON. - IONTANA.
CORNER MAIN AND GRAND S~TS.,
HELENA, ITJ. T.
Zlmmer & Woipert, Prop'rs.
NEW, NEAT AND FIRST-0LA88.
Board by the Week........................ .$6 00
Thrce Meal Tickets ............................ 1 00
Lodging... ........................... ........ 50
A bar in connection with the house, where fine wines,
iiquors and cigars are kept. The patronage of the
public is re.pectfnlly solicited.
Front Street, Fort Benton.
-: THE -
Finest Tonsorial Parlors
IN THE NORTHWEST.
SMITH & SPALDINI ,
Me.rs. Smith & Spalding respectfully inform the
citizens of Benton that they have recent y bought out
MZr. Win. Foster, and assure the public a continuation
of the uniform skill and courteous attention which
is familiar to the habitues of the place.
Hot and Cold Baths.
75 Parties who desire any work in the line of Book and
40 Job Printing should get it done at
We are prepared to execute all kinds of
;"Commercial Job Printing
go BILL IIEADS,
na LETTER HEADS,
We have just received from the East a lot of the latest
e" and newest styles of type, and will in future
make a specialty of
g Ball Invitations, Orders of Dancing,
NEW YEAR'S CARDS, ETCO.
And are well prepared to do all work of this class,
as having, it is universally conceded, two of the
most finished job printers in Montana
connected with the estab
1 And all other large work done to order, and estimates
given on all classes of work. We will aim to
keep up with Eastern styles.
Main Street, Fort Benton.
ST. LOUIS BEERI
Wines, Liquors & Cigars
THE SULTANA OIGAR,
All in full lines, and served in the very best style.'
Corner Front and Benton Sts.
FORT BENTON, ~ 1ONTANA.
A CHOICE LOT OF
Whiskies, Wines and Cigars
ALWAYS ON HAND.
L. T. MARSHALL, Proprietor.
TheElite is the most popular resort in the upper part
of town. Drop in and have a friendly chat
- Fort Benton, MV. T.
Beef, Mutton, Pork, Fish,
GAME AND ICE.
JOHN J. KENNEDY, Propr'tor. t
I will purchaes Beef and Stock Cattle, and am pre
pared to deliver them on board of steamboats at
Fort Benton, or at any other point on the r
Missouri river, either by the head or
gross weight, at lowest rates. r
YARD & FLANAGAN,
BOARD BY THE WEEK, $6.
Having one of the best of cooks, and under the super
vision of Mr. Yard, and buying the very best the m
market affords, we can insure to the pub- of
lic entire satisfaction.
mEALS AT ALL HOURN OF TIE be
DAY OR NIRGHT.
POLITE AND ATTENTIVE WAITERS. a
We pay the top prices for Game, Poultry, and country di
THE PIONEER FIRM.
Being a Sketch of the House and Business
of I. G. Baker & Co.
WE enter this week in the publication of a
series of articles illustrating the growth of
id Fort Benton, and the business houses which
have principally aided in raising it from a
trading post of the American Fur Company
to a position which is at present fli-ttering to
those who have builded it, and which must
soon make of it the commercial metropolis of
Beginning in point of time with the houses
first founded,and in the order of their growth,
we take the firm of I. G. Baker & Co., the
oldest, and among the most prosperous firms
in the Northern section of, Montana. So
much of the history of the Territory is inter
woven with the growth of these old estab
lished houses, that we can scarcely refrain
g from beginning at the opening of the section
by the trappers who furnished the material.
But this would occupy too much space, and
besides would be irrelevant to the design of
I. G. Baker came here in 1865 and was a
partner in the American Fur Company, and
in '66 he organized the house of I. G. Baker
& Bro., who were the first to do a merchan
dizing business in Benton. There had been
previously a kind of trading institution, but
it was itinerant, and was, not resolved on
- business principles, nor carried on with any
other view than to supply the simple wants of
a few trappers.
Like everything new, this pioneer firm
found many obstacles in their path. Nothing
was prepared, and everything must be organ
, Ized. No one traded here, for there were none
to trade, except Indians,, and they had noth
ing to sell but hides and furs, and wanted
nothing but, vermillion, tobacco, whiskey and
Therefore, while there was certain to be a
demand for such goods, it was almost equally
certain that there would be but little more.
But notwithstanding this by no means bril
liant outlook, this firm began with a confi
dence that the event has fully justified, with
the excellent judgment and shrewdness which
has ever characterized these men, and which
has had fully as much to do with their suc
cess as golden opportunities, which no matter
1 how good they may be, are never so good
that they will not be ruined b, por judg
ment and bad management.
Steamers had not begun to ply on the Up
per Missouri, and to most men it was a matter
of doubt what there could be to gain at this
forsaken point to actuate anyone taking
chances and isolating themselves from civili
zation. It was with great difficulty and te
dious and expensive delays, that their first in
stallment of goods was finally brought to this
- point, and the history of that boat in this
5 initial trip would prove a most interesting
chapter if it could be obtained. But then
the goods were not so many as now,-and the
simplicity of the cargo did not admit of much
loss, and they were finally landed at Benton,
and the unpretentious store room which had
Sbeen built to contain them did not require
much "fixing," for the female society in
those days was not fastidious, and no high
standard of taste had been transplanted; all
of which have since come and changed the
scene, almost with magical silence and swift
Sness, from the simplicity of savage nature, to
the culture of modern civilization.
One hundred tons was the amount of the
Sfirst installment of goods, and the organiza
tion of an immense business was begun, that i
has steadily expanded, since then  to j
more than 2,500 tons annually.
The business of the house was almost solely t
confined to Indians and itinerant traders, and I
their goods were exchanged for hides, robes
and furs. This trade necessarily extended E
over a great extent of Territory-away to the a
north in the British Possessions, far to the a
east, and westward to the Rocky Mountains
-from wherever the Indians would find this t
the most convenient point for an exchange, c
and which at this time was pretty much all f
the New Northwest. The business was e
rapidly pushed, and their best efforts were
required to keep pace with it. The profits
resulting from it were large, even though the ti
expense of carrying it on was much greater e:
than at present. Soon it was found necessary ii
to establish depots for the receipt of Indian a
goods, and these became at once the centres
of distribution for their own, and Ft. Mac
leod, Ft. Walsh and Calgarry, in the North
west Territory and Ft. McKinney, in Wyom- in
ing, have gradually grown into important lo
trading; centres,where this firm have founded A
branches which are by no means the !east im- fc
portant among their business operations. A
The business has been successful from the hl
start, and has grown with gradualand certain hi
increase into splendid proportions, and which f8
must continue to increase, at the development of
of the country proceeds.m
But the buffalo, the beaver and the Indian P.
began to wane, and in their stead came peo- Ai
ple who brought with them cultured tastes, of
and who followed closely after, and with na
their advent, the vermillion, and the blanket a
disappeared (the whiskey and tobaoco still Cc
remaining, but handled now according to the
ideas of civilization, in the ordinary saloon.)
s Along with the decadence of the one and the
rise of the other, commerce began to flow in
her accustomed channels, and steamboat after
a steamboat came to Benton laden with choice
f productions. This firm, with noted shrewd
b ness, viewing the change among the things
a inevitable, changed the nature of their busi
ness as was required, and have been as suc
o cessful in the new era as they were in the old,
t and now they deal almost wholly in groceries
af nd all staple goods.
They have met the new conditions and
s hive identified themselves with them, al
though, of course, it has almost affected a
e revolution in their business. There is not
now the great percentage of profit there was
when a blanket and an ounce of vermillion
was to the savage eye the acme of his wants,
for which he would exchange his wealth of
a skins and furs, happy in his ignorance of re
a lative worth.
It is well here to digress, and to cursorily
examine a feature of the Indian trade, about
f which so much has been written and said
that .of the advantage taken of their igno
rance by English and American traders. A
4 great deal of sickly sentiment has been wast
r ed over the poor Indian and the way ne is
imposed upon by his white brothers, and the
latter are often condemned for taking advan
t tage of the ignorance of the Indian in trade;
2 but the whole story of c:vilization has been
but a repetition of this process: from when
f Phoenician and Greek pirates and traders
conquered and cheated savage Gauls and
1" Iberians-and every one has heard the bar
gain Dido made with the unsuspecting Nu
midian; or when the itinerant Jew sold ERst
ern silks and spices at ruinous profit to chiv
Salirous knight and lazy baron ; or when French
i and English and Spanish adventurer traded
worthless beads for costly furs and bars of
precious metal, or took them without other
compensation than a sacrifice of the life of
their owner; or recently, when American
business men traded blankets and vermillion
for robes and furs. The story is always the
same and will be until the savage is no long
a er uncivilized and ignorant, but educated and
' sharp like those who teach him the ways of
a peace and the tricks of trade.
But this house, along with others, are now
r depending upon a people thoroughly alive to
1 their interests, and the fact that they have so
readily adapted themselves to the change,
Sshows a~sagacity and an enterprise which is
º- certain of success. Their profits have been
r reduced, but their business has vastly in
a creased, and their gross earnings are much
g larger now than when they depended. upon
i- the Indian trade alone. It would be difficult
to estimate the total business done by this
firm in dollars and cents, for its compli
a cation is so great that only occasionally can
a they ascertain for themselves the full re
a sults of their operations, and when it is con
2 sidered that the bills in payment of freight
a must amount to over one hundred thousand
i dollars per annum, in addition to the cost of
the goods themselves, the magnitude of their
I operations can be better appreciated than by
e a series of small comparisons difficult to ag
1 Changes have taken place in the firm, and
I 'at present it comprises I. G. Baker, W. G.
a Conrad, C.E.Conrad, J.H.Conrad. Mr.Baker
- resides in ut. Louis, and manages that branch
) of the business, while the Messrs. Conrad
manage the Benton and other branches in the
- They have fcr several years past entered
t into the freighting business, and during the
past season were identified with several steam
ers plying between Benton and other .river
towns. Their overland freight system is the
most extensive in the country.
Their Benton store is a handsome two
storied brick structure, commodious, light, I
and handy, and filled in basement, salesroom
and store-room with their choicest goods,
which comprise everything that enters into
the composition of a home, however luxuri
ous. Besides, they have several warehouses i
full of goods, which are less fine, but perhaps t
even more necessary.
We will follow, next week, with a descrip- I
tion of the business and house of T. C. Pow- i
er & Bro., and with the amount of interest- j
ing material at our disposal, we can promise f
a sketchy, readable article.
Cabinet Speculation. c
WASHINGeTON, February 1.-The latest Cab- 11
inet bulletins from Blaine sources are as fol- t(
lows: Blaine for Secretary of State, and tI
Allison for the Treasury. No appointment "
for the Interior has yet been agreedl upon. h
As to the Postoffice Department, Foster can is
have it, but Garfield is said to have persuaded fc
himao remain in Ohio politics and succeed. w
Senator Pendleton; then postmaster James, th
of New York, takes it. Doni Cameron is tl
mentioned for Secretary of War, and Levi w
P. Morton for Secretary of the Navy,. For or
Attorney General, Judge Phillip H. Morgan, so
of Louisiana, now Minister to Mexico, is w
named, although Gen, Philips, of the De.- el
p.artment of Justice, and Judge Huit, of the S8
Court of Claims, are also mentioned.: :
1e NOTES OF NEWS.
A Victoria dispatch states that the eruption
le of Mount Baker is increasing in violence.
The struggle in Pennsylvania over the Sen
atorship, indicates the election of Oliver,
The charges of intimidation made against
s O'Neil, Secretary of,the Land League, have
been dismissed for want of evidence.
The news is assured that no communica
tion in regard to the insurrection in Armenia
haas reached the Foreign Land office.
The propellor St. Albans was wrecked
near Milwaukee on the 30th ult. The passen
gers and crew were saved, but the cargo was
)t Malicota, the King of Samoa, is dead, and
s the country is in anarchy, excepting that por
n tion governed by the American, German and
' Britishc onsuls.
f 'The Sacramento river is 26 feet above low
- water mark, the highest ever attained, and
the unpredicted rise has caused damage to
Y property of over $1,000,000. No danger is
It apprehended to the city.
A Portland dispatch says that a hurricane
swept over Huyallup valley, Washington
Territory. The Northern Pacific railroad
t- was obstructed by windfalls, and many build
is ings were unroofed and destroyed.
Le Capt. Jos. Lawson, of the 3rd Cavalry,
1 died on the 30th ult., of paralysis. He was
one of the heroes of the Milk river affair,
n where Major Thornburg's command was am
n bushed and the Major himself was killed.
rs The New York Herald tells a story that
d here is a class of men calling themselves un
dertakers, who make a business of obtaining
1a sums of money from impoverished and be
t- reaved patents. ''hey deposit the nude body
Sof a babe in an old cast off box in the yard
h of the Commissioners of Charities and Cor
d rection for transfering the dead wagon to the
f morgue. What becomes of the tiny remains
ar after that is a matter for speculation, but the
sf Herald strongly intimates that they go to the
n dissecting table.
n The surrender of 51 lodges of Sioux under
1e Crow King and Loveday, recently; reported,
i- proves to be only nominal, as they are still in
id possession of their arms and ponies, and have
)f not moved from the mouth of the Little Por
cupine. The story of Sitting Bull's surrend
W er to Inspector Crozier, of the Canadian Po
to lice, has reached Major Ilges, but he did not
to consider it worth official report, as it was not
B, regarded as true. Ilges's command is at
is Poplar river and will not change their station
+n until the surrendered Sioux have passed him.
2- Elaborate preparations for the inaugural
:h celebration are being made. The escort of
n the President-elect will consist of 20,000
It militia and fourteen companies of regular
is troops and marines. Previous to the tall a
i- reception will be held in the Museum build
,n ing by General and Mrs. Garfield, President
3- and Mrs Hayes, and General and Mrs. Grant.
'- General Hancock has been invited to take
it part in the reception, and it is thought from
d his answer to the committee, that he will
f accept. General Sherman will be grand
ir marshal of the parade and will make the pre
y I sentation at the reception.
- In the debate in the House of Commons
Monday, Parnell was several times called to
d order for irrelevancy. The Marquis of Har
tingtoni said that the time for compromise
r was almost past. It is positively stated that
h a branch of the Land League was formed by
d an agent from America on the Isle of Jersey.
e The Home Rulers will be able to prolong the
debate until Thursday. Biggar has been
l called to order three times. Gladstone re
e turns to the House at noon. At 4 p. m. a'
- motion to adjourn was lost by a vote of 225
r to 21. The Irish members made all the
e speeches. Wrangles and calls to order have
been frequent. Finnigan and Seeley being
- the greatest offenders. No one, however,
'Chalk Your IHa.'"
j The cant phrase "'Chalk your hat," which
is still current in many parts of the Union,
is said to have had its origin in a literal illus.
tration of the words. "Admiral" Reeside
was an owner of various stage coaches in the
days before railroads. He spent much of
his time in Washington, where, indeed, he
lived for several years. At the annual ad
journment of Congress he would pass his
friends of the House and Senate-he was
well acquainted with all the prominent poli
ticians of his era-over any stage line he
controlled. He would say to an Ohioan or
Kentuckian: "I suppose you're going back
to Cincinnati or Louisville, and I'll pass you
through by stage." When he was asked,
"How ?" he would reply. "Give me your
hat." He would take the hat, make a cabal
istic chalk mark on it impossible to counter
feit, and return it with the remark, "That
will serve your turn; my agents will recognize
that anywhere and won't receive a cent from
the man whose hat is so marked." Reeside
was right. All his agents knew the sign at .
once. The thing became:so common that
some fellows tried to imitat ait, but they
were invariably detected and compelled to
leave the stage or pay their fare. In +the
South and West '"Chalk your hat." ..till
stands for what theiEast styles deadheading.