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IT was 34 years ago, way back ix
'1877, that Gen. Porfirio Diaz wat
first elected constitutional presi
dent of Mexico. His last and
eighth election was in July, 1910
His career since his early youth
much of which was spent in poverty
has been adventurous and picturesque
He was born in September, 1830, his
father being Capt. Jose Faustino Diaz
a lineal descendant of Bernal Dias
del Castillo, the companion and his
t9riographer of Hernando Cortez.
As a boy General Diaz was educated
for the priesthood, but the death of
his father forced him to some lucra
tive employment and he became a
drug clerk. While working at this
humble occupation by day, he studied
law and taught school at night
Juarez, governor of Oaxaea, met the
young man at this point in his careei
and became greatly interested it
The invasion of Mexico by Gen
Winfield Scott in 1847 gave Genera
Diaz his first great chance. Young as
he was, he joined the army and foughi
vigorously against the Americans
On the conclusion of peace he re
sumed his law studies under the
tutelage of Juarez, but political upris
ings invariably found him in arms
and he finally attained to a colonelcy
,in the army, giving distinguished
service at Oaxaca and' Jalapa.
Head of Highest Court.
His great services soon won him
notable recognition. He was raised
to the presidency of the supreme
court, which in Mexico gives the same
rights of succession that a vice-pres
ident has in the United States. The
election of Juarez to the presidency
found General Diaz in full accord with
him, but politics soon wearied him,
and he resumed his military career,
serving brilliantly as a brigadier gen
eral against the conservative insurrec
On his return from a two months'
campaign in the mountains, where he
had many narrow escapes, he found
himself a popular hero in Mexico.
Juarez, a dictator, had managed so to
embroil himself with foreign govern
ments that fleets of foreign warships
were sent to Mexico. Then followed
the French invasion in 1862. Diaz was
the great hero of the defense. While
Juarez was raising troops in the in
terior, General Diaz pitted his raw
men against the trained veterans of
France and won a great victory. He
was finally overthrown, however, and
He refused a parole and made his
escape, so that in 1863, when the
French after capturizn the City of
Mexico, proclaimed as emperor the
Archduke Maximilian of Austria, Gen
eral Diaz was able to take the field
and reorganize the army of Mexico, of
which he soon became commander-in
He was captured in 1865 by Marshal
Bazaine while in a conference held
under a flag of truce. Bazaine urged
Maximilian to shoot General Diaz, say
ing that he was the most dangerous
enemy the imperial cause had, but
the emperor tried bribery instead.
General Diaz could not be won by
either threats or -bribes, and finally
made his escape. For months after
ward he kept up a constant guerilla
warfare against the French.
After the capture and shooting of I
Maximilian, in 1867, General Diaz was I
nominated for the presidency by the I
progressive liberals against Juarez. I
He was defeated, and his partisans t
raised the cry of fraud. General Diaz I
was himself convinced that he had
been cheated, and from that time on a
there was the bitterest enmity be
tween him and his old friend. Juarez. c
In 1871 Juarez again defeated Diaz for d
the presidency, but soon afterward I
died, his office falling to Lesdo, his f
statutory successor. 2
General Diaz was an uncompromie- s
ing opponent of Lesdo and in 1875 he a
raised the standard of rebellion. He b
was captured, kept prisoner aboard a b
warship, but managed to escape by I
jumping overboard. Later he was
again captured, but again made his p
escape and went to Oaxaca, where he tl
raised an army of 4,000 men. With h
I l.p. POF/1P/O D/. 4Z
this small force he advanced against
the capital. On the way he was rap
idly reinforced and the city capitu
lated to him on November 23, 1876.
Five days later he assumed the pro
visional presidency, the people en
thusiastically supporting him, and in
April of the following year was elect.
ed constitutional president.
Ruled With a Strong Hand.
He has ruled with a strong hand
since, accumulating a vast fortune and
power that was never seriously ques
tioned until the Madero rising.
On the whole General Diaz com
mended himself to his countrymen as
an able and useful executive. He es
tablished peace after a century of
chaos. He re-established his country
financially and was behind every
progressive movement. In five years
he doubled the national revenues,
without working hardships on indi
viduals or interests. He reorganized
the army and wiped out brigandage.
President Diaz made many enemies
as he went along. The gradual crys
talizing of the sentiment against him.
was obvious to others but not to him.
At first he laughed at the Madero ris
ing, and those who know him do not
believe that anything less than the
most tremendous pressure could have
brought him to make the slightest con
cession to his enemies.
He was twice married. His first
wife, the mother of his three chil
dren, died during the Maximilian em
pire. He married his second wife in
1883. She was Senorita Carmen
Romero Rubio, the daughter of one
of his old antagonists.
Although the political campaign
brought to light much dissatisfac- I
tion with his continued rule, the dis
turbances which culminated in the I
recent insurrection did not arise un- i
til after his opponents found them
selves beaten at the polls. Francisco
1. Madero, member of one of Mexico's
wealthiest families, was candidate for t
the presidency against President Diaz, t
the principal plank of his platform be- I
In November, 1910, General Madero
was convicted of inciting the people
to rebellion and put in jail. He es
caped into Texas and called upon his
followers to join in a general revolt
on November 20. Already there had
been scattered disturbances through
out the republic, but the insurrection
took its first definite form on this
date. The Maderists issued a mani
festo in which they declared that the
recent election had been enforced at
the point of the bayonet, charged
President Diaz with responsibility for
the uprising and declared his election
null and void.
The principle of non-re-election was
said to be the supreme law of the re
public, and President Diaz was de
clared a usurper. This manifesto was
dated October 5 and was circulated
privately for more than a month be
fore it became public. On November
23 General Madero proclaimed him
self provisional president of Mexico,
and he was formally inaugurated on
his own estate at Coahuila on Decem
ber 1, the same day that President
Diaz began his eighth term.
The recent resignation and final I
passing of President Dias was one of
the most dramatic events in the late
history of Mexico.
ODD ANIMAL FAMILIE
8OME " STRANGE ADAPTATIONI
HAVE BEEN NOTED.
Friendly Relations Often Formed Be
tween Cats and Dogs-Story of
French Chicks That Had a
Feline Foster Mother.
The cases in which cats and dogs
have formed close relations are, 01
course, too numerous to mention. I
really seems as if there were no ani
mal friendship so strong and lasting
as that between cats and dogs when
once it is formed. It is well known
that mother cats when deprived of
their new-born progeny will adopt
puppies, rabbits, monkeys or almost
any other tender young creatures that
may be handy. But there recently
came to light a case for which there
is no such apparent explanation.
A cat and a female fox terrier,
which had brought into the world
their progeny at about the same time,
deliberately swapped their young, the
cat taking the puppies to bring up
and the dog the kittens. The ex
change was satisfactory, and both lit
ters were brought in good health to
the weanable stage. Nobody knows
what led to such abnormal conduct,
A somewhat similar case Is reported
from Halle, Germany. A householder
there having a female cat and a fe
male dog with families of young, felt
that his house was in danger of be
coming a sort of Noah's ark, and took
away and drowned all the kittens.
The puppies found favor in his eyes.
Deprived of her little ones, the cat
began to "spell" the female dog in
taking care of the puppies. As soon
as the mother dog left her nest the
bereaved mother cat crawled into it
and nursed the puppies. Nothing
loath, the puppies took all that came
to them, and throve prodigiously. The
cat licked them and took care of them
as she would have taken care of her
A certain cat, the story of whose
career is vouched for by a cat club,
adopted a litter of young rabbits and
nourished them well. This cat was,
for that matter, very sociable and in
clusive in her likings. One year her
constant companion was a chicken.
The two ate habitually out of the
same dish and slept every night in
the same inclosure.
st There is an authentic story of a
p- male and a female cat in France that
u- lived on terms of perfect amity with
6. all the animals on the place-dogs,
o- chickens and what not. It so hap
s- pened that a hen which had a brood
a of seven chickens was killed accident
t- ally. The cat, which some two weeks
before had been deprived of her kit
tens, appeared to observe the predica
ment of the seven little chickens. She
d crawled into their nest and the chick
cus, looking for warmth, nestled into
her warm fur, peeping gratefully. The
chickens, fed by their owner, throve
-' perfectly, and every day the strange
8 sight was presented of their follow
1* ing the mother-cat about the premises,
If as if expecting her to find them food
7 after the manner of a hen.-New
F York Press.
What Should Be Done With Parents.
It seems remarkable that with about
sixteen thousand new criminal stat
utes recorded each year nothing has
s yet been done for the regulation of
Children are daily, nay, hourly,
subjected to mortification because
their parents commit some breach of
modern etiquette or betray hopeless
ignorance on some vital point, and
this goes on day after day and year
after year and nothing is done about
Too much, of course, should not be
expected of our modern parents; that
they know nothing of geography is,
for example, not necessarily to be laid
to their discredit. But that they are
hopelessly ignorant of slang, that they
sniff at cigarettes and rouge and that
they like to see plays where the vil
lain meets his just due and virtue its
reward, and that they wear shocking
ly old-fashioned clothes, are all mat
ters for public as well as private con
What are we to do with parents
who never drink anything stronger
than lemonade, leave their spoons in
their coffee cups, refuse to sit in roof
gardens until midnight and dislike to
ride in a motor going more than thirty
miles an hour?-Life.
"This is the mating season," said a
clergyman. "I shall add appreciably
to my income by mating youths and
maidens in this soft, brilliant weather."
"I mated a girl yesterday," he said,
"to a youth with a rather thick head.
At the beginning of the ceremony I
said to him:
"'You are to repeat this after me.'
"And then, prior to beginniing the
declaration, I whispered:
"'Take her right hand.'
"'Take her right hand,' the stupid
fellow bellowed, and everybody in the
church laughed. '
"Afterward he couldn't get the ring
on the bride's finger.
"'Wet it,' I whisPered.
"And acting on my advice, he put
her little white finger in his mouth, t
and, after lubricating it thoroughly,
su'cceeded in making the ring slip on."
"Do you know her cool impudence is
like a condiment to the others' con
"Yes; something of what you might
call r(hill sauce."
GIRL LOST WAR FEVEF
BALKED AT "STRIP" ORDEF
WHEN TRYING TO ENLIST.
Uncle Sam's Inflexible Rule That Al
Recruits Must Be Examined
Kept Girl From the Navy
Omaha, Nqb.-Had it not been foi
the inflexible rule Uncle Sam has laic
down that every applicant for enlist
ment in the ~navy must submit to a
physical examination, Miss Heler
Akers, as she gave her name, might
now be a sailor. As it is she has gone
to New York city, where she admit:
her parents live, though she has not
seen them in three years.
An individual, apparently a young
man of medium height and slight of
build, walked into the office of Lieu
tenant Downs here and applied for en.
listment as Henry Akers.
Making half a dozen turns up and
down the examination room, "Henry's"
wind was tried out and pronounced ex.
"Now strip and we will finish with
you," commgnded Lieutenant Downs.
Here the applicant broke down and
confessed that "he" was a girl; that
she was twenty-two years of age; that
she ran away from home in New York
four years ago, taking an assumed
name and.had since passed as a man,
doing nearly every kind of work that
would be expected of a man, and that
her latest ambition was to become a
BATTLES BEAR BARE-HANDED
Drink Crazed Alaska Fisherman Was
Being Slowly Hugged to Death
Seattle, Wash.-John Johnson, a
giant fisherman at Seldovia, Alaska,
became crazed from drink and at
tacked a three-year-old Kadiak bear
that was stealing his fish.
The half-crazed man challenged the
bear to a fight and bruin accepted. The
first round was decidedly the bear's
for three ribs were caved in in John
son's side. This seemed to infuriate
the big figsherman and he went after
the bear with his fists.
Before distant fishermen and long
shoremen could reach the scene of the
fight, Johnson had pummeled the big
bruin until both the bear's eyes were
closed. The bear was gradually get
ting a squeeze hold on Johnson, how
ever, and had it not been for timely
intervention the fisherman would have
" The bear met a match in tenacity
and was so blinded and exhausted that
he was the easy victim of a man with
a long-bladed knife. Johnson was
brought here for treatment at a local
TALE OF HUNGER CURES HIM
Man Suffering From Dyspepsla and
Shunning Solid Food for Years
Seattle, Wash.-Reading a book on
Arctic exploration in which was de
picted the great hunger and suffering
of the scientists cured R. T. Strum of
dyspepsia, and he is rapidly regaining
a normal appetite.
For years Strum had been unable to
eat anything but soup and a small
quantity of fruit. His body was wast
ed, and he was treated by physicians
in vain. Recently he obtained a copy
of a book on explorations in the polar
regions and read it with more than
The periods when the explorers
looked in vain for food to satisfy their
hunger, the sufferings from cold and
exposure, and the dealing out of ra
tions ounce by ounce, so revived the
long dormant stomach of Strum that
he felt himself recovering. He grew
hungry and ate meat for the first time
Girl Starves in Desert,
San Francisco, Cal.-After wander
ing in the Mojave desert for several
days without food or water, Maria Fer
rari, an Italian immigrant girl, has
been brought to the home of her
brother here. Terrified by the mali
cious stories of Italians she met on
the journey from New York, she
jumped from a Santa Fe train near
Barstow, preferring to chance death
on the blazing sands of the Mojave
rather than face the terrible fate she
pictured awaiting her in San Fran
Dig for Captain Kid's Coin.
Boston, Mass.-Under the gray walls
of Fort Independence, on Castle Island,
now one of Boston's most popular
parks, a treasure-hunting expedition,
by permission of the park commission
ers, is seeking Captain Kidd's gold.
The exact spot on the northwest cor
ner of the island where the treasure
is hidden was revealed to Miss May
Kinnear in a dream. Miss Kinnear
lid the dreaming and her brother
leorge is doing the digging.
Stolen Sweets Sour on Him.
Ann Arbor, Mich.-A troubled con
science has brought a check for $4.20
o the Women's league of the univer
ity. It was accompanied by a letter E
rom the sender, stating that he was t
ne of several students who in 1902
tole a freezer of lemon ice cream
rom the league, and that the amount
if the check covered the cost of the
tolen delicacy at 90 cents a gallon C
.nd compound interest to date, His -
mea was not given out. a
GETS ALL OF THE JUICE
New Squeezing Device That Drains
Lemon Dry and Keeps Seeds
Out of Glass.
A squeezing device that will get all
the juice out of a lemon and at the
same time keep the seeds from getting
in the lemonade has been designed by
a New Jersey man. It is shown in
the illustration and practically ex"
plains itself. The squeezer consists
of two parts pivotally connected, one
of them forming a cup and the other
having a plunger fixed inside. A lemon
or orange is cut in two and placed in
the cup, cut side down. The other
member of the squeezer is then
brought over till the plunger rests on
the fruit in the cup. By pressing the
two handles together the fruit is flat
tened until every drop of juice is out
of it, and the juice may then be poured
into pitcher or glass through the lit
tle lip which is seen on one side of
the cup. The space through which the
liquid flows is so small that a seed can
not pass through, and the seeds to.
gether with the skin of the lemon, can
be dumped out afterward.
HOW TO PUT AWAY LEMONS
Simple Instructions by Which the
Housekeeper Can Economize
Lemons are an item that every
house-wife can economize on this sum
mer if they follow these instructions.
D)ip each one in melted paraffine and
wrap in waxed paper. Lay away in a
large glass jar or crock. The large,
thin-skinned ones are to be preferred,
as these can now be purchased for
about one cent each, and, as you know,
in the middle of the summer you are
required to pay three times as much
for not as good quality; an hour's
time, ten cents' worth of paraflne and
five cents' worth of waxed paper will
be considered money well spent if you
now put away enough to last you
through the hot spell.
When you wish to use them, all that
will be necessary will be to dip them
in fairly hot water and not only will
the paraffine entirely come off, but the
hot dip will also improve the lemon
by making the extracting of the juice
much easier and more complete.
An excellent way of cleaning lam
chimneys is to hold the glass over th
spout of a kettle of boiling water unti
it becomes well steamed, then polls.
with a clean dry cloth, and the glas
will be beautifully bright.
When making boiled puddings o
any kind try putting a piece of greasel
paper over the top before the cloth I
put on. This renders the cloth mucl
easier to wash, and keeps the puddlni
nice and firm.
When steel knives are not In con
stant use always wrap them in tissue
paper and lay them away. This quite
prevents them from rusting, and si
saves the bother of cleaning then
when they are required again.
Ground rice is excellent for clean
ing white cloth. It should be appliec
with a piece of clean white flannel
left for two or three hours, and them
well brushed and shaken.
The stalks may be very quickly re
moved from currants by well flouring
the hands and rubbing the currant
as hard as possible between them
This takes much less time than pick
ing them separately, and is quite as
The following mixture is excellent
for removing scratches from furniture.
Mix equal parts of linseed oil and tur
pentine, dip a flannel into it, and rub
it well into the scratched parts. Pol
ish with a soft duster, and you will
find that the scratches will be almost
Lemon and Salt.
Ivory knife handles that have be
come blackened may be cleaned by
rubbing them with lemon dipped in
salt, after which they should be
washed in cold water and they will
be quite white again.
To Keep Furnace From Rusting.
Flaked lime, placed loosely on a
board inside a furnace, during the
summer, will take up moisture and
thus prevent the metal from rusting.
If the left-over breakfast cereal is
carefully molded into a bowl or square
pan, it may be sliced and fried as an
acceptable luncheon dish.
HERE IS THE LATEST
HAREM BATHING SUIT
GARMENT DECLARED TO BE FOR
WOMEN SWIMMERS RATHER
THAN FOR POSERS.
Chicago.--We have scoffed at the
harem skirt; but we bow to the harem
bathing suit. It is something entirely
new and a change which has been
much needed. The luxury of the mod
ern bathing suit for women reached
its climax in the satin-embroidered
and be-flowered affairs of last year,
which were extremely costly and abso
lutely unserviceable. There were
satin caps, bathing parasols and reti
cules to match, all costly, perishable
and useless for bathing, whatever
they may have been for posing on the
Harem Bathing Suit.
)each. Aild the woman as she strolled
Iponr the sands was a thing of beauty
rut no swimmer.
The harem bathing suit is practical
snd sensible. It is intended to swim
n, not to pose in. And it is far more
iodeet than the average beach bath
ng suit. .It consists of a regular
nan's sweater and a skirt, made..trou
er-fashion, with a panel in front
vhich clasps on each of the trouser
ugs, and can be quickly loosened
vhen the wearer is in the water.
somewhat wider skirt trousers come
:Ithout the panel. They are intended
, be worn with long tights or with
he combination garment which many
romen wear in the water under the
PULLS THE PYTHON'S TEET.
Three Are Extracted to Relieve Suf
fering of Huge New York
New York.-The 13-foot African
python in the snake cage of the Cen
tral Park menagerie recently devel
oped a swelling on one side of its
head. By Director Smith's order an
examination of the serpent's mouth
A keeper opened the jaws with a
stick and Keeper Burns looked into
the mouth to get a line on the swell
Pulling the Python's Teeth.
ing. He reported a. gumboil on the
right side of the jaw. The boil, in
h% opinion, was caused by decayed
teeut and it was decided that to cure
the trouble it was necessary to do
some tooth pulling. A pair of pincers
was obtained and Burns got a grip
on one of the needlelike teeth and
yanked it out.
The python didn't like the experit
ence and wriggled his tail loose and
lashed about. There was a brief
struggle until Snyder secured a fresh
hold of the tail and kept the patient
quiet. Three more teeth were ex
tracted and then the keeper dentist
lanced the boil and washed the
wounded parts with antiseptic fluidL